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Permanent residency refers to a person's resident status in a country where he/she is not a citizen. The person is allowed to reside indefinitely within a country of which he or she is not a citizen. A person with such status is known as a permanent resident.
Permanent residency itself should be distinguished to right of abode, which waives the immigration control for such persons. Persons having permanent residency still requires immigration control if such persons do not hold a right of abode. However, a right of abode automatically grants persons a permanent residency. This status also gives permission to work in most cases.
Countries with permanent residency systems
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Not every country necessarily has a facility for someone to be a 'permanent resident'. Rights and application may vary widely.
All European Union countries have a facility for someone to become a permanent resident, as EU legislation allows an EU national who moves to another EU country to attain permanent resident status after residing there for five years. The European Union also sets out permanent residency rights for long-term resident third country nationals under directive (2003/109/EC). A novel approach was the granting of rights across the national borders of states adhering to the directive.
Other countries have varying forms of such residency and relationships with other countries with regards to permanent residency status.
The countries that have some type of permanent resident status include:
- Brunei Darussalam (called penduduk tetap)
- Canada (permanent residents were known as landed immigrants before 28 June 2002)
- China (PRC) (called 永久居留权 (yǒngjiǔ-jūliúquán), programme started from 2004)
- Costa Rica
- Dominican Republic
- European Union:
- Austria (called Niederlassungsbewilligung) - Descriptions
- Belgium - Descriptions
- Bulgaria (called karta za postojanno prebivavašt v Republika Bălgarija čuždenec)
- Cyprus - Descriptions
- Czech Republic – (called trvalý pobyt) - Descriptions
- Denmark - Descriptions
- Estonia - Descriptions
- Finland (permit P) - Descriptions
- France (some types of titre de séjour, such as the carte de résident) - Descriptions
- Germany (called Niederlassungserlaubnis) - Descriptions
- Greece (called Πράσινη Κάρτα) - Descriptions
- Hungary - Descriptions
- Ireland (called Permanent residency card) - 
- Italy - Descriptions
- Latvia - Descriptions (called "Uzturēšanās atļauja") - 
- Lithuania - Descriptions
- Netherlands (called Verblijfsvergunning voor onbepaalde tijd) - Descriptions
- Poland (called Karta rezydenta długoterminowego UE) - Descriptions
- Portugal - (called Vistos gold) Descriptions
- Romania (called Permis de şedere permanentă) - Descriptions
- Slovak Republic (called trvalý pobyt)
- Slovenia - Descriptions
- Spain - Descriptions
- Sweden (called Permanent Uppehållstillstånd) - Descriptions
- United Kingdom (either through Indefinite leave to remain or Right of Abode or Permanent Residence for EEA nationals) - Descriptions.
- Israel (The term toshàv-kéva may refer to a permanent resident without citizenship, or to a citizen with registered abode)
- Japan (called 永住権 eijūken)
- Malaysia (called pemastautin tetap)
- Nicaragua (called Résidents Permanents Nicaragua) Descriptions
- New Zealand
- Norway ()
- Panama 
- Peru (A permanent residency option is available for those from countries which prohibit dual citizenship. Permanent residency only requires an annual fee, and no other supporting documents.)
- Russia (called "вид на жительство" vid na žítel'stvo, or ПМЖ pe-em-žé)
- South Africa
- South Korea
- St Kitts and Nevis
- Switzerland (called a C permit or Niederlassungsbewilligung (settlement permit))
- Taiwan, the Republic of China
- Trinidad and Tobago
- United States (called Lawful Permanent Residence)
- Ukraine (called "посвідка на постійне проживання"' 'posvidka na postijne prozhyvannya, or ППП "pe-pe-pe"). See grounds to obtain Permanent Residence in Ukraine. The easiest way to obtain residence permit in Ukraine is by obtaining a work permit in Ukraine.
Other forms of permanent residency
- India does not permit dual citizenship, but former Indian citizens, and persons of Indian origin, are eligible to apply for an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card that allows them to live and work freely in India, apart from running for certain political office posts and occupying constitutional posts. They also cannot vote or buy agricultural land. Spouses who have no other connection to India other than being married to someone with or eligible for OCI can also apply for OCI if they have been married for at least two years. Once the marriage is dissolved, OCI status is automatically lost for spouse with no connection to India.
- Turkey allows dual citizenship, and former Turkish citizens who have given up their Turkish citizenship (for example, because they have naturalized in a country that usually does not permit dual citizenship, such as Germany, Austria, South Korea or Japan) can apply for the "Blue Card" (mavi kart), which gives them some citizens' rights back, e.g. the right to live and work in Turkey, the right to possess land or the right to inherit, but not the right to vote.
- Some countries have made treaties regulating travel and access to the job markets (non-government/non-military-related work): A citizen of an EU country can live and work indefinitely in other EU countries and in Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland (and citizens of these countries can live and work in EU countries). The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement between Australia and New Zealand allows citizens of the two countries to live and work in the other country. A citizen of a Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member state (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates) can live and work in other member states.
- However, for voting, being voted and working for the public sector or the national security in a country, citizenship of the country concerned is almost always required.
- Golden Visa is a right of residency in a country that can be attained when buying real estate with a minimum value or having stayed in the country for a number of years, having a job or other qualifications. The Golden Visas has been criticized by members of the European Parliament for disfavoring the concept of citizenship.
