Persecution of Buddhists
Many Buddhists have experienced persecution because of their faith including unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or the incitement of hatred towards Buddhists.
- 1 Pre-modern persecutions of Buddhism
- 2 Persecutions by Islamic regimes
- 3 Persecution by militaristic regimes
- 4 Persecution by nationalist political parties
- 5 Persecution by Muslims
- 6 Persecution by Tamils
- 7 Persecution by Christians
- 8 Persecution in Nepal
- 9 Persecution under Communism
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 Further reading
Pre-modern persecutions of Buddhism
In 224 CE Zoroastrianism was made the official religion of the Persia, and other religions were not tolerated, thus halting the spread of Buddhism westwards. In the 3rd century the Sassanids overran the Bactrian region, overthrowing Kushan rule, were persecuted[clarification needed] with many of their stupas fired. Although strong supporters of Zoroastrianism, the Sassanids tolerated Buddhism and allowed the construction of more Buddhist monasteries. It was during their rule that the Lokottaravada followers erected the two Buddha statues at Bamiyan.
During the second half of the third century, the Zoroastrian high priest Kirder dominated the religious policy of the state. He ordered the destruction of several Buddhist monasteries in Afghanistan, since the amalgam of Buddhism and Zoroastrianism manifested in the form of a "Buddha-Mazda" deity appeared to him as heresy. Buddhism quickly recovered after his death.
The first alleged persecution of Buddhists in India took place in the 2nd century BC by King Pushyamitra Shunga. A non-contemporary Buddhist text states that Pushyamitra cruelly persecuted Buddhists. While some scholars believe he did persecute Buddhists based on the Buddhist accounts, others consider them biased because of him not patronising them. Many other scholars have expressed skepticism about the Buddhist claims. Étienne Lamotte points out that the Buddhist legends are not consistent about the location of Pushyamitra's anti-Buddhist campaign and his death: "To judge from the documents, Pushyamitra must be acquitted through lack of proof." Agreeing with him, D. Devahuti states that Pushyamitra's sudden destruction after offering rewards for Buddhist heads is "manifestly false". R. C. Mitra states that "The tales of persecution by Pushyamitra as recorded in Divyavadana and by Taranatha bear marks of evident absurdity."
Central Asian and North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century following the White Hun invasion who followed their own religions such as Tengri and Manichaean. Around 440 CE they conquered Sogdiana then conquered Gandhara and pushed on into the Gangetic Plains. Their King Mihirkula who ruled from 515 CE suppressed Buddhism, destroying monasteries as far as modern-day Allahabad before his son reversed the policy.
Persecution by Hindus
Persecution of Buddhism started as early as in the life or soon after the death of King Ashoka. D.N. Jha writes that according to Kashmiri texts dated to 12th century, Ashoka's Son Jalauka was shaivite and was responsible for the destruction of many Buddhist monasteries. The story of Jalauka is essentially legendary, and no independent corroboration of the Kashmir tradition has been discovered. Patanjali, a famous grammarian stated in his Mahabhashya that Brahmins and Sharamanas (buddhists) were eternal enemies With the emergence of Hindu rulers of Gupta empire Hinduism saw a major revivalism in the Indian subcontinent which challenged Buddhism which was at that time at its zenith. Even though Gupta empire was tolerant towards Buddhism and patronized Buddhist arts and religious institutions, Hindu revivalism generally became a major threat to Buddhism which led to its decline. A Buddhist illustrated palm leaf manuscript from Pala period (one of the earliest Indian illustrated manuscripts to survive in modern times) is preserved in University of Cambridge library. Composed in the year 1015, the manuscript contains a note from the year 1138 by a Buddhist believer called Karunavajra which indicates that without his efforts, the manuscript would have been destroyed during a political struggle for power. The note states that 'he rescued the 'Perfection of Wisdom, incomparable Mother of the Omniscient' from falling into the hands of unbelievers (who according to Camillo Formigatti were most probably people of Brahmanical affiliation). In 1794 Jagat Singh, Dewan (minister) of Raja Chet Singh of Banaras began excavating two pre Ashokan era stupas at Sarnath for construction material. Dharmarajika stupa was completely demolished and only its foundation exists today while Dhamekh stupa incurred serious damage. During excavation a green marble relic casket was discovered from Dharmarajika stupa which contained Buddha's ashes was subsequently thrown into Ganges river by Jagat Singh according to his Hindu faith. The incident was reported by a British resident and timely action of British authorities saved Dhamekh Stupa from demolition.
Emperor Wuzong of Tang
Emperor Wuzong of Tang (814-846) indulged in indiscriminate religious persecution, solving a financial crisis by seizing the property of Buddhist monasteries. Buddhism had developed into a major religious force in China during the Tang period, and its monasteries had tax-exempt status. Wuzong closed many Buddhist shrines, confiscated their property, and sent the monks and nuns home to lay life. Apart from economic reasons, Wuzong's motivation was also philosophical or ideological. As a zealous Taoist, he considered Buddhism a foreign religion that was harmful to Chinese society. He went after other foreign religions as well, all but eradicating Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism in China, and his persecution of the growing Nestorian Christian churches sent Chinese Christianity into a decline from which it never recovered.
King Langdarma of Tibet
The Oirats (Western Mongols) converted to Tibetan Buddhism around 1615. The Dzungars were a confederation of several Oirat tribes that emerged suddenly in the early 17th century. The Dzungar Khanate was the last great nomadic empire in Asia. In the 18th century, the Dzungars were annihilated by Qianlong Emperor in several campaigns. About 80% of the Dzungar population, or around 500,000 to 800,000 people, were killed during or after the Zunghar Genocide by Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols during the Manchu conquest in 1755-1757.
The Kalmyk Khanate was founded in the 17th century with Tibetan Buddhism as its main religion, following the earlier migration of the Oirats from Dzungaria through Central Asia to the steppe around the mouth of the Volga River. During the course of the 18th century, they were absorbed by the Russian Empire, which was then expanding to the south and east. The Russian Orthodox church pressured many Kalmyks to adopt Orthodoxy. In the winter of 1770-1771, about 300,000 Kalmyks set out to return to China. Their goal was to retake control of Dzungaria from the Qing dynasty of China. Along the way many were attacked and killed by Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, their historical enemies based on intertribal competition for land, and many more died of starvation and disease. After several months of travel, only one-third of the original group reached Dzungaria and had no choice but to surrender to the Qing upon arrival.
Persecutions by Islamic regimes
Qutaybah ibn Muslim, the Arab general of Khorasan conquered a number of territories in Central Asia including Samarkand where he broke a number of images. Several instances of Buddhist shrines being destroyed by the advancing Muslims are recorded though the religion continued to survive in some places for a considerable period of time. Bertolf Spuler cites the writings of Narshakhi while stating that the residents of Bukhara had reconverted from Islam to Buddhism four times until it was conquered by Qutayba in 712-13. A mosque was built in the city in place of a Buddhist monastery. Buddhists continued to live there until the tenth century. Similarly, Buddhism continued to exist in other places like Old Bukhara, Simingan in southern Tukharistan, Bamiyan and Kabul with suburbs inhabited by "Indians" which were also home to Buddhists. However, the religion could no longer develop as a power or distribute propaganda and its adherents also had to abandon the conversion of peoples in these regions. Scholars like Richard Nelson Frye have doubted the story of Marshaki, pointing out that unlike its statement, Qutayba ibn Muslim didn't live during the time of Umayyad Caliph Mu'awiya, as this story suggests, but rather much later. In addition to discrimination, emigration, and the conversion of the laity, Buddhism and its monasteries also declined with the Muslims taking over the trade along the Silk Road as well as in Sindh.
