Perry Mason (TV series)

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Perry Mason
Perry Mason Title Screen.png
Created by Based on characters created by Erle Stanley Gardner
Developed by Paisano Productions
Starring
Theme music composer Fred Steiner
Opening theme "Park Avenue Beat"
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 9
No. of episodes 271 (list of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s) Gail Patrick Jackson
Producer(s)
Camera setup Single-camera
Running time 52 minutes
Production company(s)
Distributor CBS Television Distribution
Release
Original channel CBS
Picture format Black-and-white
Color (one episode)
Audio format Monaural
Original release September 21, 1957 (1957-09-21) – May 22, 1966 (1966-05-22)
Chronology
Followed by The New Perry Mason (1973–74)
Perry Mason television films (1985–95)

Perry Mason is an American legal drama series originally broadcast on CBS television from September 21, 1957, to May 22, 1966. The title character, portrayed by Raymond Burr, is a fictional Los Angeles criminal defense lawyer who originally appeared in detective fiction by Erle Stanley Gardner. Many episodes are based on stories written by Gardner.

Hollywood's first weekly one-hour series filmed for television, Perry Mason is one of TV's longest-running and most successful legal series. During its first season it received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination as Best Dramatic Series, and it became one of the five most popular shows on television. Raymond Burr received two Emmy Awards for Outstanding Lead Actor, and Barbara Hale received an Emmy Award for her portrayal of Mason's secretary Della Street. Perry Mason and Burr were honored as Favorite Series and Favorite Male Performer in the first two TV Guide Award readers polls. In 1960 the series received the first Silver Gavel Award presented for television drama by the American Bar Association.

Perry Mason has aired in syndication in the United States and internationally ever since its cancellation, and the complete series has been released on Region 1 DVD.

A 1973 revival of the series with a different cast was poorly received. In 1985 the first in a successful series of 30 Perry Mason television films aired on NBC, with Burr reprising the role of Mason in 26 of them prior to his death.

Plot[edit]

Perry Mason is a distinguished criminal defense lawyer practicing in Los Angeles, California. Perry Mason records his cases, most of which include a murder trial. Each episode typically follows a formula. The first half of the show introduces a prospective murder victim and a situation that presents a legal danger to someone Mason accepts as a client. The body is found, often through circumstance by Mason and private investigator Paul Drake, or with his secretary Della Street. Clues point to Mason's client, who is charged with murder. In the second-half courtroom setting, Mason spars most often with his legal adversary Hamilton Burger, Los Angeles district attorney, and police homicide detective Lt. Arthur Tragg. Mason establishes his client's innocence by dramatically demonstrating the guilt of another character.[a] The murderer often breaks down and confesses to the crime in the courtroom. In the closing scene, the characters gather together to discuss how the case was solved.

In many episodes, the identity of the guilty party is uncovered without an actual trial being held. Instead, this occurs at the preliminary hearing stage, in which the district attorney is required to produce just enough evidence to convince the judge that the defendant should be bound over for trial.[b] During this stage, other malefactors — such as blackmailers, frauds and forgers — are frequently forced into confessions by Mason's relentless and clever questioning, and the killer is exposed.

Cast and characters[edit]

Perry Mason (Raymond Burr) and Della Street (Barbara Hale) in "The Case of the Corresponding Corpse" (1958)
  • Perry Mason – defense attorney (played by Raymond Burr)
  • Della Street – Mason's confidential secretary (played by Barbara Hale)
  • Paul Drake – private investigator (played by William Hopper)
  • Hamilton Burger – District Attorney (played by William Talman)
  • Lieutenant Arthur Tragg – Police homicide detective (played by Ray Collins)
  • Lieutenant Andy Anderson – A police homicide detective, who appeared from 1963–65 as Ray Collins missed many episodes because of emphysema (played by Wesley Lau)
  • Lieutenant Steve Drumm – Another police homicide detective who appeared in the final season after the death of Ray Collins (played by Richard Anderson)
  • Dr. Hoxie – Autopsy surgeon (medical examiner) (played by Michael Fox)
  • Sgt. Brice – (played by Lee Miller)
  • Gertrude "Gertie" Glade – Mason's frequently mentioned but seldom-seen receptionist (played by Connie Cezon)

Production[edit]

Background[edit]

Gail Patrick Jackson, executive producer of Perry Mason (1961)

After a series of Warner Bros. films and a radio series he despised, author Erle Stanley Gardner refused to license his popular character Perry Mason for any more adaptations. His literary agent was advertising executive Cornwell Jackson, who in 1947 married actress Gail Patrick. She had studied law before she went to Hollywood "for a lark" and appeared in more than 60 feature films including My Man Godfrey (1936), Stage Door (1937) and My Favorite Wife (1940). She stopped acting in 1948, started a family, and began to talk to Gardner about adapting the Perry Mason stories for a television series.[3]

"We kept talking about what kind of a series he'd want and how much creative control he needed," Gail Patrick told journalist James Bawden in 1979. "I just think he came to trust me and I'd kept up my contacts in show business."[3]

Gardner regarded Perry Mason's personal life as irrelevant and wanted the series to concentrate on crime and Mason's fight for the underdog. "You must remember," Patrick said, "Erle was in love with the law and its finer points."[3]

Patrick and her husband and Gardner formed a production company, Paisano Productions, of which she was president.[4] When she first tried to sell Perry Mason to CBS, the network wanted it to be a live hour-long weekly program. "That would have been impossible — it would have killed the actor playing Perry," Patrick said. "And I Love Lucy had taught the value of filmed reruns." Paisano Productions absorbed the costs for a filmed pilot.[3]

In February 1956 CBS announced its new series, Perry Mason, anticipating it would begin that fall. The network obtained the rights to 272 stories by Gardner, including Perry Mason and 11 other principal characters. The rights were purchased from Paisano Productions, which would film the series in association with CBS[5] and own a 60 percent interest in the films.[6]

