Persecution of Hindus
|Part of a series on|
|Violence against Hindus
in East Pakistan
|Incidents after 1947 - East Pakistan|
|Incidents after 1971 - Bangladesh|
|Freedom of religion|
Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. In modern times, Hindus in the Muslim-majority regions of Kashmir, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and others have also suffered persecution.
- 1 Medieval
- 1.1 Persecution by Muslim Rulers
- 1.2 Delhi Sultanate
- 1.2.1 Mohammed Ghori (1173-1206 AD)
- 1.2.2 Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206-1287 AD)
- 1.2.3 Khilji dynasty (1290-1320 AD)
- 1.2.4 Tughlaq Dynasty (1321-1394 AD)
- 1.2.5 Timur's massacre of Delhi (1398 AD)
- 1.2.6 Sikandar the Iconoclast (1399-1416 AD)
- 1.2.7 Sayyid dynasty (1414-1451 AD)
- 1.2.8 Lodi dynasty (1451-1526 AD)
- 1.3 Mughal Empire
- 1.4 Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan
- 1.5 Kashmir
- 1.6 During European rule of the Indian subcontinent
- 2 20th Century persecution
- 3 Contemporary persecution
- 3.1 Jammu and Kashmir
- 3.2 Gujarat
- 3.3 Northeast India
- 3.4 Punjab
- 3.5 Kerala
- 3.6 Bangladesh
- 3.7 Pakistan
- 3.8 Afghanistan
- 3.9 Sri Lanka
- 3.10 Italy
- 3.11 Kazakhstan
- 3.12 Malaysia
- 3.13 Saudi Arabia
- 3.14 Fiji
- 3.15 Trinidad & Tobago
- 3.16 South Africa
- 3.17 United States
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Persecution by Muslim Rulers
Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent began during the early 8th century AD. According to a 1900 translation of Persian text Chachnamah by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, the Umayyad governor of Damascus, Hajjaj responded to a plea by men and women attacked and imprisoned by a tribe off the coast of Debal (Karachi), who had gone there to purchase some Indian female slaves and rich goods. Hajjaj mobilised an expedition of 6,000 cavalry under Muhammad bin-Qasim in 712 CE. Records from the campaign recorded in the Chach Nama record temple demolitions, and mass executions of resisting Sindhi forces and the enslavement of their dependants. The raids attacked the kingdoms ruled by Hindu and Buddhist kings, wealth plundered, tribute (kharaj) settled and hostages taken. Numerous Hindu Jats were captured as prisoners of war by the Muslim army and moved to Iraq and elsewhere as slaves. Hajjaj advocated "spare no one" approach to the military campaign.
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni, Sultan of the Ghaznavid empire, invaded the Indian subcontinent during the early 11th century. His campaigns across the Gangetic plains are often cited for their iconoclast plundering and destruction of temples. Mahmud's court historian Al-Utbi viewed Mahmud's expeditions as a jihad to propagate Islam and extirpate idolatry. Mahmud may not have personally hated Hindus, but he was after the loot and welcomed the honours and accolades in the Islamic world obtained by desecrating Hindu temples and idols. Of his campaign on Mathura, it is written:
Orders were given that all the temples should be burnt with naphthala and fire and levelled with the ground. The city was given up to plunder for twenty days. Among the spoil are said to have been five great idols of pure gold with eyes of rubies and adornments of other precious stones, together with a vast number of smaller silver images, which, when broken up, formed a load for more than a hundred camels.
The loot from Mathura is estimated at 3 million rupees and over 5,000 slaves.
According to military historian Victoria Schofield, Sabuktagin, the Turkish ruler of Ghazni and father of Mahmud, "set as his goal the expulsion of the Hindus from the Kabul valley and Gandhara (Khandar), as the vale of Peshawar was still called. His son and successor, the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, continued his work, carrying the holy war against the Hindus into India." Till the year 980 CE, this area of Gandhara was under Hindus until Sabuktagin from Ghazni invaded it and displaced its last Hindu Shahi king Jaya Pala. Shahi was an important kingdom in Northwest India at that time. According to some sources (like Ibn Batuta) the name of the Hindu Kush mountains of the region means "Hindu killer" because raiders would capture Hindus slaves – all Indians were termed Hindu in Islamic literature – from the plains and take them away to West Asia, with large numbers of boys and girls dying from icy cold weather in these mountains.
Mahmud of Ghazni sacked the second Somnath Temple in 1026, looted it, and the famous Shiva lingam of the temple was destroyed . Following the defeat of the Rajput Confederacy, after deciding to retaliate for their combined resistance, Mahmud had then set out on regular expeditions against them, leaving the conquered kingdoms in the hands of Hindu vassals annexing only the Punjab region. By 1665, the temple, one of many, was once again ordered destroyed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed there wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people.
Alberuni, a historian who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni, described the conquests in North Western India by stating that Mahmud impoverished the region and that the civilisation of the scattered Hindus declined and retreated from the North West.
This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places.
Delhi Sultanate, which extended over 320 years (1206-1526 AD), began with raids and invasion by Muhammad of Ghor. The Sultanate witnessed a period of extensive religious violence in various parts of India, at the hands of Sultan's army. The perpetrators were Sunni Muslims, and the primary victims were Hindus, but not exclusively as Buddhists, Jains, Shia and Sufi Muslims were victims as well. Religious violence became state sponsored with the start of Delhi Sultanate and it continued through the Mughal Empire.
Mohammed Ghori (1173-1206 AD)
Mohammed Ghori raided north India and the Hindu pilgrimage site Varanasi at the end of the 12th century and he continued the destruction of Hindu temples and idols that had begun during the first attack in 1194.
Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206-1287 AD)
Historical records compiled by Muslim historian Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai attest to the religious violence during Mamluk dynasty ruler Qutb-ud-din Aybak. The first mosque built in Delhi, the "Quwwat al-Islam" was built with demolished parts of 20 Hindu and Jain temples. This pattern of iconoclasm was common during his reign.
Khilji dynasty (1290-1320 AD)
Religious violence in India continued during the reign of Jalaluddin Firoz Shah Khilji and Allauddin Khilji of Khilji dynasty. Their army commanders such as Ulugh Khan, Nusrat Khan, Khusro Khan and Malik Kafur attacked, killed, looted and enslaved non-Muslim people from West, Central and South India. The Khilji dynasty's court historian wrote (abridged),
|“||The (Muslim) army left Delhi in November 1310. After crossing rivers, hills and many depths, the elephants were sent, in order that the inhabitants of Ma'bar might be made aware of the day of resurrection had arrived amongst them; and that all the burnt Hindus would be despatched by the sword to their brothers in hell, so that fire, the improper object of their worship, might mete out proper punishment to them.