During their conquest of Sindh, the Arabs brought the non-Muslims into the category of ahl al-kitab, considering them ahl al-dhimmah (protected subjects) and thus practicing a certain amount of non-interference in their religious lives under the condition that they fulfil a number of obligations that came with this status. Since both Buddhism and Hinduism are literate religions with scriptures, the precedent of assimilating Zoroastrians into the category of ahl al-kitab was extended to them as well. The dhimmis were obligated to pay the jizya for following their ancestral religion. The historian Al-Baladhuri notes a decision by Muhammad bin Qasim in relation to a Buddhist vihara and Aror that after conquering the city through a treaty (sulh) he agreed not to kill the people and enter their temple, in addition to imposing kharaj on them. The Buddhists had petitioned the Arabs for the right to restore one of their temples and it was granted by Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. However, this decision was later violated by the Pact of Umar and subsequent Muslim law codes which prohibited the restoration of existing non-Muslim religious structures as well as the building of new ones. Despite this fact, Buddhist inscriptions were still being recorded in the eleventh century. Some Buddhists also fled and emigrated from Muslim-ruled areas into other regions. Unlike Brahmanical worship, Buddhism rapidly declined in Sindh after the eighth century and it virtually disappeared by the eleventh century.
The Arabs conquered Balkh which was a centre of Buddhism. Many people in Balkh were sympathetic to Buddhism after the conquest and they were harshly denounced by adherents of Islamic orthodoxy. The Buddhist monastery of Nava Vihara which had become a symbol of national resistance was damaged under Muawiyah I in 663. The Arabs allowed the non-Muslims to practice their religion as long as they paid the poll-tax called jizya. In addition to the destruction of Buddhist temples, part of the old city was also destroyed during the Arab conquest. Nava Vihara continued to remain open according to historical accounts. Along with it, many other viharas evidently continued to function in Central Asia for at least a century after the Arab conquests. Al-Biruni records the existence of the religion and its monasteries in the early eleventh century. The eighth-century Korean traveller Hui'Chao records Hinayanists in Balkh under Arab rule. The city was reduced to ruins by 705 as a result of frequent revolts.
It is visible from some copper-plate inscriptions that some Buddhists had moved to other domains. Al-Ma'mun (r. 813-833 A.D.) while visiting Khorasan, launched an attack on Kabul, whose ruler submitted to taxation. The king of Kabul was captured and he then converted to Islam. Per sources, when the Shah submitted to al-Ma'mun, he sent his crown and bejeweled throne, later seen by the Meccan historian al-Azraqi to the Caliph who praised Fadl for "curbing polytheists, breaking idols, killing the refractory" and refers to his successes against Kabul's king and ispahabad. Other near-contemporary sources however refer to the artifacts as a golden jewel-encrusted idol sitting on a silver throne by the Hindu Shahi ruler or by an unnamed ruler of "Tibet" as a sign of his conversion to Islam.
Various personages involved in the revival of Buddhism in India such as Anagarika Dharmapala and The Mahabodhi Movement of the 1890s as well as Dr. B. R. Ambedkar hold the Muslim Rule in India responsible for the decay of Buddhism in India.
In 1193, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Turkish commander, seized control of Delhi, leaving defenseless the northeastern territories that were the heart of Buddhist India. The Mahabodhi Temple was almost completely destroyed by the invading Muslim forces. One of Qutb-ud-Din's generals, Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, invaded Magadha and destroyed the Buddhist shrines at Nalanda. The Buddhism of Magadha underwent a significant decline under Khilji.
In 1200 Muhammad Khilji, one of Qutb-ud-Din's generals destroyed monasteries fortified by the Sena armies, such as the one at Vikramshila. Many monuments of ancient Indian civilization were destroyed by the invading armies, including Buddhist sanctuaries near Benares. Buddhist monks who escaped the massacre fled to Nepal, Tibet and South India.
Mughal rule also contributed to the decline of Buddhism. They are reported to have destroyed many Hindu temples and Buddhist shrines alike or converted many sacred Hindu places into Muslim shrines and mosques. Mughal rulers like Aurangzeb destroyed Buddhist temples and monasteries and replaced them with mosques.
The Saffarids had sent looted Buddhist and Hindu icons to the Abbasids as gifts. The Mongol ruler Ghazan called on Buddhists to convert to Islam or leave the Ilkhanate and ordered their temples to be destroyed, but he later adopted a slightly less severe position. Though he had earlier supported their persecution as well as the persecution of other non-Muslims, his religious policies changed after the death of Nowruz with punishments imposed on perpetrators of religious intolerance and attempts to restore relations with non-Muslims. Although the religion survived there, it never recovered from the assault by Ghazan.
The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Iranic Saka peoples who practiced the Buddhist religion. The area was subjected to Turkification and Islamification at the hands of invading Turkic Muslims.
Conquest of Buddhist Khotan
The Islamic attacks and conquest of the Buddhist cities east of Kashgar was started by the Turkic Karakhanid Satok Bughra Khan who in 966 converted to Islam and many tales emerged about the Karakhanid ruling family's war against the Buddhists, Satok Bughra Khan's nephew or grandson Ali Arslan was slain by the Buddhists during the war. Buddhism lost territory to Islam during the Karakhanid reign around the Kashgar area. A long war ensued between Islamic Kashgar and Buddhist Khotan which eventually ended in the conquest of Khotan by Kashgar.
Iranic Saka peoples originally inhabited Yarkand and Kashgar in ancient times. The Buddhist Iranic Saka Kingdom of Khotan was the only city-state that was not conquered yet by the Turkic Uyghur (Buddhist) and the Turkic Qarakhanid (Muslim) states and its ruling family used Indian names and the population were devout Buddhists. The Buddhist entitites of Dunhuang and Khotan had a tight-knit partnership, with intermarriage between Dunhuang and Khotan's rulers and Dunhuang's Mogao grottos and Buddhist temples being funded and sponsored by the Khotan royals, whose likenesses were drawn in the Mogao grottoes. The rulers of Khotan were aware of the menace they faced since they arranged for the Mogao grottoes to paint a growing number of divine figures along with themselves. Halfway in the 20th century Khotan came under attack by the Qarakhanid ruler Musa, and in what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Turkification and Islamification of the Tarim Basin, the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered Khotan around 1006.
The Taẕkirah is a genre of literature written about Sufi Muslim saints in Altishahr. Written sometime in the period from 1700-1849, the Eastern Turkic language (modern Uyghur) Taẕkirah of the Four Sacrificed Imams provides an account of the Muslim Karakhanid war against the Khotanese Buddhists, containing a story about Imams, from Mada'in city (possibly in modern-day Iraq) came 4 Imams who travelled to help the Islamic conquest of Khotan, Yarkand, and Kashgar by Yusuf Qadir Khan, the Qarakhanid leader. Accounts of the battles waged by the invading Muslims upon the indigenous Buddhists takes up most of the Taẕkirah with descriptions such as "blood flows like the Oxus", "heads litter the battlefield like stones" being used to describe the murderous battles over the years until the "infidels" were defeated and driven towards Khotan by Yusuf Qadir Khan and the four Imams, but the Imams were assassinated by the Buddhists prior to the last Muslim victory so Yusuf Qadir Khan assigned Khizr Baba, who was born in Khotan but whose mother originated from western Turkestan's Mawarannahr, to take care of the shrine of the 4 Imams at their tomb and after Yusuf Qadir Khan's conquest of new land in Altishahr towards the east, he adopted the title "King of the East and China". Due to the Imams deaths in battle and burial in Khotan, Altishahr, despite their foreign origins, they are viewed as local saints by the current Muslim population in the region.