Perry Mason was Hollywood's first hour-long weekly series filmed for television.[7] Gail Patrick Jackson was its executive producer.[4] "We were the first bona fide law show and we spent two years preparing Perry for the television bar," Patrick said.[8]

Casting[edit]

Gail Patrick Jackson was immersed in auditions throughout 1956.[1]:17 The role of Perry Mason proved to be the hardest to cast. Richard Carlson, Mike Connors, Richard Egan, William Holden and Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., were considered.[1]:18 In early April Fred MacMurray and CBS were reportedly in the midst of negotiations,[9] and columnist Hedda Hopper wrote that Cornwell Jackson had postponed a two-month vacation in Hawaii, hoping to get the series ready by September or October.[10] In mid-June Hopper reported that the Jacksons had left on their annual trip, after stating that Perry Mason would not be ready for TV that fall.[11]

"We couldn't afford a big star," Patrick later said.[3] Among the hundreds of actors she saw audition in April 1956 was Raymond Burr,[12]:61 who initially read for the role of district attorney Hamilton Burger. Patrick had been impressed with Burr's courtroom performance in the 1951 film, A Place in the Sun, and told him he was perfect for the title role in Perry Mason but at least 60 pounds overweight. Over the next month Burr went on a crash diet. When he returned he tested as Perry Mason,[3][c] and was chosen from a field of 50 finalists.[12]:61 By July 1956 word was out that Burr had the role,[14] and an announcement was made at the beginning of August.[15]

William Hopper also auditioned as Mason,[d][16] but was cast as private detective Paul Drake. Patrick recalled, "When Bill Hopper came in to read for Paul Drake he blurted out, 'You hate my mother.' And that was Hedda Hopper. Well, I disliked what she stood for, but 'hate' is something else—and anyway he was perfect as Drake, and we got him."[3]

Barbara Hale was still prominent in feature films but had a young family and wished to avoid going away on long periods of location shooting. Patrick said that Hale telephoned about the role of Della Street.[3]

Patrick had an actor in mind for the Los Angeles district attorney. "I'd seen a brilliant little movie, The Hitch-Hiker, and had to have Bill Talman as Burger—and he never disappointed us," Patrick said.[3] Later asked about how he felt about Burger losing to Mason week after week, Talman said, "Burger doesn't lose. How can a district attorney lose when he fails to convict an innocent person? Unlike a fist or gun fight, in court you can have a winner without having a loser. As a matter of fact Burger in a good many instances has joined Mason in action against unethical attorneys, lying witnesses, or any one else obstructing justice. Like any real-life district attorney, justice is Burger's main interest."[17]

"Ray Collins came on board as Lt. Arthur Tragg," Patrick said. "He was such a wonderful actor—beautiful voice, trained in radio's Mercury productions. We overlooked the fact that on an actual police force he would probably be long retired."[3]

Each episode's casting interviews were conducted by Gail Patrick Jackson, producer Ben Brady, and the director. Episodes typically employed ten featured players in addition to the principal cast and extras.[17] Numerous actors famous for past and future roles in film and television made guest appearances on the show.[18]

"Many were people I'd worked with in movies," said Gail Patrick Jackson. "They were grateful and delivered on time—and powerfully. … Gloria Henry, Vaughn Taylor, Hillary Brooke, John Archer, Morris Ankrum, Don Beddoe, Fay Wray, Olive Blakeney, Paul Fix, Addison Richards. We also had newcomers like Darryl Hickman, Barbara Eden. The trick was to only use them once a year. People like Fay Wray came back several times, but as other characters."[3]

Patrick made it a point to hire her Hollywood acting contemporaries whenever possible. Some were semi-retired and financially well-off but still enjoyed performing.[19] Character actor George E. Stone[e][20] was impoverished, and for years he appeared on Perry Mason regularly in minor roles until his health made it impossible for him to work any longer. Patrick went to considerable lengths to find a part for an actress who had become paralyzed on one side; she played with her good side toward the camera.[19]

"This isn't being the least altruistic," Patrick said. "They are all fine performers and bring to the shows something interesting and vital — even when they only have one line."[19]

Perry Mason also drew on the distinguished West Coast radio pool. Working steadily in radio since the 1940s,[12] Raymond Burr was a leading player on the West Coast and in 1956 was the star of CBS Radio's Fort Laramie.[21]:258–259 Noted for his loyalty and consciousness of history, Burr went out of his way to employ his colleagues.[22] Some 180 radio celebrities appeared on Perry Mason during the first season alone.[23]

Writing[edit]

The production staff of Perry Mason worked at being technically correct and responsive to an audience that included lawyers and judges.[24] Producer Ben Brady practiced law in New York before entering show business;[17][25] story editor Gene Wang graduated from law school in Florida; and executive producer Gail Patrick Jackson studied law for two years before becoming an actress.[17]

Many episodes are based on novels and short stories by lawyer-turned-writer Erle Stanley Gardner. Only two of the 69 Perry Mason novels Gardner published before January 1963[f] were not adapted for the series.[g] All but three episodes in the first season were adapted from Gardner's stories.[h][26]:8821 In season two, 14 of the 39 episodes came from Gardner originals. With the backlist exhausted, later seasons presented between one and five episodes drawn from Gardner stories, with occasional remakes of earlier adaptations.[1]:64 By the summer of 1958 Patrick was already supervising the work of 31 writers who were developing original scripts based on Gardner's characters.[27]:19

"Funny thing about writers," Patrick told TV Guide. "A lot of them think they'll improve on Erle. Most of them find out they can't even duplicate him."[27]:19

Writers submitted a draft script, which was reviewed for continuity, narrative content and legal error by Patrick and Wang. A revised draft was then forwarded to Gardner, who would respond with a detailed brief indicating particular changes required to conform with the law.[17] Gardner closely supervised the scripts thoroughout the run of the series, and continued to write new Perry Mason novels.[28]

By 1961, the strictures of the Perry Mason formula led Writer's Digest to declare, "This show has the reputation among writers as being the hardest one in Hollywood to work for."[1]:23