– Amir Khusrow, Táríkh-i 'Aláí
Riots and mutinies by Hindus erupted in various parts of the Sultanate, ranging from modern Punjab to Gujarat to Madhya Pradesh to Uttar Pradesh. These riots were crushed with mass executions, where all men and even boys above the age of 8 were seized and killed. Nusrat Khan, a general of Allauddin Khilji, retaliated against mutineers by seizing all women and children of the affected area and placing them in prison. In another act, he had the wives of suspects arrested, dishonored and publicly exposed to humiliation. The children were cut into pieces on the heads of their mothers, on the orders of Nusrat Khan.
The campaign of violence, abasement and humiliation was not merely the works of Muslim army, the kazis, muftis and court officials of Allauddin recommended it on religious grounds. Kazi Mughisuddin of Bayánah advised Allauddin to "keep Hindus in subjection, in abasement, as a religious duty, because they are the most inveterate enemies of the Prophet, and because the Prophet has commanded us to slay them, plunder them, and make them captive; saying - convert them to Islam or kill them, enslave them and spoil their wealth and property."
The Muslim army led by Malik Kafur, another general of Allauddin Khilji, pursued two violent campaigns into south India, between 1309 and 1311, against three Hindu kingdoms of Deogiri (Maharashtra), Warangal (Telangana) and Madurai (Tamil Nadu). Thousands were slaughtered. Halebid temple was destroyed. The temples, cities and villages were plundered. The loot from south India was so large, that historians of that era state a thousand camels had to be deployed to carry it to Delhi. In the booty from Warangal was the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
In 1311, Malik Kafur entered the Srirangam temple, massacred the Brahmin priests of the temple who resisted the invasion for three days, plundered the temple treasury and the storehouse and desecrated and destroyed numerous religious icons.
Tughlaq Dynasty (1321-1394 AD)
After Khilji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty assumed power and religious violence continued in its reign. In 1323 Ulugh Khan began new invasions of the Hindu kingdoms of South India. At Srirangam, the invading army desecrated the shrine and killed 12,000 unarmed ascetics. The Vaishnava philosopher Sri Vedanta Desika, hid himself amongst the corpses together with the sole manuscript of the Srutaprakasika, the magnum opus of Sri Sudarsana Suri whose eyes were put out, and also the latter’s two sons.
Firuz Shah Tughluq was the third ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. The "Tarikh-i-Firuz Shah" is a historical record written during his reign that attests to the systematic persecution of Hindus under his rule. Capture and enslavement was widespread; when Sultan Firuz Shah died, slaves in his service were killed en masse and piled up in a heap. Victims of religious violence included Hindu Brahmin priests who refused to convert to Islam:
|“||An order was accordingly given to the Brahman and was brought before Sultan. The true faith was declared to the Brahman and the right course pointed out. but he refused to accept it. A pile was risen on which the Kaffir with his hands and legs tied was thrown into and the wooden tablet on the top. The pile was lit at two places his head and his feet. The fire first reached him in the feet and drew from him a cry, and then fire completely enveloped him. Behold Sultan for his strict adherence to law and rectitude. – Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi||”|
Under his rule, Hindus who were forced to pay the mandatory Jizya tax were recorded as infidels and their communities monitored. Hindus who erected a deity or built a temple and those who praticised their religion in public such as near a kund (water tank) were arrested, brought to the palace and executed. Firuz Shah Tughlaq wrote in his autobiography,
|“||Some Hindus had erected a new idol-temple in the village of Kohana, and the idolaters used to assemble there and perform their idolatrous rites. These people were seized and brought before me. I ordered that the perverse conduct of this wickedness be publicly proclaimed and they should be put to death before the gate of the palace. I also ordered that the infidel books, the idols, and the vessels used in their worship should all be publicly burnt. The others were restrained by threats and punishments, as a warning to all men, that no zimmi could follow such wicked practices in a Musulman country.
– Firuz Shah Tughluq, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi
Timur's massacre of Delhi (1398 AD)
The Islamic Turko-Mongol ruler Timur's attack of India was marked by systematic slaughter and other atrocities on a truly massive scale inflicted mainly on the subcontinent's Hindu population. Leaving the Muslim populated areas aside, his army looted rest of the habits. The Hindu population was massacred or enslaved. One hundred thousand Hindus prisoners were killed before he attacked Delhi and many more were killed afterwards.
According to Habib and Raychaudhuri, when "Timur invaded India in 1398-99, collection of slaves formed an important object for his army; 100,000 Hindu slaves had been seized by his soldiers and camp followers".
|“||(Timur's) soldiers grew more eager for plunder and destruction. On that Friday night there were about 15,000 men in the city who were engaged from early eve till morning in plundering and burning the houses. In many places the impure infidel gabrs (of Delhi) made resistance. (...) Every soldier obtained more than twenty persons as slaves, and some brought as many as fifty or a hundred men, women and children as slaves of the city. The other plunder and spoils were immense, gems and jewels of all sorts, rubies, diamonds, stuffs and fabrics, vases and vessels of gold and silver. (...) On the 19th of the month Old Delhi was thought of, for many Hindus had fled thither. Amir Shah Malik and Ali Sultan Tawachi, with 500 trusty men, proceeded against them, and falling upon them with the sword despatched them to hell.
– Sharafuddin Yazdi, Zafarnama (ظفرنامه)
Sikandar the Iconoclast (1399-1416 AD)
After Timur left, different Muslim Sultans enforced their power in what used to be Delhi Sultanate. In Kashmir, Sultan Sikandar began expanding, and unleashed religious violence that earned him the name but-shikan or idol-breaker. He earned this sobriquet because of the sheer scale of desecration and destruction of Hindu and Buddhist temples, shrines, ashrams, hermitages and other holy places in what is now known as Kashmir and its neighboring territories. He destroyed vast majority of Hindu and Buddhist temples in his reach in Kashmir region (north and northwest India). Encouraged by Islamic theologian, Muhammad Hamadani, Sikandar Butshikan also destroyed ancient Hindu and Buddhist books and banned followers of dharmic religions from prayers, dance, music, consumption of wine and observation of their religious festivals. To escape the religious violence during his reign, many Hindus converted to Islam and many left Kashmir. Many were also killed.