Muslim works such as Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam contained anti-Buddhist rhetoric and polemic against Buddhist Khotan, aimed at "dehumanizing" the Khotanese Buddhists, and the Muslims Kara-Khanids conquered Khotan just 26 years following the completion of Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam.
Muslims gouged the eyes of Buddhist murals along Silk Road caves and Kashgari recorded in his Turkic dictionary an anti-Buddhist poem/folk song.
Satuq Bughra Khan and his son directed endeavors to proselytize Islam among the Turks and engage in military conquests. The Islamic conquest of Khotan led to alarm in the east and Dunhuang's Cave 17, which contained Khotanese literary works, was closed shut possibly after its caretakers heard that Khotan's Buddhist buildings were razed by the Muslims, and Khotan had suddenly ceased to be Buddhist.
In 1006, the Muslim Kara-Khanid ruler Yusuf Kadir (Qadir) Khan of Kashgar conquered Khotan, ending Khotan's existence as an independent state. The war was described as a Muslim Jihad (holy war) by the Japanese Professor Takao Moriyasu. The Karakhanid Turkic Muslim writer Mahmud al-Kashgari recorded a short Turkic language poem about the conquest:
kändlär üzä čïqtïmïz
furxan ävin yïqtïmïz
burxan üzä sïčtïmïz
Idols of "infidels" were subjected to desecration by being defecated upon by Muslims when the "infidel" country was conquered by the Muslims, according to Muslim tradition.
Islamic conquest of the Buddhist Uighurs
The Buddhist Uyghurs of the Kingdom of Qocho and Turfan were converted to Islam by conquest during a ghazat (holy war) at the hands of the Muslim Chagatai Khizr Khwaja.
After being converted to Islam, the descendants of the previously Buddhist Uyghurs in Turfan failed to retain memory of their ancestral legacy and falsely believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in their area.
Persecution by militaristic regimes
Buddhist monks were forced to return to the laity, Buddhist property was confiscated, Buddhist institutions were closed, and Buddhist schools were reorganized under state control in the name of modernizing Japan during the early Meiji period. The state-control of Buddhism was part of Imperial Japanese policy both at home and abroad in Korea and other conquered territories.
Persecution in Myanmar
The Government of Myanmar has attempted to control Buddhist institutions through coercive means, including the intimidation, torture, and murder of monks. After monks played an active role in the protest movements against the military dictatorship in 2007, the state cracked down on Buddhist monks and monasteries.
Persecution by nationalist political parties
Persecution in the Republic of China under the Kuomintang
During the Northern Expedition, in 1926 in Guangxi, Kuomintang Muslim General Bai Chongxi led his troops in destroying Buddhist temples and smashing idols, turning the temples into schools and Kuomintang party headquarters. It was reported that almost all Buddhist monasteries in Guangxi were destroyed by Bai in this manner. The monks were removed. Bai led a wave of anti foreignism in Guangxi, attacking Americans, Europeans, and other foreigners and missionaries, and generally making the province unsafe for foreigners. Westerners fled from the province, and some Chinese Christians were also attacked as imperialist agents. The three goals of his movement were anti-foreignism, anti-imperialism, and anti-religion. Bai led the anti-religious movement, against superstition. Muslims do not believe in superstition (see Shirk (Islam)) and his religion may have influenced Bai to take action against the Idols in the temples and the superstitious practices rampant in China. Huang Shaoxiong, also a Kuomintang member of the New Guangxi Clique, supported Bai's campaign, and Huang was not a Muslim, the anti religious campaign was agreed upon by all Guangxi Kuomintang members.
During the Kuomintang Pacification of Qinghai the Muslim General Ma Bufang destroyed Tibetan Buddhist monasteries with support from the Kuomintang government. Ma served as a general in the National Revolutionary Army, and sought to expand the Republic of China's control over all of Qinghai, as well as the possibility of bringing Tibet back into the Republic by force. When Ma Bufang launched seven expeditions into Golog, killing thousands of Tibetans, the Republic of China government, known as the Kuomintang, supported Ma Bufang. Ma was highly anti-communist, and he and his army wiped out many Tibetans in the northeast and eastern Qinghai, and destroyed Tibetan Buddhist temples.
Persecution by Muslims
The Muslim Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb, tried to use heavy artillery to destroy the statues. Another attempt to destroy the Bamiyan statues was made by the 18th century Persian king Nader Afshar, who directed cannon fire at them.
The enormous statues, the male Salsal ("light shines through the universe") and the (smaller) female Shamama ("Queen Mother"), as they were called by the locals, did not fail to fire the imagination of Islamic writers in centuries past. The larger statue reappears as the malevolent giant Salsal in medieval Turkish tales.
The Bamiyan Buddhas were destroyed by the fundamentalist Islamist Taliban regime in 2001 in defiance of worldwide condemnation. The statues were blown up and fired upon by rockets and gunfire.
Excavators at the Buddhist site of Mes Aynak have been denounced as "promoting Buddhism" and threatened by the Taliban and many of the Afghan excavators who are working for purely financial reasons don't feel any connection to the Buddhist artifacts.
Swat Valley in Pakistan has many Buddhist carvings, stupas and Jehanabad contains a Seated Buddha statue. Kushan era Buddhist stupas and statues in Swat valley were demolished by the Taliban and after two attempts by the Taliban, the Jehanabad Buddha's face was dynamited. Only the Bamiyan Buddhas were larger than the carved giant Buddha status in Swat near Mangalore which the Taliban attacked. The government did nothing to safeguard the statue after the initial attempt at destroying the Buddha, which did not cause permanent harm, and when the second attack took place on the statue the feet, shoulders, and face were demolished. Islamists such as the Taliban and looters destroyed much of Pakistan's Buddhist artifacts left over from the Buddhist Gandhara civilization especially in Swat Valley. The Taliban deliberately targeted Gandhara Buddhist relics for destruction. The Christian Archbishop of Lahore Lawrence John Saldanha wrote a letter to Pakistan's government denouncing the Taliban activities in Swat Valley including their destruction of Buddha statues and their attacks on Christians, Sikhs, and Hindus. Gandhara Buddhist artifacts were illegally looted by smugglers. A rehabilitation attempt on the Buddha was made by Luca Olivieri from Italy. A group of Italians helped repair the Buddha.