Filming[edit]

Pilot[edit]

A test film, "The Case of the Moth-Eaten Mink", ultimately aired December 14, 1957,[1]:23 as the 13th episode of the first season.[29] The pilot was filmed October 3–9, 1956,[26]:10023 after Raymond Burr completed a movie in Havana[i][31] and made a two-week tour of military hospitals in the West Indies.[32]

"'The Case of the Moth-Eaten Mink' is written and directed very much like a noir B-feature of the period, from its stylishly dramatic opening to its violent climax," wrote film scholar Thomas Leitch.[1]:25 He noted that the pilot film "provides a fascinating laboratory for the formula, since it combines trademark elements that would become long-running features of the series with others that would be swiftly abandoned."[1]:25

It is the only episode directed by Ted Post, whose camera movement, use of deep space and film noir stylings were softened or absent in subsequent episodes. Laurence Marks and Ben Starr adapted Erle Stanley Gardner's 1952 novel, retaining all its plot features and characters.[1]:23–25

In her TV column in early November 1956, journalist Eve Starr reported, "Word is seeping down from CBS brass that its hour-long Perry Mason pilot film is a whooping success, so much so that the show will be held back until a good time period can be found for it next season."[33]

Series[edit]

The series began filming in April 1957.[j] Each episode was budgeted at $100,000.[7] Filming took place on Stage 8 at the 20th Century-Fox studios near Western Avenue and Sunset Boulevard (where the show's production offices were located)[34][17] and at CBS Studio Center,[3] with at least one location in each episode. Burr had lost 100 pounds but continued to lose weight when filming began: "I just don't have time to eat," he said.[7]

"Every six days Burr stars in what almost amounts to a full-length feature movie," wrote syndicated columnist Erskine Johnson. "He's in 98 percent of all the scenes."[7]

"I had no life outside of Perry Mason," Burr recalled. "And that went on 24 hours a day, six days a week. I never went home at night. I lived on the lot. I got up at 3 o'clock every single morning to learn my lines for that day, and sometimes I hadn't finished until 9 o'clock. I had a kitchen, bedroom, office space, sitting room — all of that — on every lot I ever worked on."[35]

Thirty-nine episodes were filmed in the first year.[7] "Ray had key lines written on his shirt sleeve cuffs," said Gail Patrick Jackson.[3]

Directors included Laslo Benedek, Jesse Hibbs, Arthur Marks, Christian Nyby and William D. Russell. Some, including Lewis Allen and Richard Donner, had or would have notable directing credits in feature films.[3][36] Many episodes incorporated the essential elements of film noir.[37][38]

"The crew is giving it the best of Hollywood's techniques," Burr told columnist Erskine Johnson.[7] The crew included veterans including art director Lewis Creber,[k] make-up artist Mel Berns, cinematographer Frank Redman,[l] editor Richard Cahoon and sound mixer Harry M. Leonard.[36]

All but one of the episodes in the series were filmed in black-and-white. The episode "The Case of the Twice-Told Twist", an episode heavily influenced by Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist, was the sole exception.[41]

Locations[edit]

The Superior Oil Company Building in Los Angeles, used for exteriors of the fictional Brent Building where Perry Mason's offices were located (2008)

Perry Mason is set in Los Angeles, California. Interior scenes were filmed on the 20th Century-Fox Western Avenue studio lot, and most exteriors were filmed at Fox Studios in Westwood, California, or the Fox Movie Ranch in Malibu Canyon.[17] Later episodes in the series were filmed at CBS LaBrea Studios in Hollywood.[42][16]

In the early years of the series, filming would be done on location in and around Culver City and a few downtown locales. In one episode, Drake gets out of a car on Wilshire Boulevard and goes into an apartment building; in the distant background, the lights and cameras from the set filming an episode of Peter Gunn are visible. There are numerous establishing shots of the iconic Los Angeles City Hall, the Hall of Justice building and the Los Angeles County Court House. All these buildings are still standing.

Mason's offices are in the Brent Building, Suite 904,[43] phone MAdison 5-1190.[44][m] Although the Brent Building is fictional, the series used the entrance and exterior of the former Superior Oil Company Building,[n][46] a modern structure in Downtown Los Angeles completed in 1956. The building was registered in 2003 as a historical landmark and is now The Standard Downtown LA hotel.[47]

Scattered throughout the run were episodes that would take place beyond Burger's jurisdiction as Los Angeles County District Attorney. In 1960, when William Talman, who played Hamilton Burger, was suspended for allegedly violating the morals clause in his contract, several assistant prosecutors were seen in court. Talman had attended a party at which he was charged with having engaged in indecent activities.[48] He was later acquitted, and largely through the efforts of Burr, Talman was reinstated to the show.[48]

Music[edit]

The show's theme music is one of the most recognizable in television.[49] Composer Fred Steiner set out to write a theme that would project the two primary aspects of Mason's character — sophistication and toughness. "The piece he came up with, titled 'Park Avenue Beat', pulsed with the power of the big city and the swagger of a beefy hero played to perfection by actor Raymond Burr," wrote The Los Angeles Times.[50] Described by Steiner as "a piece of symphonic R&B", the Perry Mason theme heard at the opening and end credits became the composer's best-known work.[51][52]

Much of the incidental music was drawn from the CBS-TV Music Library.[53] This included music by Bernard Herrmann, who went uncredited since the cues were stock music that were edited into the score.[54][55][56] Herrmann's music has been identified in the following episodes: "The Case of the Restless Redhead",[57]:72–73 "The Case of the Sleepwalker's Niece", "The Case of the Nervous Accomplice", The Case of the Drowning Duck",[57]:73 "The Case of the Silent Partner",[57]:73–74[58]:116, 127 "The Case of the Half-Wakened Wife",[59][o] "The Case of the Calendar Girl",[57]:75[58]:70 "The Case of the Spurious Sister"[58]:72–73 and "The Case of the Mythical Monkeys".[58]:56, 58 Production records show Herrmann's music being used in 100 episodes, through "The Case of the Tandem Target" (Season 7, Episode 29).[60]:52055

