Permian bronze casts

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Bronze idol of a bear found in the Perm Krai, 6th or 7th century.

Permian bronze casts were produced by the Komi and Udmurt people between 7th century BC and the 14th century AD.[1][2] Their size is 3–17 cm.[3] Their style is referred to as the 'Permian animal style.'[3]

Permian bronze casts were buried in cemeteries and were protected by customs. Foreigners were less hesitant to loot sacred places. A large collection was amassed by the Stroganov family in Perm.[3][4]


  • Eero Autio (2000). KOTKAT, HIRVET, KARHUT: PERMILÄISTÄ PRONSSITAIDETTA (Eagles, deer, bears: Permian bronze casts). Jyväskylä. Lay summary (PDF). 


  1. ^ Пермский звериный стиль. Уральская историческая энциклопедия. — УрО РАН, Институт истории и археологии. Екатеринбург: Академкнига. Гл. ред. В. В. Алексеев. 2000.
  2. ^ Vera Ivanova (June 23, 2006). "Perm Animal Style". Russia InfoCentre. 
  3. ^ a b c Eero Autio (2001). "THE PERMIAN ANIMAL STYLE" (PDF). Folklore. Tartu. 18&19: 162–186. ISSN 1406-0957. 
  4. ^ "Stroganoff - collectors of antiquities in Perm". ARTinvestment.RU. 2010-11-28. 

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