In Bangladesh, the persecution of the indigenous tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts such as the Chakma, Marma, Tripura and others who are mainly Buddhists, Hindus, Christians, and Animists, has been described as genocidal. The Chittagong Hill Tracts are located bordering India, Myanmar and the Bay of Bengal, and is the home to 500,000 indigenous people. The perpetrators of are the Bangladeshi military and the Bengali Muslim settlers, who together have burned down Buddhist and Hindu temples, killed many Chakmas, and carried out a policy of gang-rape against the indigenous people. There are also accusations of Chakmas being forced to convert to Islam, many of them children who have been abducted for this purpose. The conflict started soon after Bangladeshi independence in 1972 when the Constitution imposed Bengali as the sole official language, Islam as the state religion - with no cultural or linguistic rights to minority populations. Subsequently, the government encouraged and sponsored massive settlement by Bangladeshis in region, which changed the demographics from 98 percent indigenous in 1971 to fifty percent by 2000. The government allocated a full third of the Bangladeshi military to the region to support the settlers, sparking a protracted guerilla war between Hill tribes and the military. During this conflict which officially ended in 1997, and in the subsequent period, a large number of human rights violations against the indigenous peoples have been reported, with violence against indigenous women being particularly extreme.
During the 2012 Ramu violence a 25,000-strong mob set fire to at least five temples and dozens of homes throughout the town and surrounding villages after seeing the picture, which they claimed was posted by Uttam Barua, a local Buddhist man, AFP reported.
Bengali settlers and soldiers have raped native Jumma (Chakma) women "with impunity" with the Bangladeshi security forces doing little to protect the Jummas and instead assisting the rapists and settlers. The settlers are Muslims. The Karuna Bihar Buddhist temple was attacked by Bengali settlers.
The Ladakh Buddhist Association has said: "There is a deliberate and organised design to convert Kargil's Buddhists to Islam. In the last four years, about 50 girls and married women with children were taken and converted from village Wakha alone. If this continues unchecked, we fear that Buddhists will be wiped out from Kargil in the next two decades or so. Anyone objecting to such allurement and conversions is harassed."
The destruction of the Buddhist artifacts by Islamists took place on the day in which Mohamed Nasheed was toppled as President in a coup.
Most of Maldive's Buddhist physical history was obliterated.
7 February 2012 was the date of the anti-Buddhist attack by the Islamists.
The violence and long lasting tension was reignited on 28 May 2012. It was reported that daughter of U Hla Tin, of Thabyechaung Village named Ma Thida Htwe aged 27 was raped then killed by three Muslim men. These men were later arrested.
Tensions between Buddhist and Muslim ethnic groups flared into violent clashes in Meiktila, Mandalay Division in 2013. The violence started on 20 March after a Muslim gold shop owner, his wife, and two Muslim employees assaulted a Buddhist customer and her husband in an argument over a golden hairpin. A large Buddhist mob formed and began to destroy the shop. The heavily outnumbered police reportedly told the mob to disperse after they had destroyed the shop.
On the same day, a local Buddhist monk passing on the back of a motorbike was attacked by four Muslims. According to witnesses, the driver was attacked with a sword, causing him to crash, while the monk was also hit in the head with the sword. Per a witness, one of the men doused the monk woth fuel and burnt him alive. The monk died in the hospital. The killing of the monk caused the relatively contained situation to explode, greatly increasing intensity and violence.
Primarily Buddhist Thailand has been involved in a fight with Muslim insurgents in the South. Buddhists have been beheaded and clergy and teachers are frequently threatened with death. Shootings of Buddhists are quite frequent in the South, as are bombings, and attacks on religious establishments.
Buddhist murals at the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves were damaged by local Muslim population whose religion proscribed figurative images of sentient beings, the eyes and mouths in particular were often gouged out. Pieces of murals were also broken off for use as fertilizer by the locals.
Uyghur Muslim opposition to a Buddhist Aspara statue in Ürümqi in Xinjiang was cited as a possible reason for its destruction in 2012. A Muslim Kazakh viewed a giant Buddha statue near Ürümqi as "alien cultural symbols".
Persecution by Tamils
During the Sri Lankan Civil War, Buddhists were the victims of many terrorist attacks perpetrated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, which was made up of mostly Hindus but consisted of Christians too. During this period, the pinnacle of Buddhists; the Temple of the Tooth, where the sacred tooth relic of the Lord Buddha is kept and worshiped was attacked by the LTTE. 17 including a 2-year old infant were killed in the incident.In the Anuradhapura massacre, LTTE cadres drove to the Sri Maha Bodhi shrine and gunned down nuns, monks and civilians as they were worshipping inside the Buddhist shrine. 146 Sinhalese men, women and children were killed in Anuradhapura. The Aranthalawa Massacre was the killing of 33 Buddhist monks and four civilians by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. The sacred Bo tree that relates to the Acetic tree, under which the Buddha attained Buddhahood was also attacked by the said terrorist group, killing around three hundred pilgrims.
Persecution by Christians
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland has been accused of demanding money and food from Buddhists living along the Assam-Arunachal border. It has also been accused by Buddhists of forcing locals to convert to Christianity. The NSCN is also suspected of burning down the Rangphra temple in Arunachal Pradesh.
The National Liberation Front of Tripura has shut down and attacked Hindu and Buddhist orphanages, hospitals, temples and schools in Tripura. They have also been accused of force converting Buddhists to Christianity.
A mass scale ethnic riot was initiated by the Baptist Church in Tripura in 1980 by which both Hindu and Buddhist tribes faced systematic ethnic cleansing. Thousands of women kidnapped and then raped and even forced to convert to Christianity. Reports state that the terrorists received aid from international Christian groups. The Christian tribals also received aid from the NLFT. This was the state's worst ethnic riot.
Some South Korean Buddhists have denounced what they view as discriminatory measures against them and their religion by the administration of President Lee Myung-bak, which they attribute to Lee being part of the Somang Presbyterian Church in Seoul.
The Buddhist Jogye Order has accused the Lee government of discriminating against Buddhism and favoring Christianity by ignoring certain Buddhist temples but including Christian churches in certain public documents. In 2006, according to the Asia Times, "Lee also sent a video prayer message to a Christian rally held in the southern city of Busan in which the worship leader prayed feverishly: 'Lord, let the Buddhist temples in this country crumble down!'" Further, according to an article in Buddhist-Christian Studies: "Over the course of the last decade [1990s] a fairly large number of Buddhist temples in South Korea have been destroyed or damaged by fire by misguided Christian fundamentalists. More recently, Buddhist statues have been identified as idols, and attacked and decapitated in the name of Jesus. Arrests are hard to effect, as the arsonists and vandals work by stealth of night." A 2008 incident in which police investigated protesters who had been given sanctuary in the Jogye temple in Seoul and searched a car driven by Jigwan, executive chief of the Jogye order, led to protests by Buddhists who claimed that police had treated Jigwan as a criminal.
In March 2009, in an effort to reach out to Buddhists affected by recent events, the President and First Lady participated in a Korean Buddhist conference where he and his wife were seen joining palms in prayer during chanting along with participants. The discomfort among the Buddhists has gradually decreased since then.
Under British rule, Christians were openly favoured for jobs and promotions. Robert Inglis, a 19th-century British Conservative, likened Buddhism to "idolatry" during a parliamentary debate over the relationship of "Buddhist priests" to the British colonial government, in 1852. During the Sri Lankan Civil War, Buddhists were the victims of many terrorist attacks perpetrated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, which was made up of mostly Hindus but consisted of Christians too. During this period, the pinnacle of Buddhists; the Temple of the Tooth, where the sacred tooth relic of the Lord Buddha is kept and worshiped was attacked by the LTTE. The sacred Bo tree that relates to the Acetic tree, under which the Buddha attained Buddhahood was also attacked by the said terrorist group, killing around three hundred pilgrims.