Cancellation[edit]

Gail Patrick Jackson and Erle Stanley Gardner speak with Hollywood columnist Norma Lee Browning during filming of the last Perry Mason episode, "The Case of the Final Fade-Out" (1966)

Perry Mason aired Saturday nights for its first five seasons, outdrawing competition including the first two seasons of NBC's Bonanza. Bonanza jumped to number two in the Nielsen ratings when it moved to Sunday nights in 1961.[61]:924–925 In 1962 CBS moved Perry Mason to Thursday nights, where it easily won the ratings for its time slot.[3]

"CBS just got plain cocky," said executive producer Gail Patrick Jackson. "It irritated the suits to no end that Sundays at 8 was Ed Sullivan with his huge rating, and then everybody switched to NBC's Bonanza. Bill Paley would rant about this every time we met." Patrick continued:

Then, for the September '65 season he floored me by telling the affiliates we'd be going Sundays at 9 with a mandate to demolish Bonanza. Just like that. He finally let me shoot in in color but we never had a chance. We improved ratings for CBS but Bonanza was the leader and Paley simply cancelled us completely in 1966. After nine seasons and 271 episodes we were dust."[3]

The network gave no particular reason for the cancellation.[62] "CBS figures we are worn out," Patrick told The New York Times in November 1965. "But this season the show is getting more mail than ever before and so is Raymond."[63]

Burr had wanted to leave Perry Mason after five years but was always persuaded to extend his contract. Network executives implored him to stay for a tenth season, to be filmed in color. "They shot one show in color and I said 'no'," Burr recalled, "and they gave me such a big thing, talked about my loyalty and all that, and they guaranteed the quality of the show and said, 'Let's go off with a big bang.' This was all of the people at CBS."[35] Burr agreed to do the tenth season.[64] Three weeks after the meeting, he picked up the trade papers and read that the series had been cancelled.[35]

The last episode of the series, "The Case of the Final Fade-Out", was filmed April 12–19, 1966.[65]:32188 Set in a TV film studio where two murders occur, the last show offered the entire production crew an opportunity to appear on camera.[66][67] Most of the behind-the-scenes personnel in the episode had been with the show the entire nine years.[68] Patrick made a cameo appearance herself, and persuaded Erle Stanley Gardner to make his acting debut as the judge who presides over the second trial.[62]

Revival[edit]

Series[edit]

Main article: The New Perry Mason

An unsuccessful attempt to re-create the series was made in 1973. Starring Monte Markham and Sharon Acker, The New Perry Mason only lasted half a season.[69] "My name was on it," said Gail Patrick, "but I wanted nothing to do with it. Corney was on his own."[p] In 1979 Patrick said that CBS was "angling to make some TV movies from the original novels. With Ray and Barbara. We'll see."[3]

Television films[edit]

Producer Dean Hargrove resurrected the Mason character in a series of television films for NBC beginning in 1985. Hargrove was able to bring back the two then-surviving principals, Raymond Burr and Barbara Hale, for the first film, Perry Mason Returns, in which Perry Mason resigns his position as an appellate court judge to defend Della Street on a murder charge. William Katt, Hale's real-life son, was cast as private investigator Paul Drake, Jr., the son of private investigator Paul Drake. Katt appeared in the first nine movies. In later TV movies, Mason used the services of Ken Malansky, played by William R. Moses, an attorney who worked with Mason as a private investigator.[70]

A total of 30 movies were made between 1985 and 1995, with Burr starring in 26. After Burr's death in 1993, four television films (1993–95) were produced under the umbrella title A Perry Mason Mystery, with Paul Sorvino starring in the first film and Hal Holbrook starring in the remaining three. Both Hale and Moses continued in their roles for all four films, and Mason's absence was explained by having him out of town.

Episodes[edit]

When asked by a fan why Perry Mason won every case, Burr told her, "But madam, you see only the cases I try on Saturday."[61]:590

Mason is known to have lost, in some form or manner, three cases—"The Case of the Terrified Typist", "The Case of the Witless Witness" and "The Case of the Deadly Verdict".[71]

Mason also loses a civil case at the beginning of "The Case of the Dead Ringer",[65]:24421 partly due to being framed for witness tampering. He and his staff then spend the rest of the episode trying to prove his innocence. They eventually do, and—although this is not stated explicitly—the verdict of the civil case is presumably either overturned or declared a mistrial. In a July 15, 2009, interview on National Public Radio's program All Things Considered, Barbara Hale claimed that all of Mason's lost cases were declared mistrials off the air.[72]

Mason did lose, at least by inference, a capital case referenced in the 1958 episode, "The Case of the Desperate Daughter". Mason and Della Street are first seen preparing a last-minute appeal for a "Mr. Hudson", who has an impending date with the gas chamber.[73]

Broadcast[edit]

Broadcast history[edit]

Perry Mason aired on CBS from September 21, 1957,[29] to May 22, 1966.[41]

  • Saturday at 7:30 p.m. ET September 21, 1957 – May 26, 1962 (Seasons 1–5)[74][75]
  • Thursday at 8 p.m. ET September 27, 1962 – May 16, 1963 (Season 6)[76]
  • Thursday at 9 p.m. ET September 26, 1963 – May 21, 1964 (Season 7)[77]
  • Thursday at 8 p.m. ET September 24, 1964 – May 13, 1965 (Season 8)[78]
  • Sunday at 9 p.m. ET September 12, 1965 – May 22, 1966 (Season 9)[41]

Syndication[edit]

At the time of its cancellation, Perry Mason was or had been airing in 58 countries. The show was subtitled in Chinese (for Hong Kong viewers), Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Flemish, Greek, Malay, Norwegian, Polish and Swedish, and dubbed in Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish and Thai.[4]

Perry Mason has been a staple in syndication, running for many years on local television stations (including WGN-TV in the 1990s when it was a Chicago-based superstation), TBS and on the Hallmark Channel. Originally, only 195 of the 271 episodes were available to stations. These episodes included all of the first six seasons (except the four Season 6 episodes in which Raymond Burr makes only brief appearances), four episodes of Season 7, and 14 episodes of the ninth and final season (including the final episode). It wasn't until the mid-1980s when TBS obtained the rights to the remaining episodes that all 271 Perry Mason episodes were seen in syndication.