Limitations of permanent residents
Depending on the country, permanent residents usually have the same rights as citizens except for the following:
- they may not vote (though some countries such as the UK [see "Commonwealth citizen"], New Zealand and Belgium allow this)
- they may not stand for public office (except European Union citizens permanently residing outside their country of citizenship)
- they may not apply for public sector employment (except some countries that allow it like Canada and New Zealand; some countries allow it only for permanent residents holding citizenship of another country of shared heritage, like Brazil and Portugal)
- they may not apply for employment involving national security (but some countries allow it). In Singapore, male PRs who have been granted PR before the age of 18 have to serve national service. Most first-generation males are exempted.
- they may not own certain classes of real estate
- they are not issued the passport of that country (unless otherwise stateless or unable to obtain a passport from their country of nationality, in which case they may be entitled to a certificate of identity instead)
- they do not have access to the country's consular protection (some countries such as Australia allow this)
- they may qualify to apply for citizenship after meeting a specified period of residence
Obligations of permanent residents
Permanent residents may be required to fulfill specific residence obligations to maintain their status. In some cases, permanent residency may be conditional on a certain type of employment or maintenance of a business.
Many countries have compulsory military service for citizens. Some countries, such as Singapore, extend this to permanent residents. However, in Singapore, most first generation permanent residents are exempted, and only their sons are held liable for NS.
In a similar approach, the United States has Selective Service, a compulsory registration for military service, which is required of all male citizens and permanent residents ages 18 to 26; this requirement theoretically applies even to those residing in the country illegally. Applications for citizenship may be denied or otherwise impeded if the applicant cannot prove having complied with this requirement.
Permanent residents may be required to reside in the country offering them residence for a given minimum length of time (as in Australia and Canada). Likewise, permanent residents cannot stay outside their host country for more than a certain period of time (as in the United States).
Just like citizens, permanent residents must pay taxes if they have a source of income.
Loss of status
Permanent residents may lose their status if they fail to comply with residency or other obligations imposed on them. For example:
- they leave the country beyond a maximum number of days (varies among countries but usually more than 2 years)
- they become a threat to national security, or they commit serious crimes and become subject to deportation or removal from the country
Access to citizenship
Usually permanent residents may apply for citizenship by naturalization after a period of permanent residency (typically five years) in the country concerned. Dual citizenship may or may not be permitted.
In many nations an application for naturalization can be denied on character grounds, sometimes allowing people to reside in the country (as non-domiciled) but not become citizens. In the United States the residency requirements for citizenship are normally five years, even though permanent residents who have been married to a US citizen for three years or more may apply in three years. Those who have served in the armed forces may qualify for an expedited process allowing citizenship after only one year, or even without any residence requirement.
Full permanent residence rights are granted automatically between the following:
- Ireland and the United Kingdom including general election voting rights.
- the states of the Nordic Council
- Russian Federation and Republic of Belarus
In some cases (e.g., the member states of the European Union) citizens of participating countries can live and work at will in each other's states, but don't have a status fully equivalent to that of a permanent resident. In particular, under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Australia and New Zealand grant each other's citizens the right to reside permanently and work in each country; however, the rights and entitlements of New Zealanders living in Australia under this arrangement (the so-called Special Category Visa) are somewhat short of those of Australian permanent residents, in particular with respect to unemployment benefits and similar benefits.
Proof of permanent residency
People who are granted permanent residency in a country are usually issued some sort of documentary evidence as legal proof of this status. In the past, many countries merely stamped the person's passport indicating that the holder was admitted as a permanent resident or that he/she was exempt from immigration control and permitted to work without restriction. Other countries would issue a photo ID card, place a visa sticker or certificate of residence in the person's passport, or issue a letter to confirm their permanent resident status.
In Australia and New Zealand, a printout of permanent residence visa or resident visa is stuck to a page of the permanent resident's passport.
In Canada, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card known as Permanent Resident Card.
In Costa Rica, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card commonly referred to as a "cedula".
In the countries of the European Union, residency permits are a photo ID card following a common EU design.
In Germany, resident permits (Aufenthaltstitel) have been issued as photo ID cards following a common EU design since 1 September 2011. Prior to that date, residence permits were stickers (similar to visas) which were affixed to the resident's passport.
In Ghana, permanent residents are issued an Indefinite Residence permit which is in the form of a sticker attached into the resident's passport.
In Hong Kong, permanent residents are issued a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card.
In Japan and South Korea, all resident foreigners are issued a residence card, and for permanent residents this status is indicated.
In Lithuania, permanent residents are issued a photo ID (Leidimas gyventi) following a common EU design.
In Macau, permanent residents are issued a Macao Permanent Resident Identity Card (Bilhete de Identidade de Residente Permanente).
In Malaysia, permanent residents are issued with a MyPR card similar to the MyKad issued to Malaysian citizens, the difference being the colour (red instead of blue) and additional information stating the cardholder's country of origin.
In Singapore, permanent residents are issued a blue identity card with their photograph, thumb print and other personal particulars similar to citizen's pink identity card
In South Africa, permanent residents who have their passport endorsed, are issued a certificate and a standard national green identity book showing "NON S.A. CITIZEN".
In Slovakia, permanent residents are issued a red photo ID.
In Switzerland, permanent residents are issued a yellow ID.
In Taiwan, permanent residents are issued a blue photo ID card (APRC). A separate open work permit can also be issued to permanent residents allowing them to accept employment in any non-governmental positions for which they are qualified.
In the United States, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card - officially known as a Permanent Resident Card, but unofficially referred to as a "green card".
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