As early as 1953 rumoured allegations had surfaced of discrimination against Buddhists in Vietnam. These allegations stated that Catholic Vietnamese armed by the French had been raiding villages. By 1961, the shelling of pagodas in Vietnam was being reported in the Australian and American media.
After the Catholic Ngô Đình Diệm came to power in South Vietnam, backed by the United States, he favoured his relatives and co-religionists over Buddhists. Though Buddhists made up 80% of Vietnam's population, Catholics were given high positions in the army and civil service. Half of the 123 National Assembly members were Catholic. Buddhists also required special government permits to hold large meetings, a stipulation generally made for meetings of trade unions. In May 1963, the government forbade the flying of Buddhist flags on Vesak. After Buddhist protesters clashed with government troops, nine people were killed. In protest, the Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức burned himself to death in Saigon. On August 21, the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids led to a death toll estimated in the hundreds.
Persecution in Nepal
The banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal was part of a government campaign to suppress the resurgence of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal in the early decades of the 20th century. There were two deportations of monks from Kathmandu, in 1926 and 1944.
The exiled monks were the first group of monks to be seen in Nepal since the 14th century. They were at the forefront of a movement to revive Theravada Buddhism which had disappeared from the country more than five hundred years ago. The Rana regime disapproved of Buddhism and Nepal Bhasa, the mother tongue of the Newar people. It saw the activities of the monks and their growing following as a threat. When police harassment and imprisonment failed to deter the monks, all of whom were Newars, they were deported.
Persecution under Communism
Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge
The Khmer Rouge, which was basically Maoist, actively imposed an atheistic agrarian revolution, resulting in the persecution of ethnic minorities and Buddhist monks during their reign from 1975 to 1979. Buddhist institutions and temples were destroyed and Buddhist monks and teachers were killed in large numbers. A third of the nation's monasteries were destroyed along with numerous holy texts and items of high artistic quality. 25,000 Buddhist monks were massacred by the regime. Pol Pot believed that Buddhism was a decadent affectation, and he sought to eliminate its 1,500-year-old mark on Cambodia, while still maintaining the structures of the traditional Buddhist base.
Since the communist revolution, Buddhism was severely restricted and brought under state-control at times. In addition, "Marxist-Leninist atheism has been widely publicized, resulting in steadily decreasing religious communities", especially in areas with developed economies. In 1989, less than 12% of the population held religious beliefs. During the Cultural Revolution, Buddhists were actively persecuted and sent for re-education, and temples, statues, and sutras were vandalized and destroyed. In recent years, Buddhism has been undergoing a revival but most Buddhist institutions are within the confines of the state.
Although many temples and monasteries have been rebuilt after the cultural revolution, Tibetan Buddhists have largely been confined by the Government of the People's Republic of China. Buddhist monks and nuns have been reported tortured and killed by the Chinese military, according to all human rights groups. There were over 6,000 monasteries in Tibet, and nearly all of them were ransacked and destroyed by the Chinese communists, mainly during the Cultural Revolution. Analysis of a bulk of documents has shown that many Tibetan Buddhist monasteries were destroyed by the Chinese communists before the cultural revolution.[not in citation given] Moreover, the "Chinese Communist Party has launched a three-year drive to promote atheism in the Buddhist region of Tibet", with Xiao Huaiyuan, a leader in the Chinese Communist Party Propaganda Department in Tibet, stating that it would "help peasants and herdsmen free themselves from the negative influence of religion. Intensifying propaganda on atheism is especially important for Tibet because atheism plays an extremely important role in promoting economic construction, social advancement and socialist spiritual civilization in the region." He further said it would push "people of all ethnic groups in the region to raise their ideological and ethical quality, to learn a civilized and healthy life style and to strive to build a united, prosperous and civilized new Tibet."
Buddhist monks were persecuted in Mongolia during communist rule up until democratization in 1990. Khorloogiin Choibalsan declared 17,000 of the monks to be enemies of the state and deported them to Siberian labor camps, where many perished. Almost all of Mongolia's over 700 Buddhist monasteries were looted or destroyed.
During the 1960s and 1970s, "North Korea effectively exterminated all signs of Buddhism" in the region.
Pre and Post-Soviet Union
Being a non-theistic religion, Buddhism initially enjoyed a compatible relationship with the State under the Soviet regime. Under the communists, Buddhism reached its peak in development; a "Congress of Soviet Buddhists" was formed under the leadership of Agvan Dordzhiev, and many Buddhists were also members of the League of the Militant Godless. However, after Stalin assumed power, the suppression of religious influences in society, including Buddhism, was increased. During Stalin's purges, thousands of Buddhist lamas and priests were sent to the gulags or executed. However, Soviet authorities grew more conciliatory toward Buddhists, allowing priests and monks to travel to study and establish contacts with Buddhist faithful. By 1998, long after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, adherents were attacked by interior ministry special troops who forcefully dispersed Buddhist monks who were involving themselves in regional politics. The Buddhists were trying to prevent unique Tibetan drawings from being sent on a year-long tour through American cities.
Despite the communist regime's hostility, Buddhism is still widely practiced in Vietnam. According to Human Rights News, "Vietnam continues to systematically imprison and persecute independent Buddhists as well as followers of other religions." The leaders of the Unified Buddhist Congregation of Vietnam, Thích Huyền Quang and Thích Quảng Độ were imprisoned for decades. Thich Nhat Hanh has spoken out about the wiping out of his spiritual tradition in Vietnam.
- Yarshater, Esham, ed. (1983). The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods. The Cambridge History of Iran. Volume 3(2). Cambridge University Press. pp. 860–861. ISBN 0-521-24693-8.
- Alexander Berzin, History of Buddhism in Afghanistan, November 2001, Online Article from Study Buddhism. Last accessed 20 June 2016
- Encyclopedia of Buddhism: "Persecutions", P. 640.
- Lahiri, Bela (1974). Indigenous states of northern India, circa 200 B.C. to 320 A.D. University of Calcutta. pp. 34–35.
- Lamotte, E., Dantinne, J., & Webb-Boin, S. (1988). History of Indian Buddhism: From the origins to the Śaka era. Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut Orientaliste.
- Simmons, Caleb; Sarao, K. T. S. (2010). Danver, Steven L., ed. Popular Controversies in World History. ABC-CLIO. p. 98. ISBN 9781598840780.
- Jha, DN (1 June 2018). "Monumental Absence The destruction of ancient Buddhist sites". Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Smith, Vincent A. (1908). The Early History of India. Oxford University. p. 180. OCLC 235958116. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Jha, DN (1 June 2018). "Monumental Absence The destruction of ancient Buddhist sites". Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Harper, Francesca (2015-05-12). "The 1,000-year-old manuscript and the stories it tells". www.lib.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
- Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (2004). The Historical Buddha: The Times, Life, and Teachings of the Founder of Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 70. ISBN 9788120818170.
- Michael Edmund Clarke, In the Eye of Power (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37 Archived 2011-02-12 at WebCite
- Asian Art. "The Kalmyk People: A Celebration of History and Culture". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Republic of Kalmykia in Transition: Natural Resource Management After Disintegration of the Soviet Union". lead.org. London: Lead International. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Phillip K. Hitti (2002). History of The Arabs. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 213.
- Brill Publishers (2014). Iran in the Early Islamic Period: Politics, Culture, Administration and Public Life between the Arab and the Seljuk Conquests, 633-1055. Bertold Spuler. p. 207.