Episodes broadcast in syndicated re-runs are usually heavily edited, to allow for more time for commercials.

As of August 2014, the TV series is shown weekdays on both Me-TV and the Hallmark Movies & Mysteries channel, as well as on local stations in various local markets. Portland, Oregon station KPTV aired reruns of Perry Mason weekdays during its noon time slot since 1966. This unprecedented run ended on September 4, 2012, when KPTV ceased airing the show. It continued to be aired on KPDX, sister station of KPTV, in the 8 AM time slot through September 12, 2014.[79][80] The series was distributed CBS Films, then Viacom Enterprises, Paramount Domestic Television and CBS Paramount Domestic Television, and now by CBS Television Distribution.

CBS posted full 60-minute episodes on its website from the first and second seasons for viewing.[81]

Reception[edit]

"Perry Mason was television's most successful and longest-running lawyer series," wrote TV historian Tim Brooks.[61]:590 "It remains, I think, the best detective series ever made for television," wrote film historian Jon Tuska.[82]:99 "The definitive portrayal, of course, was by former screen heavy Raymond Burr on the CBS series (1957–1966) in scripts faithfully based on Gardner's novels", wrote mystery writer Max Allan Collins.[83]:70

Ratings[edit]

Season Rank Rating Notes
1 — October 1957–April 1958 not in top 25 [61]:924
2 — October 1958–April 1959 19 27.5 [61]:924
3 — October 1959–April 1960 10 28.3 [61]:924
4 — October 1960–April 1961 16 24.9 [61]:925
5 — October 1961–April 1962 5 27.3 [61]:925[84]
6 — October 1962–April 1963 23 22.4 [61]:925
7 — October 1963–April 1964 26 22.1 [85]
8 — October 1964–April 1965 not in top 25 [61]:926
9 — October 1965–April 1966 not in top 25 [61]:926

Awards[edit]

Emmy Awards[edit]

TV Guide Awards[edit]

  • 1960: Perry Mason was honored as Favorite Series in TV Guide magazine's inaugural TV Guide Award readers poll.[87]
  • 1960: Raymond Burr received the first annual TV Guide Award for Favorite Male Performer, for Perry Mason.[87]
  • 1961: Perry Mason received the second annual TV Guide Award for Favorite Series.[88][89]
  • 1961: Raymond Burr received the second annual TV Guide Award for Favorite Male Performer, for Perry Mason.[88][89]

Silver Gavel Award[edit]

Influence[edit]

In her confirmation hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee in July 2009, Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor prefaced her remarks on the role of the prosecutor by saying that she was inspired by watching Perry Mason as a child:

I was influenced so greatly by a television show in igniting the passion that I had as being a prosecutor, and it was Perry Mason … In one of the episodes, at the end of the episode … Perry said to the prosecutor, "It must cause you some pain having expended all that effort in your case to have the charges dismissed." And the prosecutor looked up and said, "No. My job as a prosecutor is do justice and justice is served when a guilty man is convicted and when an innocent man is not." And I thought to myself that's quite amazing to be able to serve that role …[91]

Cultural references[edit]

A Perry Mason parody titled "The Night That Perry Masonmint Lost a Case" appeared in the July 1959 issue of Mad magazine.[92]

Raymond Burr made an unannounced guest appearance in an episode of The Jack Benny Program, titled "Jack on Trial for Murder" (November 5, 1961). He appears in character as Perry Mason in Benny's dream sequence about being tried for killing a rooster. Other Perry Mason cast include Grandon Rhodes as the process server, Frank Wilcox as the judge and George E. Stone as court clerk.[93][94]:32343

The character of Perry Mason was spoofed in an episode of the animated series, The Flintstones, titled "Little Bamm-Bamm" (October 3, 1963). When the Rubbles try to adopt Bamm-Bamm they end up in court facing attorney "Perry Masonry, who's never lost a case".[95][96]

The Blues Brothers recorded a cover version of Fred Steiner's Perry Mason TV series theme for the 1980 album, Made in America.[97] It was later used in the 1998 film, Blues Brothers 2000, and released on the soundtrack album.[98]

Perry Mason was satirized in a 1990 episode of the Australian sketch comedy series, Fast Forward.[99]

Ozzy Osbourne's 1995 album, Ozzmosis, opens with a track titled "Perry Mason".[100] Released as a single,[101] the song was the first to integrate the music of Perry Mason[102] into what one reviewer described as a "bruising rocker … complete with an ominous excerpt from the classic TV show theme".[103]

Media information[edit]

United States and Canada[edit]

CBS Home Entertainment has released all nine seasons of Perry Mason on Region 1 DVD. Each season was released in two-volume half-season sets because each season of Perry Mason contains considerably more material than a modern TV series. The first season of Perry Mason featured 39 episodes, Season 3 had 26 episodes, and all other seasons had either 28 or 30 episodes; this compares with 22 for a typical modern series. In addition, Perry Mason episodes are 50–53 minutes long, while a 2014 Nielsen study found that modern one-hour shows are shortened to accommodate 14 to 15 minutes of commercials.[104]

The DVDs contain the original full-length version of each episode.[q] Episodes broadcast in syndicated re-runs are usually heavily edited, to allow for more time for commercials.