Sayyid dynasty (1414-1451 AD)
After the massacres of Timur, the people and lands within Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos and pestilence. Sayyid dynasty followed, but few historical records on religious violence, or anything else for that matter, have been found. Those found, including Tarikh-i Mubarak-Shahi describe continued religious violence. Over 1414 through 1423, according to the Muslim historian Yahya bin Ahmad, the Islamic commanders "chastised and plundered the infidels" of Ahar, Khur, Kampila, Gwalior, Seori, Chandawar, Etawa, Sirhind, Bail, Katehr and Rahtors. The violence was not one sided. The Hindus retaliated by forming their own armed groups, and attacking forts seized by Muslims. In 1431, Jalandhar for example, was retaken by Hindus and all Muslims inside the fort were placed in prison. Yahya bin Ahmad, the historian remarked on the arrest of Muslims by Hindus, "the unclean ruthless infidels had no respect for the Musulman religion". The cycle of violence between Hindus and Muslims, in numerous parts of India, continued throughout the Sayyid dynasty according to Yahya bin Ahmad.
Lodi dynasty (1451-1526 AD)
Religious violence and persecution continued during the reign of the two significant Lodi dynasty rulers, Bahlul Khan Lodi and Sikandar Lodi. Delhi Sultanate whose reach had shrunk to northern and eastern India, witnessed burning and killing of Hindus for their religion, in Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In 1499, a Brahmin of Bengal was arrested because he had attracted a large following among both Muslims and Hindus, with his teachings, "the Mohammedan and Hindu religions were both true, and were but different paths by which God might be approached." Sikandar, with his governor of Bihar Azam Humayun, asked Islamic scholars and sharia experts of their time whether such pluralism and peaceful messages were permissible within the Islamic Sultanate. The scholars advised that it is not, and that the Brahmin should be given the option to either embrace and convert to Islam, or killed. Sikandar accepted the counsel and gave the Brahmin an ultimatum. The Hindu refused to change his view, and was killed.
Elsewhere in Uttar Pradesh, a historian of Lodi dynasty times, described the state sponsored religious violence as follows,
|“||He (Lodi) was so zealous of a Musulman that he utterly destroyed diverse places of worship of the infidels. He entirely ruined the shrines of Mathura, the minefield of heathenism. Their stone images were given to the butchers to use them as meat weights, and all the Hindus in Mathura were strictly prohibited from shaving their heads and beards, and performing ablutions. He stopped the idolatrous rites of the infidels there. Every city thus conformed as he desired to the customs of Islam. – Táríkh-i Dáúdí||”|
Babur, Humayun, Suri dynasty (1526-1556)
According to autobiographical historical record of Emperor Babur, Tuzak-i Babari, Babur's campaign in northwest India targeted Hindu and Sikh pagans as well as apostates (non-Sunni sects of Islam), and immense number of infidels were killed, with Muslim camps building "towers of skulls of the infidels" on hillocks. Baburnama, similarly records massacre of Hindu villages and towns by Babur's Muslim army, in addition to numerous deaths of both Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the battlefields.
Akbar (1556-1605 AD)
Akbar is known for his religious tolerance. However, in early years of his reign, religious violence included the massacre of Hindus of Garha in 1560 AD, under the command of Mughal Viceroy Asaf Khan. Other campaigns targeted Chitor and Rantambhor. Maulana Ahmad, the historian of that era, wrote of the battle at Chitor fort,
|“||They (Hindus) committed jauhar (...). In the night, the (Muslim) assailants forced their way into the fortress in several places, and fell to slaughtering and plundering. At early dawn the Emperor went in mounted on an elephant, attended by his nobles and chiefs on foot. The order was given for a general massacre of the infidels as a punishment. The number exceeded 8,000 (Abu-l Fazl states there were 40,000 peasants with 8,000 Rajputs forming the garrison). Those who escaped the sword, men and women, were made prisoners and their property came into the hands of the Musulmans.
– Maulana Ahmad, Tarikh-i Alfi
Another historian Nizamuddin Ahmad recorded the violence during the conquest of Nagarkot (modern Himachal Pradesh), as follows,
|“||The fortress of Bhun, which is an idol temple of Mahámáí, was taken by valor of the (Muslim) assailants. A party of Rajputs, who had resolved to die, fought till they were all cut down. A number of Brahmins, who for many years had served the temple, never gave one thought to flight, and were killed. Nearly 200 black cows belonging to the Hindus, during the struggle, had crowded together for shelter in the temple. Some savage Turks, while the arrows and bullets were falling like rain, killed these cows one by one. They then took off their boots and filled them with the blood, and cast it upon the roof and walls of the temple.
– Nizamuddin Ahmad, Tabakat-i Akbari
Jahangir (1605-1627 AD)
Nur-ud-din Mohammad Salim (Jahangir) was the fourth Mughal Emperor under whose reign religious violence was targeted at Hindus, Jains and Sikhs. A companion of Jahangir, and Muslim historian, described the religious violence as, Temple idols were destroyed and by the order of the Emperor, to disgrace the infidels.
The reign of Aurangzeb witnessed one of the strongest campaign of religious violence in Mughal Empire's history, with an estimated 4.6 million people killed. Aurangzeb banned Diwali, re-introduced jizya (tax) on non-Muslims, led numerous campaigns of attacks against non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu temples.
Aurangzeb issued orders in 1669, to all his governors of provinces to "destroy with a willing hand the schools and temples of the infidels, and that they were strictly enjoined to put an entire stop to the teaching and practice of idolatrous forms of worship". These orders and his own initiative in implementing them led to the destruction of numerous temples, contributing to the list of temples destroyed during Islamic rule of India. Some temples were destroyed entirely; in other cases mosques were built on their foundations, sometimes using the same stones. Idols were smashed, and the city of Mathura was temporarily renamed as Islamabad in local official documents.
Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan
According to colonial era British historians, Tipu Sultan persecuted the Hindus and Christians. C. K. Kareem also notes that Tippu Sultan issued an edict for the destruction of Hindu temples in Kerala. Hindu groups revile Tipu Sultan as a bigot who massacred Hindus. He was known to carry out forced conversions of Hindus and Christians.
