Permanent campaign

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The Permanent Campaign is a political science theory and phrase.

Patrick Caddell[edit]

Patrick Caddell conceived the "permanent campaign" as a theory of political science. Caddell was then a young pollster for U.S. President Jimmy Carter, wrote a memo on December 10, 1976 entitled "Initial Working Paper on Political Strategy".

"Essentially," Caddell wrote, "it is my thesis governing with public approval requires a continuing political campaign." [1]

Sidney Blumenthal[edit]

The phrase "the permanent campaign," its concept and history, were first defined by journalist and later presidential senior adviser Sidney Blumenthal in his 1980 book, The Permanent Campaign.[2] In it, he explained how the changes in American politics from old-style patronage and party organization to that based on the modern technology of computer driven polling and media created a fundamentally new system. He explained that political consultants had replaced the party bosses and brought with them a new model by which campaigning became the forms of governing.

Blumenthal's work resolved the problem in political science of "critical realignment." According to Walter Dean Burnham, the leading political scientist of realignment theory,

If we view the arena of American electoral politics in historical perspective, we can say that the contemporary status quo extends back to some point in the mid-to-late 1960s. In his recent study The Permanent Campaign, Sidney Blumenthal has advanced the argument that a critical realignment in fact occurred at about the point—1968—where many analysts had been expecting. They were, however, looking for realignment in the wrong place. For crucial to this one, and the 'sixth electoral era' which he argues followed from it, was the exact opposite of all previous events of this type. Instead of being channeled through, and thus revitalizing the political parties, this realignment involved the conclusive marginal displacement of these parties by the permanent campaign... The older linkages between rulers and ruled become ever hazier, ever more problematic.[3]

Strategies of this nature have been in active development and use since Lyndon Johnson, where priority is given to short term tactical gain over long term vision. The frenzied, headline grabbing atmosphere of presidential campaigns is carried over into the office itself, thus creating a permanent campaign that limits the ability of policies to deviate from the perceived will of the people (hence, intensive polling).


Bill Clinton[edit]

The permanent campaign is frequently associated with Bill Clinton, stretching from his long political career, first as Governor of Arkansas, then President of the United States, and his continued prominence on the national stage as a former President and surrogate for his wife Hillary Clinton.

A famous example that illustrates just how strongly this mind-set has come to influence politics was during the Clinton Administration when pollster Dick Morris asked voters to help decide where Bill Clinton would go on vacation. In the words of columnist Joe Klein, "The pressure to 'win' the daily news cycle—to control the news—has overwhelmed the more reflective, statesmanlike aspects of the office."[citation needed]

Robert Reich has suggested that Bill Clinton is in a state of "permanent election", due to the impeachment proceedings during his presidency and his continuing support in the campaigns of his wife Hillary Clinton.[4][5]

George W. Bush[edit]

Scott McClellan, former White House Press Secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush, wrote in his 2008 memoir What Happened: Inside the Bush White House and Washington's Culture of Deception[6] that the Bush White House suffered from a "permanent campaign" mentality, and that policy decisions were inextricably interwoven with politics.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Joe Klein, The Perils of the Permanent Campaign. Time Magazine, October 5, 2005.
  2. ^ The Permanent Campaign First edition 1980. Beacon Press. ISBN 0807032085 Second edition 1982. Touchstone Book. ISBN 0671453416
  3. ^ Walter Dean Burnham, "The 1984 Election and the Future of American Politics," in Ellis Sandoz and C.V. Crabb, Jr., ed., Election 84: Landslide without Mandate, New American Library, 1985, p. 206.
  4. ^ The Permanent Election. (August 27, 2003) The American Prospect. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
  5. ^ The Permanent Election. The American Prospect. August 27, 2003.
  6. ^ McClellan, Scott. (2008) What Happened: Inside the Bush White House and Washington's Culture of Deception. Public Affairs. ISBN 1-58648-556-3
  7. ^ Elisabeth Bumiller (May 28, 2008). "In Book, Ex-Spokesman Has Harsh Words for Bush". The New York Times.