In April 2008, a special 50th anniversary DVD set was released with selected episodes from the then-unreleased Seasons 3–9. Barbara Hale, sometimes joined by director and producer Arthur Marks, provides an on-camera introduction to each episode. Bonus material includes the 1956 film tests of Burr and Hopper, just discovered in the CBS vaults; interviews with Hale, Marks, and CBS executive Anne Roberts Nelson; a short documentary about Erle Stanley Gardner; a cast appearance on Stump the Stars; a 1958 Person to Person segment in which Burr (at his home in Malibu) is interviewed by Charles Collingwood; two CBS News Nightwatch interviews of Burr by Charlie Rose; the anti-smoking public service announcement William Talman made shortly before his death from lung cancer, on behalf of the American Cancer Society; and the first of the made-for-TV movies, Perry Mason Returns. Film historian Stuart Galbraith IV called the 50th anniversary set "a must-have … especially for its extra features".[16]

Region 1 DVD releases[edit]

Title Contents Length Release date
Perry Mason: Season 1, Volume 1 19 episodes 1000 minutes July 11, 2006[105]
Perry Mason: Season 1, Volume 2 20 episodes 1040 minutes November 21, 2006[106]
Perry Mason: Season 2, Volume 1 15 episodes 773 minutes June 19, 2007[107]
Perry Mason: Season 2, Volume 2 15 episodes 774 minutes November 13, 2007[108]
Perry Mason: 50th Anniversary Edition 12 episodes 714 minutes April 8, 2008[109]
Perry Mason: Season 3, Volume 1 12 episodes 624 minutes August 19, 2008[110]
Perry Mason: Season 3, Volume 2 14 episodes 728 minutes December 2, 2008[111]
Perry Mason: Season 4, Volume 1 16 episodes 831 minutes June 9, 2009[112]
Perry Mason: Season 4, Volume 2 12 episodes 623 minutes December 8, 2009[113]
Perry Mason: Season 5, Volume 1 15 episodes 764 minutes April 20, 2010[114]
Perry Mason: Season 5, Volume 2 15 episodes 773 minutes November 16, 2010[115]
Perry Mason: Season 6, Volume 1 14 episodes 710 minutes October 4, 2011[116]
Perry Mason: Season 6, Volume 2 14 episodes 709 minutes November 22, 2011[117]
Perry Mason: Season 7, Volume 1 15 episodes 759 minutes August 21, 2012[118]
Perry Mason: Season 7, Volume 2 15 episodes 758 minutes October 23, 2012[119]
Perry Mason: Season 8, Volume 1 15 episodes 773 minutes November 27, 2012[120]
Perry Mason: Season 8, Volume 2 15 episodes 772 minutes January 15, 2013[121]
Perry Mason: Final Season, Season 9, Volume 1 15 episodes 776 minutes June 11, 2013[122]
Perry Mason: Final Season, Season 9, Volume 2 15 episodes 778 minutes August 13, 2013[123]

International[edit]

In Region 2, Paramount Home Entertainment has released the first three seasons in complete sets on DVD in the UK.[citation needed]