Tipu got Runmust Khan, the Nawab of Kurool, to launch a surprise attack upon the Kodava Hindus (also called Coorgs or Coorgis) who were besieged by the invading Muslim army. 500 were killed and over 40,000 Kodavas fled to the woods and concealed themselves in the mountains. Thousands of Kodava Hindus were seized along with the Raja and held captive at Seringapatam (Srirangapatna). They were also subjected to forcible conversions to Islam, death, and torture.[full citation needed]
In Seringapatam, the young men who were forcibly circumcised were incorporated into the Ahmedy Corps, and they formed eight Risalas or regiments. The actual number of Kodavas that were captured in the operation is unclear. The British administrator Mark Wilks gives it as 70,000, Historian Lewis Rice arrives at the figure of 85,000, while Mir Kirmani's score for the Coorg campaign is 80,000 men, women and child prisoners. In a letter to Runmust Khan, Tipu himself stated:[full citation needed]
We proceeded with the utmost speed, and, at once, made prisoners of 40,000 occasion-seeking and sedition-exciting Coorgis, who alarmed at the approach of our victorious army, had slunk into woods, and concealed themselves in lofty mountains, inaccessible even to birds. Then carrying them away from their native country (the native place of sedition) we raised them to the honour of Islam, and incorporated them into our Ahmedy corps.
He also corresponded with the Sringeri Shankaracharya – expressing grief and indignation at a raid by Maratha bandit horsemen (called Pindari), which killed many and plundered the monastery of its valuable possessions, patronised the Melkote temple (which has gold and silver vessels with inscriptions indicating that they were presented under the Sultan), for which a Kannada decree was issued that the Shrivaishnava (Hindu sectary) invocatory verses there should be recited in the traditional form. Tipu Sultan also presented four silver cups to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale and probably presented the Ranganatha temple at Srirangapatana with seven silver cups and a silver camphor burner. Some historians have argued that these acts happened after the Third Mysore war, where he had to negotiate on the terms of surrender. They claim that these acts were motivated by a political desire to get the support of his Hindu subjects.
Historian Hayavadana C. Rao wrote about Tippu in his encyclopaedic work on the History of Mysore. He asserted that Tippu's "religious fanaticism and the excesses committed in the name of religion, both in Mysore and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. His bigotry, indeed, was so great that it precluded all ideas of toleration". He further asserts that the acts of Tippu that were constructive towards Hindus were largely political and ostentatious rather than an indication of genuine tolerance.
The Hindu minority in Kashmir has also been historically persecuted by Muslim rulers. While Hindus and Muslims lived in harmony for certain periods of time, several Muslim rulers of Kashmir were intolerant of other religions. Sultãn Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (AD 1389–1413) is often considered the worst of these. Historians have recorded many of his atrocities. The Tarikh-i-Firishta records that Sikandar persecuted the Hindus and issued orders proscribing the residency of any other than Muslims in Kashmir. He also ordered the breaking of all "golden and silver images". The Tarikh-i-Firishta further states: "Many of the Brahmins, rather than abandon their religion or their country, poisoned themselves; some emigrated from their native homes, while a few escaped the evil of banishment by becoming Mahomedans. After the emigration of the Bramins, Sikundur ordered all the temples in Kashmir to be thrown down. Having broken all the images in Kashmeer, (Sikandar) acquired the title of ‘Destroyer of Idols’".
During European rule of the Indian subcontinent
The Goa Inquisition, was established in 1560 by Portuguese missionaries in Portuguese India. Aimed primarily at New Christian converts who were thought to have returned to their original Hindu or Islamic faith, it is recorded to have executed 57 apostates until its abolition in 1774.
According to Teotónio de Souza the Hindus faced severe persecution with great fortitude under the Portuguese in Goa. Vicar general Miguel Vaz had written to the king of Portugal in 1543 from Goa requesting that the Inquisition be established in Goa as well. Three years later Francis Xavier made a similar request in view of the Muslims in the region and the Christians abandoning their faith. On hearing of the excesses of the Inquisition in Goa, Lourenco Pires, Portuguese ambassador at Rome, expressed his displeasure to the crown while warning that this zeal for religion was actually becoming a disservice to God and the kingdom. Again according to de Souza, the Inquisition was bad for its victims and led to the downfall of the Portuguese Empire in the East.
In 1620, an order was passed to prohibit the Hindus from performing their marriage rituals. Charles Dellon experienced first hand the cruelty of the Inquisition's agents. He published a book in 1687 describing his experiences in Goa. L'Inquisition de Goa (The Inquisition of Goa).
British Colonial India
The British East India Company engaged in a covert and well-financed campaign of evangelical conversions in the 19th century. While officially discouraging conversions, officers of the Company routinely converted Sepoys to Christianity, often by force. This was one of the factors that led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[not in citation given]
20th Century persecution
While the vast majority of Hindus live in Hindu-majority areas of India, Hindus in other parts of South Asia and in the diaspora have sometimes faced persecution.
Partition of India
Hindus, like Muslims, Sikhs, and members of other religious groups, experienced severe dislocation and violence during the massive population exchanges associated with the partition of India, as members of various communities moved to what they hoped was the relative safety of an area where they would be a religious majority. Hindus were among the between 200,000 and a million who died during the rioting and other violence associated with the partition.
Direct Action Day
In 1946, the Cabinet Mission to India was planning the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership. At that time, Jinnah's Muslim League as well as its British patrons, suddenly announced their "decision" to carve out of India a separate and "independent" dominion, with a population to be overwhelmingly Muslim and an explicitly Islamic "national" character, by conjuring up "fear of Hindu domination" among their base as a pretext.
India was conceived of (and continues to remain) a democratic secular republic and so Jinnah's real intentions were transparent- the Indian National Congress rejected their proposal. The Muslim League responded by planning and carrying out a hartal ("general strike") on 16 August 1946 (called Direct Action Day). Upon the request of Suhrawardy, Muslim League Chief Minister of Bengal, the Governor of Bengal Frederick Burrows declared a public holiday that day. The Congress and the Hindu Mahasabha in Bengal protested to this; they didn't want to be seen as supporting the hartal. They urged the Hindus to instead keep their shops open and to continue their business as usual on that hartal day. On the afternoon of Direct Action Day Suhrawardy and another speaker Nazimuddin addressed a Muslim rally. As soon as many of the listeners left the meeting they were reported to have started violently attacking the Hindus and looting their shops. Later Suhrawardy reportedly tried to get British officials to bring the army in but nothing happened until steps towards an army intervention began in the afternoon of 17 August. The Hindus, supported by Sikhs, in the city of Calcutta retaliated. All these events are known as the Great Calcutta killings of 1946.
