Detection of peroxide gives the initial evidence of rancidity in unsaturated fats and oils. Other methods are available, but peroxide value is the most widely used. It gives a measure of the extent to which an oil sample has undergone primary oxidation, extent of secondary oxidation may be determined from p-anisidine test.
The double bonds found in fats and oils play a role in autoxidation. Oils with a high degree of unsaturation are most susceptible to autoxidation. The best test for autoxidation (oxidative rancidity) is determination of the peroxide value. Peroxides are intermediates in the autoxidation reaction.
Autoxidation is a free radical reaction involving oxygen that leads to deterioration of fats and oils which form off-flavours and off-odours. Peroxide value, concentration of peroxide in an oil or fat, is useful for assessing the extent to which spoilage has advanced.
The peroxide value is defined as the amount of peroxide oxygen per 1 kilogram of fat or oil. Traditionally this was expressed in units of milliequivalents, although if we are using SI units then the appropriate option would be in millimoles per kilogram (N.B. 1 milliequivalents = 0.5 millimole; because 1 mEq of O2 =1 mmol/2=0.5 mmol of O2, where 2 is valence). Note also that the unit of milliequivalent has been commonly abbreviated as mequiv or even as meq.
2 I− + H2O + HOOH -> HOH + 2OH− + I2
2S2O32− + I2 -> S4O62− + 2 I−
The acidic conditions (excess acetic acid) prevents formation of hypoiodite (analogous to hypochlorite), which would interfere with the reaction.
A precaution that should be observed is to add the starch indicator solution only near the end point (the end point is near when fading of the yellowish iodine colour occurs) because at high iodine concentration starch is decomposed to products whose indicator properties are not entirely reversible.
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Peroxide values of fresh oils are less than 10 milliequivalents/kg; when the peroxide value is between 30* and 40 milliequivalents/kg, a rancid taste is noticeable.
- Chemistry And Technology Of Oils And Fats Chemistry And Technology Of Oils And Fats By Dr. M.M. Chakrabarty