In Region 4, Paramount Home Entertainment has released the first two seasons on DVD in Australia/New Zealand. These releases are similar to the Region 1 releases whereby each season has been released in two-volume sets.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "It is never enough for Mason to establish a reasonable doubt of his client's guilt; he must clear the client absolutely by pinning the guilt on someone else, almost always by extracting a confession," wrote film scholar Thomas Leitch.[1]
  2. ^ This spared the production company the expense of hiring 12 extras to play jurors.[2] It also compressed the time element, since a preliminary exam usually takes place within weeks of an arraignment, while a full blown murder trial might take a year to get to court.
  3. ^ Burr's talent test as Perry Mason is dated May 24, 1956.[13]
  4. ^ Hopper's audition as Perry Mason, along with Burr's auditions for Burger and Mason, were included as special features on disc four of the 2008 "50th Anniversary Edition" Perry Mason DVD set.[13]
  5. ^ George E. Stone appeared most often as court clerk. "Stone, a veteran actor, was sick and half blind during his tenure on the Mason show. Yet he stayed," wrote Perry Mason chroniclers Brian Kelleher and Diana Merrill. "'This company has heart,' is how one cast member explained Stone's presence."[20]
  6. ^ The last Gardner novel adapted for the series was The Case of the Mischievous Doll (1963).
  7. ^ Film historian Thomas Leitch lists three Gardner novels not adapted — The Case of the Counterfeit Eye (1936), The Case of the Golddigger's Purse (1945) and The Case of the Glamorous Ghost (1955) — but the last was in fact adapted for the fifth season.[1]:106
  8. ^ The three season-one scripts that were not adaptations were nevertheless based on Gardner novels, but were so substantially changed in the rewrite process that they were retitled: "The Case of the Deadly Double" (The Case of the Borrowed Brunette), "The Case of the Desperate Daughter" (The Case of the Glamorous Ghost), and "The Case of the Prodigal Parent" (The Case of the Dubious Bridegroom).[26]:8821
  9. ^ Burr was in Cuba filming Affair in Havana (working title The Fever Tree) from August through September 10, 1956.[30]
  10. ^ After "The Case of the Moth-Eaten Mink", the first episode shot was "The Case of the Fan Dancer's Horse", filmed April 15–22, 1957. The next was "The Case of the Crimson Kiss" (April 24–May 1, 1957).[26]:6585, 8703, 10211
  11. ^ Lewis Creber's credits as art director include Charlie Chan at the Opera and others in the series, Think Fast, Mr. Moto and others in the series, and Sun Valley Serenade.[39]
  12. ^ Frank Redman's credits include Murder on the Blackboard, The Saint in New York and others in the series, and four films in The Falcon series.[40]
  13. ^ The Madison telephone exchange covered Hollywood, Huntington Park and Los Angeles.[45]
  14. ^ The first time this Brent Building location is seen is in "The Case of the Sulky Girl" (Season 1, Episode 5); earlier episodes used a set.[26]:9342
  15. ^ Herrmann wrote this music for Orson Welles's CBS radio play, The Hitch-Hiker (1941).
  16. ^ Gail Patrick and Cornwell Jackson divorced in 1969, and Erle Stanley Gardner died in 1970.
  17. ^ There was one exception, an error that was later rectified. The second season episode, "The Case of the Fancy Figures", was missing about a minute of dialog in the initial Region 1 DVD release. Subsequent issues have included the full unedited version.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Leitch, Thomas (2005). Perry Mason. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 0-8143-3121-1. 
  2. ^ Kelleher, Brian; Merrill, Diana (1987). "Plenty of Judges but No Jury". The Perry Mason TV Show Book. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312006693. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Bawden, James (April 29, 2014). "Dream Factory Time: Gail Patrick". Classic Images. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  4. ^ a b c Gould, Jack (May 23, 1966). "TV: Perry Mason's End Really a Rich Beginning". The New York Times. 
  5. ^ Adams, Val (February 7, 1956). "TV Series Slated for Perry Mason". The New York Times. 
  6. ^ Adams, Val (September 16, 1966). "Perry Mason Exploits Stay Squirreled Away at C.B.S.-TV". The New York Times. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Johnson, Erskine (August 16, 1957). "Perry Mason Ready to Challenge Como". The Brownsville Herald (Newspaper Enterprise Association). 
  8. ^ Gardner, Paul (February 16, 1964). "Order in the Court! The TV Lawyer Wants to Speak". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-05-13. 
  9. ^ Baer, Atra (April 6, 1954). "Noel Coward Terms Censorship Taboos Ridiculous for American TV Shows". Evening Times (Cumberland, Maryland). 
  10. ^ Hopper, Hedda (April 2, 1956). "Hedda Hopper". Altoona Mirror. 
  11. ^ Hopper, Hedda (June 14, 1956). "Hedda Hopper". Altoona Mirror. 
  12. ^ a b c Hill, Ona L. (2000) [1994]. Raymond Burr: A Film, Radio, and Television Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. pp. 179–185. ISBN 0-7864-0833-2. 
  13. ^ a b "Perry Mason – 50th Anniversary Edition". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  14. ^ "TV Mailbag". The Troy Record. July 18, 1956. 
  15. ^ O'Brien, Jack (August 4, 1956). "On the Air". Sandusky Register-Star News (Sandusky, Ohio). 
  16. ^ a b c Galbraith IV, Stuart (April 10, 2008). "Perry Mason — 50th Anniversary Edition". DVD Talk. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Nogler, Pat (July 20, 1958). "An Open Case: Snooping Behind Scenes Pays Off". Pasadena Independent Star-News. 
  18. ^ "Famous Perry People". Perry Mason TV Series Wiki. Retrieved 2015-05-13. 
  19. ^ a b c Lowry, Cynthia (October 13, 1964). "Perry Mason May Become Governor". Oakland Tribune. Associated Press. 
  20. ^ a b Kelleher, Brian; Merrill, Diana (1987). "The Case of the Happy Cast". The Perry Mason TV Show Book. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-312-00669-3. Retrieved 2015-04-23. 
  21. ^ Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. 
  22. ^ "Perry Mason". The Digital Deli Too. Retrieved 2015-05-01. 
  23. ^ "Perry Mason, Season One". The Digital Deli Too. Retrieved 2015-05-01. 
  24. ^ "Brooklyn's Prosecutor Worried by TV Show". The New York Times. August 10, 1961. 
  25. ^ "Ben Brady, 94; Writer, Producer of Radio, Early TV Shows". Los Angeles Times. March 28, 2003. Retrieved 2015-04-24. 
  26. ^ a b c d e Davidson, Jim (2014). "The First TV Series (1957–1966); Season 1 (1957–1958)". The Perry Mason Book: A Comprehensive Guide to America's Favorite Defender of Justice (e-book). ASIN B00OOELV1K. 
  27. ^ a b "The Case of the Businesslike Beauty". TV Guide: 17–19. June 21, 1958. 
  28. ^ Nevins, Francis M. (2000). "Samurai at Law: The World of Erle Stanley Gardner". 24 Legal Studies Forum (West Virginia University) 43. 
  29. ^ a b "Perry Mason, Season 1". The Classic TV Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  30. ^ "Affair in Havana". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Retrieved 2015-05-08. 
  31. ^ Cole, I. G. (July 20, 1956). "TV News". Lawton Constitution (Lawton, Oklahoma). 
  32. ^ Hopper, Hedda (September 15, 1956). "Hedda Hopper Writes from Hollywood". Altoona Mirror. 
  33. ^ Starr, Eve (November 4, 1956). "Inside TV". Pasadena Star-News. 
  34. ^ Kelleher, Brian; Merrill, Diana (1987). "Very Few Words from the Sponsors". The Perry Mason TV Show Book. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780312006693. Retrieved 2015-04-23. 
  35. ^ a b c Shales, Tom (May 23, 1986). "Raymond Burr, Back on Appeal". The Washington Post. 
  36. ^ a b "Perry Mason — Full Cast and Crew". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2015-04-24. 
  37. ^ Stufflebean, Phil. "The Perry Mason Connection". American Film Noir. Retrieved 2015-05-13. The Perry Mason television series came along at the right time in the right format with a style that evoked noir. The series benefited by that style and it was most certainly a factor in its success. 