On 17 August the President of a Textile Workers' Union led a hooligan and his mob (all Muslims) into the compound of a Birla owned Kesoram Cotton Mill. The Mill was looted while the workers, including 300 Odia speakers, (their religion is disputed) were massacred. Calcutta, within 72 hours, more than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents in the city of Calcutta were left homeless. Some sources claim that between 7000-10000 people were killed, including both Hindus and Muslims. On 21 August Bengal was brought under the Viceroy's rule. British troops entered the place, and the rioting was reduced by 22 August. This sparked off several riots between Muslims and Hindus in Noakhali, Bihar and Punjab that year. There also occurred communal violence in Delhi, Bombay, Punjab and the Northwest Frontier Province.
Around seven weeks after Direct Action Day, violence was directed against the Hindu minority in the villages of Noakhali and Tippera in Chittagong district in East Bengal. Rioting in the region began in the Ramganj police station area by a mob. The rioting spread to the neighbouring police station areas of Raipur, Lakshmipur, Begumganj and Sandip in Noakhali and Faridganj, Hajiganj, Chandpur, Laksham and Chudagram in Tippera. From 2 October, there were instances of stray killings.
Relief operations took place and Gandhiji visited the place on a peace mission even as threats against the Hindus continued. While claims varied, the official Muslim League Bengal Government estimates of those killed were placed at a conservative 200. According to Suhrawardy 9,895 people were forcibly converted in Tippera alone. Ghulam Sarwar Hossain, a religious leader who belonged to a local political party dominated by Muslims, was the main organiser of the riot. It was said that the local administration had planned the riot and that the police helped Ghulam Sarwar escape arrest. A large number of victims were Namasudra (a Bengali Hindu lower caste). According to a source quoting from the State Government Archives, in Naokhali 178 Hindus and 42 Muslims were killed while in Tippera 39 Hindus and 26 Muslims were killed. Women were abducted and forced into marriage. In retaliation Muslims were massacred in Bihar and in Garhmukteshwara in the United Provinces. These attacks began between 25 and 28 October in the Chhapra and Saran districts of Bihar and then spread to Patna, Munger, Bhagalpur and a large number of scattered villages of Bihar. The official estimates of the dead at that time were 445.
Hindus were severely repressed under the autocratic dictatorial rule of the Nizam and his "nawabs" in Hyderabad state. The Hindu majority were denied fundamental rights by the Nizams of Hyderabad State. Hindus were called gaddaar ("revolutionary", but in a pejorative sense, "traitor") by Muslims in the Nizam state of Hyderabad.[unreliable source?] Many Hindus were murdered, looted and thrown to jail. Construction of temples were declared illegal and Hindu scriptures like the Bhagavad Gita and Ramayana were banned.
Hindus were treated as second-class citizens within Hyderabad State and were severely discriminated against despite comprising a vast majority of the State's population. The 1941 census estimated the population of Hyderabad to be 16.34 million. Over 85% of the populace were Hindus, with Muslims accounting for about 12%. Hyderabad was also a multi-lingual state consisting of peoples speaking Telugu (48.2%), Marathi (26.4%), Kannada (12.3%) and Urdu (10.3%). Nonetheless, the number of Hindus in government positions was disproportionately small. Of 1765 officers, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, and 121 were "Others" (presumably British Christians, Parsis and Sikhs). Of the officials drawing pay between Rs. 600–1200 pm, 59 were Muslims, 38 were "Others", and a mere 5 were Hindus. The Nizam and his nobles, who were mostly Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the kingdom.[not in citation given]
In 1947, the Nizam, under pressure from pro-Pakistan Razakars (who then, after having perpetrated a campaign of terror and violence against Hindu civilians, either promptly surrendered to Indian soldiers or fled to Pakistan) to refuse to accede to India. For the "independence" of their so-called "Islamic state" of Hyderabad and in an attempt to resist Indian integration, the All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, then the State's dominant political party, persecuted Hindus and their 150,000 cadre strong militant wing, the Razakars, under the leadership of Qasim Rizwi, killed a number of Hindus.
Hindus constitute 1.7 percent of Pakistan's population. Hindu minorities living under the influence of the Taliban in Swat, Pakistan, were forced to wear red headgear such as turbans as a symbol of dhimmi. In July 2010, around 60 members of the minority Hindus in Karachi were attacked and ethnically cleansed following an incident when a Hindu youth drank from a water tap near an Islamic mosque. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan came out with a report in 2010 stating that at least 25 Hindu girls are abducted in Pakistan every month. In January 2014, in an attack on a temple, the guard was gunned down.
1971 Bangladesh genocide
During the 1971 Bangladesh genocide there were widespread killings and acts of ethnic cleansing of civilians in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan, a province of Pakistan), and widespread violations of human rights were carried out by the Pakistani Army, which was supported by political and religious militias during the Bangladesh Liberation War. In Bangladesh, the atrocities are identified as a genocide. Time magazine reported that "The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Muslim military's hatred."
United States government cables noted that Hindus were specific targets of the Pakistani army. There was widespread killing of Hindu males, and rapes of women. Documented incidents in which Hindus were massacred in large numbers include the Chuknagar massacre, the Jathibhanga massacre, and the Shankharipara massacre. More than 60% of the Bengali refugees who fled to India were Hindus. It has been alleged that this widespread violence against Hindus was motivated by a policy to purge East Pakistan of what was seen as Hindu and Indian influences
The genocide and gendercidal atrocities were also perpetrated by lower-ranking officers and ordinary soldiers. These "willing executioners" were fueled by an abiding anti-Bengali racism, especially against the Hindu minority. "Bengalis were often compared with monkeys and chickens. Said General Niazi, 'It was a low lying land of low lying people.' The Hindus among the Bengalis were as Jews to the Nazis: scum and vermin that [should] best be exterminated. As to the Moslem Bengalis, they were to live only on the sufferance of the soldiers: any infraction, any suspicion cast on them, any need for reprisal, could mean their death. And the soldiers were free to kill at will. The journalist Dan Coggin quoted one Pakistani captain as telling him, "We can kill anyone for anything. We are accountable to no one." This is the arrogance of Power.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (1971) resulted in one of the largest genocides of the 20th century. While estimates of the number of casualties was 3,000,000, it is reasonably certain that Hindus bore a disproportionate brunt of the Pakistan Army's onslaught against the Bengali population of what was East Pakistan. An article in Time magazine dated 2 August 1971, stated "The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Muslim military hatred." Senator Edward Kennedy wrote in a report that was part of United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations testimony dated 1 November 1971, "Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked "H". All of this has been officially sanctioned, ordered and implemented under martial law from Islamabad". In the same report, Senator Kennedy reported that 80% of the refugees in India were Hindus and according to numerous international relief agencies such as UNESCO and World Health Organization the number of East Pakistani refugees at their peak in India was close to 10 million. Given that the Hindu population in East Pakistan was around 11 million in 1971, this suggests that up to 8 million, or more than 70% of the Hindu population had fled the country.The Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Sydney Schanberg covered the start of the war and wrote extensively on the suffering of the East Bengalis, including the Hindus both during and after the conflict. In a syndicated column "The Pakistani Slaughter That Nixon Ignored", he wrote about his return to liberated Bangladesh in 1972. "Other reminders were the yellow "H"s the Pakistanis had painted on the homes of Hindus, particular targets of the Muslim army" (by "Muslim army", meaning the Pakistan Army, which had targeted Bengali Muslims as well), (Newsday, 29 April 1994).