- The History of Bukhara by Narshaki (Tras. Richard Nelson Fyre), Commentary, Pg 137
- Lars Fogelin. An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism. Oxford University Press. p. 230.
- Alka Patel (2004). Building Communities in Gujarāt: Architecture and Society During the Twelfth Through Fourteenth Centuries. Brill Publishers. pp. 38–39.
- Johan Elverskog (2011). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 48, 50, 52–54.
- Derryl L. MacLean (1989). Early History Of Buddhism. Brill Publishers.
- S. Frederick Starr (2013). Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia's Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. p. 98.
- Lokesh Chandra (2007). Buddhism: Art and Values : a Collection of Research Papers and Keynote Addresses on the Evolution of Buddhist Art and Thought Across the Lands of Asia. International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan. p. 269.
- Hamid Wahed Alikuza (2013). A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes, Volume 14. Trafford Publishing. pp. 118, 120.
- Touraj Daryaee (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxfors University Press. p. 278.
- Akasoy, Anna; Burnett, Charles S. F.; Yoeli-Tlalim, Ronit (2011). Islam and Tibet: Interactions Along the Musk Routes. Ashgate Publishing. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-7546-6956-2.
- Yarshater, Esham, ed. (1983). The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods. The Cambridge History of Iran. Volume 3(2). Cambridge University Press. p. 958. ISBN 0-521-24693-8.
- The Places Where Men Pray Together: Cities in Islamic Lands, Seventh Through the Tenth Centuries. University of Chicago Press. 2001. p. 308.
- RC Majumdar (ed), History of Bengal, Dacca, 1943
- Ahmad Hasan Dani, B.A. Litvinsky. History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 470.
- Finbarr B. Flood. Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval "Hindu-Muslim" Encounter. Princeton University Press. p. 30.
- "A Close View of Encounter between British Burma and British Bengal" (PDF). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 205)
- The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 58)
- The Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi: And Other Essays, Philosophical and Sociological by Ardeshir Ruttonji Wadia (page 483)
- B.R. Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, vol.3, p.229-230.
- The Maha-Bodhi by Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 8)
- "The Turkish conquest". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Islam at War: A History by Mark W. Walton, George F. Nafziger, Laurent W. Mbanda (page 226)
- Sir Aurel Stein: Archaeological Explorer by Jeannette Mirsky
- Ethnicity & Family Therapy edited by Nydia Garcia-Preto, Joe Giordano, Monica McGoldrick
- War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Tibet by Eric S. Margolis page 165
- Buddhism and Dalits: Social Philosophy and Traditions, by C. D. Naik, 2010, Page 35
- Mimi Hanaoka. Authority and Identity in Medieval Islamic Historiography: Persian Histories from the Peripheries. Cambridge University Press. p. 31.
- David Morgan (2016) [First published 1987]. Medieval Persia 1040-1797 (Second ed.). Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 1-317-41567-1.
- Timothy May (7 November 2016). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 141.
- Johan Elverskog. Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. Harvard University Press. p. 141.
- Timothy May. The Mongol Conquests in World History. Reaktion Books. p. 188.
- Towards Rewriting?: New Approaches to Byzantine Archaeology and Art : Proceedings of the Symposium on Byzantine Art and Archaeology, Cracow, September 8 - 10, 2008. Prus24.pl. p. 188.
- Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1994). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 457–. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.
- George Michell; John Gollings; Marika Vicziany; Yen Hu Tsui (2008). Kashgar: Oasis City on China's Old Silk Road. Frances Lincoln. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-0-7112-2913-6.
- James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
- Thum, Rian (August 2012). "Modular History: Identity Maintenance before Uyghur Nationalism". The Journal of Asian Studies. The Association for Asian Studies. 71 (3): 632. doi:10.1017/S0021911812000629. JSTOR 23263580. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Thum, Rian (August 2012). "Modular History: Identity Maintenance before Uyghur Nationalism". The Journal of Asian Studies. The Association for Asian Studies. 71 (3): 633. doi:10.1017/S0021911812000629. JSTOR 23263580. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Thum, Rian (August 2012). "Modular History: Identity Maintenance before Uyghur Nationalism". The Journal of Asian Studies. The Association for Asian Studies. 71 (3): 634. doi:10.1017/S0021911812000629. JSTOR 23263580. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Johan Elverskog (6 June 2011). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 94. ISBN 0-8122-0531-6.
- Anna Akasoy; Charles S. F. Burnett; Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim (2011). Islam and Tibet: Interactions Along the Musk Routes. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 295–. ISBN 978-0-7546-6956-2.
- Valerie Hansen (17 July 2012). The Silk Road: A New History. Oxford University Press. pp. 226–. ISBN 978-0-19-993921-3.
- Valerie Hansen (17 July 2012). The Silk Road: A New History. Oxford University Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-0-19-993921-3.
- 第三十五屆世界阿爾泰學會會議記錄. 國史文獻館. 1993. p. 206. ISBN 978-957-8528-09-3.
- Dankoff, Robert (2008). From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi. Isis Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-975-428-366-2.
- Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute (1980). Harvard Ukrainian studies. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. p. 160.
- Takao Moriyasu (2004). Die Geschichte des uigurischen Manichäismus an der Seidenstrasse: Forschungen zu manichäischen Quellen und ihrem geschichtlichen Hintergrund. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-3-447-05068-5.
- James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
- "哈密回王简史－回王家族的初始". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Bernard Lewis; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1998). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 677.
- "The Encyclopaedia of Islam - Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Bernard Lewis, Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht". Books.google.com. 2009-12-08. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "The Encyclopaedia of Islam - Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Bernard Lewis, Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht". Books.google.com. 2009-12-08. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "The Encyclopaedia of Islam - Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Bernard Lewis, Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht". Books.google.com. 2009-12-08. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- James Edward Ketelaar, Of Heretics and Martyrs in Meiji Japan; ISBN 0-691-02481-2
- Brian Victoria, Zen War Stories, ISBN 0-7007-1581-9
- Isla, Natasha, ed. (November 2004). "Burma: A Land Where Buddhist Monks Are Disrobed and Detained in Dungeons" (PDF). aappb.org. Mae Sot: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2015. Translated by Ko Kyaw Ye Aung
- Chopra, Anuj (20 September 2007). "Burma's Buddhist monks take to the streets". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Diana Lary (1974). Region and nation: the Kwangsi clique in Chinese politics, 1925-1937. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-521-20204-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Don Alvin Pittman (2001). Toward a modern Chinese Buddhism: Taixu's reforms. University of Hawaii Press. p. 146. ISBN 0-8248-2231-5. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Diana Lary (1974). Region and nation: the Kwangsi clique in Chinese politics, 1925-1937. Cambridge University Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-521-20204-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 54. ISBN 0-7425-1144-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- David S. G. Goodman (2004). China's campaign to "Open up the West": national, provincial, and local perspectives. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-521-61349-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Asian Art, chap. "History of attacks on the Buddhas"
- "booklet web E.indd" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Laban Kaptein, Eindtijd en Antichrist, p. 127. Leiden 1997. ISBN 90-73782-89-9
- "Ancient Buddhas Will Not Be Rebuilt – UNESCO". Ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Photogrammetric reconstruction of the Great Buddha of Bamiyan, Afghanistan" (PDF). Idb.arch.ethz.ch. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-08-24. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- Bloch, Hannah (September 2015). "Mega Copper Deal in Afghanistan Fuels Rush to Save Ancient Treasures". National Geographic.