  38. ^ Tooze, Gary W. "Perry Mason - Season 3, Vol. 1". DVD Beaver. Retrieved 2015-07-08. I see, especially the early episodes, as having a strong link to film moir. 
  39. ^ "Lewis H. Creber". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Retrieved 2015-06-01. 
  40. ^ "Frank Redman". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Retrieved 2015-06-01. 
  41. ^ a b c "Perry Mason, Season 9". The Classic TV Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  42. ^ "Perry Mason Will Switch to Sunday". Biddeford Journal (Biddeford, Maine). August 14, 1965. 
  43. ^ "The Case of the Lonely Heiress" (Season 1, Episode 20) at 08:09.
  44. ^ "The Case of the Fugitive Nurse" (Season 1, Episode 22) at 17:18.
  45. ^ "Old Telephone Exchange Names, Los Angeles County". Los Angeles Almanac. Given Place Media. Retrieved 2015-04-25. 
  46. ^ "The Brent Building". Perry Mason TV Series Wiki. 
  47. ^ "Superior Oil Company Building" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2015-04-25. 
  48. ^ a b Kelleher; Merrill (1987). "Innocent as Charged". The Perry Mason TV Show Book.
  49. ^ Bank, Ed (May 6, 2001). "Top TV songs are woven into the fabric of our lives". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 
  50. ^ Lewis, Randy (June 25, 2011). "Fred Steiner Dies at 88; Hollywood Composer Created 'Perry Mason' Theme". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  51. ^ "Fred Steiner on composing the 'Perry Mason' theme". Archive of American Television. YouTube. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  52. ^ "Composer Fred Steiner, best known for the 'Perry Mason' theme, has died". Archive of American Television. Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
  53. ^ "CBS Inc. film and television collection 1955–1991". UCLA Library Special Collections, Performing Arts. The Online Archive of California. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  54. ^ Wrobel, Bill (June 2006). "Herrmann Music in Have Gun Will Travel and Other Classic CBS Television Series". The Bernard Herrmann Society. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  55. ^ Wrobel, Bill (August 8, 2011). "Herrmann’s Legacy Left to CBS (and the World)". Herrmann CBS Legacy. The Bernard Herrmann Society. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  56. ^ Wrobel, Bill (August 8, 2011). "CBS Centenary Audio Clips – 2". Herrmann CBS Legacy. The Bernard Herrmann Society. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  57. ^ a b c d Wrobel, Bill (2006). "Herrmann Music in Have Gun Will Travel and Other Classic CBS Television Series: Perry Mason" (PDF). Film Score Rundowns. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  58. ^ a b c d Wrobel, Bill (2006). "Herrmann's CBS Television Years" (PDF). Film Score Rundowns. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  59. ^ Wrobel, Bill (March 12, 2012). "The Hitch-Hiker (Bernard Herrmann)". FilmScoreRundowns. YouTube. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
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  62. ^ a b Browning, Norma Lee (May 15, 1966). "It'll Be a Grand Finale for Perry". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-05-13. 
  63. ^ Adams, Val (November 18, 1965). "TV Career Ending for Perry Mason". The New York Times. 
  64. ^ Crosby, Joan (September 6, 1965). "Burr May Do 10th Mason Series". Pacific Stars & Stripes (NEA). I have agreed under certain conditions to do a 10th season of the series. 
  65. ^ a b Davidson, Jim (2014). "The First TV Series (1957–1966); Season 9 (1956–1966)". The Perry Mason Book: A Comprehensive Guide to America's Favorite Defender of Justice (e-book). ASIN B00OOELV1K. 
  66. ^ Adams, Val (April 24, 1966). "Good Loser Gets a Double Drubbing". The New York Times. 
  67. ^ Davidson, Jim. "Who's Who in the Final Fade-Out". Classic TV Info. Retrieved 2015-05-25. 
  68. ^ Browning, Norma Lee (May 24, 1966). "Perry Mason Cast Together for Finale". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-05-13. 
  69. ^ "The New Perry Mason". IMDb. Retrieved June 21, 2013. 
  70. ^ "Perry Mason's Final TV Cases". The Great Detectives of Old Time Radio. January 7, 2012. Retrieved 2015-05-13. 
  71. ^ Kelleher, Brian; Merrill, Diana (1987). "Perry Mason Loses Case!". The Perry Mason TV Show Book. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312006693. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  72. ^ "'Della Street' On Perry Mason's Sole Loss". All Things Considered. NPR. July 16, 2009. 
  73. ^ "The Case of the Desperate Daughter" (Season 1, Episode 27) at 11:03.
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  75. ^ "Perry Mason, Season 5". The Classic TV Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  76. ^ "Perry Mason, Season 6". The Classic TV Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  77. ^ "Perry Mason, Season 7". The Classic TV Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
  78. ^ "Perry Mason, Season 8". The Classic TV Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
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  80. ^ Turnquist, Kristi (September 16, 2014). "Case closed: After 48 years, 'Perry Mason' reruns end on Portland TV station". The Oregonian. 
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  91. ^ "Confirmiation Hearing on the Nomination of Hon. Sonia Sotomayor, to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States". U.S. Government Printing Office. July 13–16, 2009. Retrieved 2015-04-07. 
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  95. ^ Hoffman, Leonard (October 3, 1963). "TV Previews". Tucson Daily Citizen. The Flintstones. 'Little Bamm-Bamm.' More amusing than average for this cartoon series is this episode. Barney and Betty Rubble are delighted when they find an abandoned baby on their doorstep. But the welfare department denies their petition for adoption, favoring a wealthy applicant instead. The Rubbles take their case to court, an obvious spoof of the 'Perry Mason' series, as the opposing attorney is 'Perry Masonry, who's never lost a case.' 
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  105. ^ "Perry Mason - The 1st Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  106. ^ "Perry Mason - The 1st Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  107. ^ "Perry Mason - The 2nd Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  108. ^ "Perry Mason - The 2nd Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  109. ^ "Perry Mason - 50th Anniversary Edition". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  110. ^ "Perry Mason - The 3rd Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  111. ^ "Perry Mason - The 3rd Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  112. ^ "Perry Mason - The 4th Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  113. ^ "Perry Mason - The 4th Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  114. ^ "Perry Mason - The 5th Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  115. ^ "Perry Mason - The 5th Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  116. ^ "Perry Mason - The 6th Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  117. ^ "Perry Mason - The 6th Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  118. ^ "Perry Mason - The 7th Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  119. ^ "Perry Mason - The 7th Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  120. ^ "Perry Mason - The 8th Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  121. ^ "Perry Mason - The 8th Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  122. ^ "Perry Mason - The 9th and Final Season, Volume 1". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  123. ^ "Perry Mason - The 9th and Final Season, Volume 2". TV Shows on DVD. TV Guide Online. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 

External links[edit]