Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta or delta (PPAR-β or PPAR-δ), also known as NR1C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 2) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARDgene.
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. It was first identified in Xenopus in 1993.
PPARδ is a nuclear hormone receptor that governs a variety of biological processes and may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer.
Several high affinity ligands for PPARδ have been developed, including GW501516 and GW0742, which play an important role in research. In one study utilizing such a ligand, it has been shown that agonism of PPARδ changes the body's fuel preference from glucose to lipids.
Knockout mice lacking the ligand binding domain of PPARδ are viable. However these mice are smaller than the wild type both neo and postnatally. In addition, fat stores in the gonads of the mutants are smaller. The mutants also display increased epidermal hyperplasia upon induction with TPA.
PPARδ is activated in the cell by various fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives. Examples of naturally occurring fatty acids that bind with and activate PPAR delta include arachidonic acid and certain members of the 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid family of arachidonic acid metabolites including 15(S)-HETE, 15(R)-HETE, and 15-HpETE. Several synthetic ligands have been identified that selectively bind PPARδ.
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