- Jeffrey Hays. "Early History Of Buddhism". Facts and Details. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- Malala Yousafzai (8 October 2013). I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban. Little, Brown. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-0-316-32241-6.
- Wijewardena, W.A. (17 February 2014). "'I am Malala': But then, we all are Malalas, aren't we?". Daily FT.
- Wijewardena, W.A (17 February 2014). "'I am Malala': But Then, We All Are Malalas, Aren't We?". Colombo Telegraph.
- "Attack on giant Pakistan Buddha". BBC NEWS. 12 September 2007.
- "Another attack on the giant Buddha of Swat". AsiaNews.it. 10 November 2007.
- "Taliban and traffickers destroying Pakistan's Buddhist heritage". AsiaNews.it. 22 October 2012.
- "Taliban trying to destroy Buddhist art from the Gandhara period". AsiaNews.it. 27 November 2009.
- Felix, Qaiser (21 April 2009). "Archbishop of Lahore: Sharia in the Swat Valley is contrary to Pakistan's founding principles". AsiaNews.it.
- Rizvi, Jaffer (6 July 2012). "Pakistan police foil huge artefact smuggling attempt". BBC News.
- "Buddha attacked by Taliban gets facelift in Pakistan". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan. Associated Press. 25 June 2012.
- Khaliq, Fazal (7 November 2016). "Iconic Buddha in Swat valley restored after nine years when Taliban defaced it". DAWN.
- Gray 1994.
- O'Brien 2004.
- Mey 1984.
- Moshin 2003.
- Roy 2000.
- Chakma & Hill 2013.
- "Chittagong Hill Tracts: Sabita Chakma's Murder Condemned By CHT Commission". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. 19 February 2014.
- "25,000 Muslim rioters torch Buddhist temples, homes in Bangladesh (PHOTOS)". RT English. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- McEvoy, Mark (3 April 2014). "Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh – rapists act with impunity". Survival International - The movement for tribal peoples.
- "Chittagong Hill Tracts: Chakmas complain of Bangla Muslim settlements". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. 19 July 2005.
- "Chittagong Hill Tracts: Town of Chakma Villagers Attacked and Houses Burned Down". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. 18 December 2014.
- Tundup Tsering and Tsewang Nurboo, in: Ladakh visited, Pioneer, 4/12/1995.
- "Conversions: LBA blames govt". The Tribune. Chandigarh, India. 13 January 2000. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013.
- Wright, Tom (11 February 2012). "Islamism Set Stage for Maldives Coup". The Wall Street Journal. (Subscription required (help)).
- Bajaj, Vikas (13 February 2012). "Vandalism at Maldives Museum Stirs Fears of Extremism". The New York Times.
- "Maldives mob smashes Buddhist statues in national museum". Al Arabiya. Agence France-Presse. 8 February 2012.
- "Self-denial of heritage in Maldives sends message to Establishments". TamilNet. 16 February 2012.
- Lubna, Hawwa (9 February 2012). "Mob storms National Museum, destroys Buddhist statues: "A significant part of our heritage is lost now"". Minivan News. Archived from the original on 2012-02-11.
- Interviewer Zoe Hatten, Ismail Ashraf (1 April 2013). Attack on the Maldives National Museum (After the Island President). M Stewart.
- "Trouble in paradise: Maldives and Islamic extremism". Al Arabiya. Agence France-Presse. 12 February 2012.
- "35 Invaluable Hindu and Buddhist Statues Destroyed in Maldives by Extremist Islamic Group". The Chakra News. Maldives. 23 February 2012.
- "Vandalised Maldives museum to seek India`s help". Zee News. 15 February 2012.
- Francis, Krishan (14 February 2012). "Maldives museum reopens minus smashed Hindu images". Boston Globe. Associated Press.
- "Islamists destroy some 30 Buddhist statues". AsiaNews. 15 February 2012.
- Farhan Patel. "Azaad Dreamer Articles". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Rape-Murder of a Buddhist girl by Muslims led to riots: Myanmar Ambassador". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "The Dark Side of Transition: Violence Against Muslims in Myanmar" (PDF). The International Crisis Group. 1 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Jason Szep (8 April 2013). "Special Report: Buddhist monks incite Muslim killings in Myanmar". Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- "Insurgents Behead Buddhist in Thailand". Fox News. 14 January 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- Mydans, Seth (4 July 2005). "In Muslim Thailand, teachers face rising threat". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "Asia Times Online :: Southeast Asia news – South Thailand: 'They're getting fiercer'". Atimes.com. 2006-12-07. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- Boonthanom, Surapan (2007-03-19). "Three Buddhist women dead in south Thailand attack". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Four soldiers killed in roadside attacks in Thailand's insurgency-plagued south". The Guardian. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Thepgumpanat, Panarat; Petty, Martin; Williams, Alison (17 September 2015). "Motorcycle blast kills two in southern Thailand bomb attacks". Reuters. Bangkok. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "Three Buddhist Temples Attacked With Explosives (Thailand)". Reuters. Pluralism Project. 2004-05-16. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Old Sterile Death Leaves its Mark Over Sinkiang". LIFE. Vol. 15 no. 24. Time Inc. 13 December 1943. p. 99. ISSN 0024-3019.
- Whitfield, Susan (2010). "A place of safekeeping? The vicissitudes of the Bezeklik murals". In Agnew, Neville. Conservation of ancient sites on the Silk Road: proceedings of the second International Conference on the Conservation of Grotto Sites, Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, People's Republic of China (PDF). Getty Publications. pp. 95–106. ISBN 978-1-60606-013-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-30.
- Dasgupta, Saibal (22 August 2012). "Mystery grips Urumqi as Apsara statue demolished". The Times of India.
- Dasgupta, Saibal (22 August 2012). "'Flying Apsara' statue razed in China". The Times Of India. Kolkata. p. 14.
- Wind, Beige (4 August 2014). "Dispatches From Xinjiang: The Rise Of Buddhism In The Far West". Beijing Cream.
- "Sydney acid attack link to Tamils". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2009-05-17. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
- "India | Sri Lankan Buddhist Monk under attack in Tamil Nadu". www.buddhistchannel.tv. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
- Srinivasan, G.; Rajaram, R. (17 March 2013). "Sri Lankan monk assaulted". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
- "11 Killed in Truck Bombing At Sri Lanka Buddhist Site". The New York Times. 26 January 1998.
- Daya Gamage (1 March 2013). "(The West) Eyes Wide Closed: Revisiting Tamil Tiger massacres in Sri Lanka". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Ratnayake, M. G. (2011). That Blue Thing. Xlibris Corporation. p. 151. ISBN 9781453554135.[self-published source]
- "Missionaries Arrested in Northeast India". Worthy Christian News. 2003-08-15. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
- "National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) - Christian Aggression". Christian Aggression. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
- "Incidents involving National Liberation Front of Tripura, India, South Asia Terrorism Porta". www.satp.org. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- Puniyani, Ram (2006). The Politics Behind Anti Christian Violence: A Compilation of Investigation Committee Reports Into Acts of Violence Against the Christian Minorities. Media House. ISBN 9788174952370.
- "Christian Conversions and Terrorism in North-East India - Christian Aggression". Christian Aggression. 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- "BBC News | SOUTH ASIA | 'Church backing Tripura rebels'". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- Michael Khodarkovsky (2004). Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800. Indiana University Press. pp. 144–. ISBN 0-253-21770-9.