Jammu and Kashmir
The Kashmiri Pandit population living in the Muslim majority region of Jammu and Kashmir has often come under threat from Islamic militants in recent years, in stark contrast to centuries of peace between the two religious communities in the State. Historians have suggested that some of these attacks have been in retaliation for the anti-Muslim violence propagated by the Hindutva movement during the demolition of the Babri Masjid, and the 2002 Gujarat riots. This threat has been pronounced during periods of unrest in the Kashmir valley, such as in 1989. Along with the Hindus, large sections of the Muslim population have also been attacked, ostensibly for "cooperating" with the Indian state. Some authors have found evidence that these militants had the support of the Pakistani security establishment. The incidents of violence included the Wandhama Massacre in 1998, in which 24 Kashmiri Hindus were gunned down by Muslims disguised as Indian soldiers. Many Kashmiri Non-Muslims have been killed and thousands of children orphaned over the course of the conflict in Kashmir. The 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre was another such incident where 30 Hindu pilgrims were killed en route to the Amarnath temple.
In Godhra train burning, which happened on 27 February 2002, 59 people, including 25 women and 15 children Hindu pilgrims were the victims. In 2011, Judicial court convicted 31 people saying the incident was a “pre-planned conspiracy".
In Northeastern India, especially in Nagaland, Hindus are not able to celebrate Durga Puja and other religious festivals due to harassment and killing by Christian terrorist groups. In Tripura, the National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) attacked a Hindu temple and killed a spiritual leader there. They are known to have forcefully converted Hindus to Christianity.
The period of insurgency in Punjab around Operation Blue Star saw clashes of the Sikh militants with the police, as well as with the Hindu-Nirankari groups resulting in many Hindu deaths. In 1987, 32 Hindus were pulled out of a bus and shot, near Lalru in Punjab by Sikh militants.
On 2 May 2003, eight Hindus were killed by a Muslim mob at Marad beack in Kozhikode district, Kerala. One of the attackers was also killed. The judicial commission that probed the incident concluded that members of several political parties were directly involved in planning and executing the killing. The commission affirmed "a clear communal conspiracy, with Muslim fundamentalist and terrorist organisations involved". The courts sentenced 62 Muslims to life imprisonment for committing the massacre in 2009.
There have been several instances where Hindu refugees from Bangladesh have stated that they were the victims of torture and intimidation. A US-based human rights organisation, Refugees International, has claimed that religious minorities, especially Hindus, still face discrimination in Bangladesh.
One of the major political parties in Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, openly calls for 'Talibanisation' of the state. However, the prospect of actually "Talibanizing" the state is regarded as a remote possibility, since Bangladeshi Islamic society is generally more progressive than the extremist Taliban of Afghanistan. Political scholars conclude that while the Islamization of Bangladesh is real, the country is not on the brink of being Talibanized. The 'Vested Property Act' previously named the 'Enemy Property Act' has seen up to 40% of Hindu land snatched away forcibly. Hindu temples in Bangladesh have also been vandalised.
Bangladeshi feminist Taslima Nasrin's 1993 novel Lajja deals with the anti-Hindu riots and anti-secular sentiment in Bangladesh in the wake of the destruction of the Babri Masjid in India. The book was banned in Bangladesh, and helped draw international attention to the situation of the Bangladeshi Hindu minority.
In October 2006, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom published a report titled 'Policy Focus on Bangladesh', which said that since its last election, 'Bangladesh has experienced growing violence by religious extremists, intensifying concerns expressed by the countries religious minorities'. The report further stated that Hindus are particularly vulnerable in a period of rising violence and extremism, whether motivated by religious, political or criminal factors, or some combination. The report noted that Hindus had multiple disadvantages against them in Bangladesh, such as perceptions of dual loyalty with respect to India and religious beliefs that are not tolerated by the politically dominant Islamic Fundamentalists of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Violence against Hindus has taken place "in order to encourage them to flee in order to seize their property". On 2 November 2006, USCIRF criticised Bangladesh for its continuing persecution of minority Hindus. It also urged the Bush administration to get Dhaka to ensure protection of religious freedom and minority rights before Bangladesh's next national elections in January 2007.
On 6 February 2010, Sonargaon temple in Narayanganj district of Bangladesh was destroyed by Islamic fanatics. Five people were seriously injured during the attack. Temples were also attacked and destroyed in 2011
In 2013, the International Crimes Tribunal indicted several Jamaat members for war crimes against Hindus during the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities. In retaliation, violence against Hindu minorities in Bangladesh was instigated by the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami . The violence included the looting of Hindu properties and businesses, the burning of Hindu homes, rape of Hindu women and desecration and destruction of Hindu temples.
On 28 February 2013, the International Crimes Tribunal sentenced Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, the Vice President of the Jamaat-e-Islami to death for the war crimes committed during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. Following the sentence, activists of Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing Islami Chhatra Shibir attacked the Hindus in different parts of the country. Hindu properties were looted, Hindu houses were burnt into ashes and Hindu temples were desecrated and set on fire. While the government has held the Jamaat-e-Islami responsible for the attacks on the minorities, the Jamaat-e-Islami leadership has denied any involvement. The minority leaders have protested the attacks and appealed for justice. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh has directed the law enforcement to start suo motu investigation into the attacks. US Ambassador to Bangladesh express concern about attack of Jamaat on Bengali Hindu community. The violence included the looting of Hindu properties and businesses, the burning of Hindu homes, rape of Hindu women and desecration and destruction of Hindu temples. According to community leaders, more than 50 Hindu temples and 1,500 Hindu homes were destroyed in 20 districts.