- Daniel Kalder (29 August 2006). Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-Tourist. Simon and Schuster. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-0-7432-9350-1.
- Wade Davis; K. David Harrison; Catherine Herbert Howell (2007). Book of Peoples of the World: A Guide to Cultures. National Geographic. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-1-4262-0238-4.
- Michael Khodarkovsky (1 October 2006). Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian State and the Kalmyk Nomads, 1600-1771. Cornell University Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 0-8014-7340-3.
- Kim Rahn (30 July 2008). "President Embarrassed Over Angry Buddhists". Korea Times. Archived from the original on 2008-09-14. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Asia Times Online :: Korea News and Korean Business and Economy, Pyongyang News". Atimes.com. 1 February 2008. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "News & Issues - Korean President reaches out to Buddhist leaders". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "대구·경북 범불교도대회 '정부규탄' 대신 '호법결의'로 – 1등 인터넷뉴스 조선닷컴". News.chosun.com. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
- "Daum 미디어다음 – 뉴스" (in Korean). Media.daum.net. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
- "BuddhaNet.Net: Sacred Island - A Buddhist Pilgrim's Guide to Sri Lanka: Kelaniya". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Hansard, 3rd Series, cxxiii, 713–714.
- Errors Escalated Too NY Times Books - 16 May 1965.
- "The Religious Crisis". Time. 14 June 1963. p. 37.
- "Ngo Dinh Diem: South Vietnamese president". cnn.com. CNN. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Dietrich, Angela (1996). "Buddhist Monks and Rana Rulers: A History of Persecution". Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- "Theravada Buddhism in Modern Nepal". Lumbini Nepalese Buddha Dharma Society (UK). Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna (7 April 2012). "The monks in yellow robes". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- Hilker, DS Kansakar (2005). "Expulsion of Buddhist monks from Nepal". Syamukapu: The Lhasa Newars of Kalimpong and Kathmandu. Kathmandu: Vajra Publications. p. 58. ISBN 99946-644-6-8.
- LeVine, Sarah and Gellner, David N. (2005). Rebuilding Buddhism: The Theravada Movement in Twentieth-Century Nepal. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01908-3, ISBN 978-0-674-01908-9. Page 48.
- "Theravada Buddhism in Modern Nepal". Lumbini Nepalese Buddha Dharma Society (UK). Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Chronology, 1994-2004 - Cambodian Genocide Program - Yale University". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Philip Shenon, Phnom Penh Journal; Lord Buddha Returns, With Artists His Soldiers New York Times - 2 January 1992
- "Nie: Remembering the deaths of 1.7-million Cambodians". Sptimes.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- Wessinger, Catherine (2000). Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases. Syracuse University Press. pp. 282–283. ISBN 9780815628095.
Khmer Buddhist influences still persisted and they are also recognizable in the Khmer Rouge's worldview, particularly in their notions of time, authority, and normative ethics ... Though the Khmer Rouge was officially nonreligious, its worldview, especially its notions of time, authority and its normative ethics can be understood as having structural parallels with the Buddhist worldview.
- Population Aging in China. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific. 1989. p. 48. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, Marxist-Leninist atheism has been widely publicized, resulting in steadily decreasing religious communities, especially in predominantly Han and the coastal areas with a developed economy.
- Human rights abuses up as Olympics approach Asia News - 7 August 2007
- Area Tibetans mourn their nation's lost independence Star Tribune - 10 March 2001
- Tibetan monks: A controlled life. BBC News. 20 March 2008.
- Kuzmin, S.L. Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation. Dharamsala, LTWA, 2011, p. 85-86, 494 - Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 978-93-80359-47-2
- "China announces "civilizing" atheism drive in Tibet". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 12 January 1999. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Mongolia's monks make a comeback". Television New Zealand. 18 July 2006. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Cramer, Marc. "Mongolia: The Bhudda and the Khan". Orient Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Ross, Jeffrey Ian (4 March 2015). Religion and Violence: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict from Antiquity to the Present. Routledge. p. 776. ISBN 9781317461098.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Burmese government persecuted approximately 2,000 Buddhist monks who, refusing to ahdere to government rule that ultimately contravened Buddhist philosophy, were either arrested or bayoneted by government troops. During that time, North Korea effectively exterminated all signs of Buddhism, and Cambodia's Pol Pot regime implemented a similar extermination program of Buddhist clergy.
- Bräker, Hans (2008). "Buddhism in the Soviet Union: Annihilation or survival?". Religion in Communist Lands. 11 (1): 36–48. doi:10.1080/09637498308431057. ISSN 0307-5974.
The Party and State countered with the argument that Buddhist atheism had nothing to do with militant atheism, which was based on the Marxist-materialist interpretation of the laws of nature and society. The precise and binding outcome of this "new" attitude is to be found in the article on Buddhism in the second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopaedia. This argued that the theory that Buddhism was an atheist religion or a philosophical system was totally untenable, and that it was an attempt by the ideologues of the exploiting class to gloss over the reactionary nature of Buddhism. In reality, Buddhism was no more than an instrument erected by the feudal lords to exploit the working masses. However, since ideological means did not prove all that effective in the struggle against Buddhism, administrative measures were adopted and implemented at the same time. As early as 1928, heavy taxes were imposed upon the monasteries (which were maintained by the population). In 1929, many monasteries were forcibly closed and many monks arrested and sent into exile. In 1934 even Agvan Dordzhiev was exiled to Leningrad. He was arrested there in 1937 and transferred to a prison in Ulan-Ude, where he died in 1938 (possibly as a result of torture)".
- "Asia Times: Buddhist revival tangles with politics". Atimes.com. 26 August 1999. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Vietnam: Religious Freedom Denied". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Vietnam — Thich Nhat Hanh responds to Bat Nha crackdown with Zen koan - Buddhachannel". www.buddhachannel.tv.
- Chakma, Kabita; Hill, Glen (2013). "Indigenous Women and Culture in the Colonized Chittagong Hills Tracts of Bangladesh". In Kamala Visweswaran. Everyday Occupations: Experiencing Militarism in South Asia and the Middle East. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 132–157. ISBN 978-0812244878.
- Gray, Richard A. (1994). "Genocide in the Chittagong Hill tracts of Bangladesh". Reference Services Review. 22 (4): 59–79. doi:10.1108/eb049231.
- O'Brien, Sharon (2004). "The Chittagong Hill Tracts". In Dinah Shelton. Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. Macmillan Library Reference. pp. 176–177.
- Mey, Wolfgang, ed. (1984). Genocide in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA).
- Moshin, A. (2003). The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh: On the Difficult Road to Peace. Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
- Roy, Rajkumari (2000). Land Rights of the Indigenous Peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Persecution of Buddhists|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Religious persecution.|
- al-Balādhurī (1924). The Origins of the Islamic State. Part II. Translated by Murgotten, Francis Clark. New York: Columbia University. OCLC 6396175.
- Dudink, Adrian (2000). "Nangong Shudu (1620), Poxie Ji (1640), and Western Reports on the Nanjing Persecution (1616/1617)". Monumenta Serica. Maney Publishing. 48: 133–265. JSTOR 40727263.
- Elliot and Dowson (1867–1877). The History of India as told by its own Historians, London: Trübner. Reprint, New Delhi 1990.
- Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973.
- Senaka Weeraratna, Repression of Buddhism in Sri Lanka by the Portuguese (1505 - 1658)