Pakistan Studies curriculum issues
According to the Sustainable Development Policy Institute report 'Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus. For the upholders of the Ideology of Pakistan, the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as negatively as possible' A 2005 report by the National Commission for Justice and Peace a non-profit organisation in Pakistan, found that Pakistan Studies textbooks in Pakistan have been used to articulate the hatred that Pakistani policy-makers have attempted to inculcate towards the Hindus. 'Vituperative animosities legitimise military and autocratic rule, nurturing a siege mentality. Pakistan Studies textbooks are an active site to represent India as a hostile neighbour' the report stated. 'The story of Pakistan’s past is intentionally written to be distinct from, and often in direct contrast with, interpretations of history found in India. From the government-issued textbooks, students are taught that Hindus are backward and superstitious.' Further the report stated 'Textbooks reflect intentional obfuscation. Today’s students, citizens of Pakistan and its future leaders are the victims of these partial truths'.
An editorial in Pakistan's oldest newspaper Dawn commenting on a report in The Guardian on Pakistani Textbooks noted 'By propagating concepts such as jihad, the inferiority of non-Muslims, India’s ingrained enmity with Pakistan, etc., the textbook board publications used by all government schools promote a mindset that is bigoted and obscurantist. Since there are more children studying in these schools than in madrassahs the damage done is greater. ' According to the historian Professor Mubarak Ali, textbook reform in Pakistan began with the introduction of Pakistan Studies and Islamic studies by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1971 into the national curriculum as a compulsory subject. Former military dictator Gen Zia-ul-Haq under a general drive towards Islamization, started the process of historical revisionism in earnest and exploited this initiative. 'The Pakistani establishment taught their children right from the beginning that this state was built on the basis of religion – that's why they don't have tolerance for other religions and want to wipe-out all of them.'. Another editorial in Dawn talks about the ideology of thought control in Pakistan and mentions that post these changes, "History was rewritten to redefine Pakistani as an Islamic society, and no research on ancient India, the medieval period or the colonial era. Our history was linked with the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, thus alienating it from ancient Indian history."
According to Pervez Hoodbhoy, a physics professor at Quaid-i-Azam University in Islamabad, the "Islamizing" of Pakistan's schools began in 1976 when an act of parliament required all government and private schools (except those teaching the British O-levels from Grade 9) to follow a curriculum that includes learning outcomes for the federally approved Grade 5 social studies class such as: 'Acknowledge and identify forces that may be working against Pakistan,' 'Make speeches on Jihad,' 'Collect pictures of policemen, soldiers, and national guards,' and 'India's evil designs against Pakistan.'
Hindu women have also been known to be victims of kidnapping and forced conversion to Islam. An official of Human Rights Commission of Pakistan said in 2010 that around 20 to 25 Hindu girls are abducted every month and converted to Islam forcibly. Krishan Bheel, a Hindu member of the National Assembly of Pakistan, came into the news recently for manhandling Qari Gul Rehman after being taunted with a religious insult.
On 18 October 2005, Sanno Amra and Champa, a Hindu couple residing in the Punjab Colony, Karachi, Sindh returned home to find that their three teenage daughters had disappeared. After inquiries to the local police, the couple discovered that their daughters had been taken to a local madrassah, had been converted to Islam, and were denied unsupervised contact with their parents.
A Pakistan Muslim League politician has stated that abduction of Hindus and Sikhs is a business in Pakistan, along with conversions of Hindus to Islam. Forced conversion, rape, and forced marriages of Hindu women in Pakistan have recently become very controversial in Pakistan.
In 2006, a Hindu temple in Lahore was destroyed to pave the way for construction of a multi-storied commercial building. When reporters from Pakistan-based newspaper Dawn tried to cover the incident, they were accosted by the henchmen of the property developer, who denied that a Hindu temple existed at the site. In January 2014, a policeman standing guard outside a Hindu temple at Peshawar was gunned down.
Discrimination due to the rise of Taliban
Although Hindus were frequently soft targets in Pakistan, the rise of Taliban forces in the political arena has particularly unsettled the already fragile situation for the minority community. Increasing persecution, ostracism from locals and lack of a social support system is forcing more and more Hindus to flee to India. This has been observed in the past whenever the conflicts between the two nations escalated but this has been a notable trend in view of the fact the recent developments are due to internal factors almost exclusively. The Taliban have used false methods of luring, as well as the co-operation of zealots within local authorities to perpetrate religious cleansing.
During the Taliban regime, Sumptuary laws were passed in 2001 which forced Hindus to wear yellow badges in public to identify themselves as such. This has been similar to Adolf Hitler's treatment of Jews in Nazi Germany during World War II. Hindu women were forced to dress according to Islamic hijab, ostensibly a measure to "protect" them from harassment. This was part of the Taliban's plan to segregate "un-Islamic" and "idolatrous" communities from Islamic ones. In addition, Hindus were forced to mark their places of residence identifying them as Hindu homes.
The decree was condemned by the Indian and United States governments as a violation of religious freedom. Widespread protests against the Taliban regime broke out in Bhopal, India. In the United States, chairman of the Anti-Defamation League Abraham Foxman compared the decree to the practices of Nazi Germany, where Jews were required to wear labels identifying them as such. The comparison was also drawn by California Democrat and holocaust survivor Tom Lantos, and New York Democrat and author of the bipartisan 'Sense of the Congress' non-binding resolution against the anti-Hindu decree Eliot L Engel. In the United States, congressmen and several lawmakers. wore yellow badges on the floor of the Senate during the debate as a demonstration of their solidarity with the Hindu minority in Afghanistan.
Indian analyst Rahul Banerjee said that this was not the first time that Hindus have been singled out for state-sponsored oppression in Afghanistan. Violence against Hindus has caused a rapid depletion in the Hindu population over the years. Since the 1990s many Afghan Hindus have fled the country, seeking asylum in countries such as Germany.
Most of the LTTE leaders were captured and gunned down at blank range in May, 2009, after which a genocide of Sri Lankan Tamils in the Northern Province, Sri Lanka has started. Even a book, The Tamil Genocide by Sri Lanka has been written on this genocide. Tamils Against Genocide hired US attorney Bruce Fein to file human rights violation charges against two Sri Lankan officials associated with the civil war in Sri Lanka which has reportedly claimed the lives of thousands of civilians.
In Italy, Hinduism was previously not recognised as a religion, and during Durga Puja celebrations, the Italian police shut down a previously approved Durga Puja celebration in Rome. The affront was seen by some as a statement against alleged persecution of Christians in India.
However, on 14 December 2012, Hinduism, along with Buddhism, was recognised and given freedom as a religion not conflicting with the Italian Law, as per Article 8 of the Italian constitution. The move has been hailed as a new milestone for religious freedom and equality between religions.
In 2005 and 2006 Kazakh officials persistently and repeatedly tried to close down the Hare Krishna farming community near Almaty.
On 20 November 2006, three buses full of riot police, two ambulances, two empty lorries, and executors of the Karasai district arrived at the community in sub-zero weather and evicted the Hare Krishna followers from thirteen homes, which the police proceeded to demolish.
The Forum 18 News Service reported, "Riot police who took part in the destruction threw the personal belongings of the Hare Krishna devotees into the snow, and many devotees were left without clothes. Power for lighting and heating systems had been cut off before the demolition began. Furniture and larger household belongings were loaded onto trucks. Officials said these possessions would be destroyed. Two men who tried to prevent the bailiffs from entering a house to destroy it were seized by 15 police officers who twisted their hands and took them away to the police car."
The Hare Krishna community had been promised that no action would be taken before the report of a state commission – supposedly set up to resolve the dispute – was made public. On the day the demolition began, the commission's chairman, Amanbek Mukhashev, told Forum 18, "I know nothing about the demolition of the Hare Krishna homes – I'm on holiday." He added, "As soon as I return to work at the beginning of December we will officially announce the results of the Commission's investigation." Other officials also refused to comment.
The United States urged Kazakhstan's authorities to end what it called an "aggressive" campaign against the country's tiny Hare Krishna community.
Approximately nine percent of the population of Malaysia are Tamil Indians, of whom nearly 90 percent are practising Hindus. Indian settlers came to Malaysia from Tamil Nadu in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Between April to May 2006, several Hindu temples were demolished by city hall authorities in the country, accompanied by violence against Hindus. On 21 April 2006, the Malaimel Sri Selva Kaliamman Temple in Kuala Lumpur was reduced to rubble after the city hall sent in bulldozers.
The president of the Consumers Association of Subang and Shah Alam in Selangor State has been helping to organise efforts to stop the local authorities in the Muslim dominated city of Shah Alam from demolishing a 107-year-old Hindu temple. The growing Islamization in Malaysia is a cause for concern to many Malaysians who follow minority religions such as Hinduism. On 11 May 2006, armed city hall officers from Kuala Lumpur forcefully demolished part of a 60-year-old suburban temple that serves more than 1,000 Hindus. The "Hindu Rights Action Force", a coalition of several NGO's, have protested these demolitions by lodging complaints with the Malaysian Prime Minister. Many Hindu advocacy groups have protested what they allege is a systematic plan of temple cleansing in Malaysia. The official reason given by the Malaysian government has been that the temples were built "illegally". However, several of the temples are centuries old. According to a lawyer for the Hindu Rights Action Task Force, a Hindu temple is demolished in Malaysia once every three weeks.
Malaysian Muslims have also grown more anti-Hindu over the years. In response to the proposed construction of a temple in Selangor, Muslims chopped off the head of a cow to protest, with leaders saying there would be blood if a temple was constructed in Shah Alam.
Laws in the country, especially those concerning religious identity, are generally slanted towards compulsion into converting to Islam.
Hindus in Fiji constitute approximately 38% of the population. During the late 1990s there were several riots against Hindus by radical elements in Fiji. In the Spring of 2000, the democratically elected Fijian government led by Prime Minister Mahendra Chaudhry was held hostage by a guerilla group, headed by George Speight. They were demanding a segregated state exclusively for the native Fijians, thereby legally abolishing any rights the Hindu inhabitants have now. The majority of Fijian land is reserved for the ethnically Fijian community. Since the practitioners of Hindu faith are predominantly Indians, racist attacks by the extremist Fijian Nationalists too often culminated into violence against the institutions of Hinduism. According to official reports, attacks on Hindu institutions increased by 14% compared to 2004. Hindus and Hinduism, being labelled the "outside others," especially in the aftermath of the May 2000 coup, have been victimised by Fijian fundamentalist and nationalists who wish to create a theocratic Christian state in Fiji. This intolerance towards Hindus has found expression in anti-Hindu speeches and destruction of temples, the two most common forms of immediate and direct violence against Hindus. Between 2001 and April 2005, one hundred cases of temple attacks have been registered with the police. The alarming increase of temple destruction has spread fear and intimidation among the Hindu minorities and has hastened immigration to neighbouring Australia and New Zealand. Organised religious institutions, such as the Methodist Church of Fiji, have repeatedly called for the creation of a theocratic Christian State and have propagated anti-Hindu sentiment.
The Methodist church of Fiji repeatedly calls for the creation of a Christian State since a coup d'état in 1987 and has stated that those who are not Christian should be "tolerated as long as they obey Christian law".
The Methodist Church of Fiji specifically objects to the constitutional protection of minority religious communities such as Hindus and Muslims. State favouritism of Christianity, and systematic attacks on temples, are some of the greatest threats faced by Fijian Hindus. Despite the creation of a human rights commission, the plight of Hindus in Fiji continues to be precarious.
Trinidad & Tobago
During the initial decades of Indian indenture, Indian cultural forms were met with either contempt or indifference by the Christian majority. Hindus have made many contributions to Trinidad history and culture even though the state historically regarded Hindus as second class citizens. Hindus in Trinidad struggled over the granting of adult franchise, the Hindu marriage bill, the divorce bill, cremation ordinance, and others. After Trinidad's independence from colonial rule, Hindus were marginalised by the African-based People's National Movement. The opposing party, the People's Democratic party, was portrayed as a "Hindu group", and Hindus were castigated as a "recalcitrant and hostile minority". The displacement of PNM from power in 1985 would improve the situation.
Intensified protests over the course of the 1980s led to an improvement in the state's attitudes towards Hindus. The divergence of some of the fundamental aspects of local Hindu culture, the segregation of the Hindu community from Trinidad, and the disinclination to risk erasing the more fundamental aspects of what had been constructed as "Trinidad Hinduism" in which the identity of the group had been rooted, would often generate dissension when certain dimensions of Hindu culture came into contact with the State. While the incongruences continue to generate debate, and often conflict, it is now tempered with growing awareness and consideration on the part of the state to the Hindu minority. Hindus have been also been subjected to persistent proselytisation by Christian missionaries. Specifically the evangelical and Pentecostal Christians. Such activities reflect racial tensions that at times arise between the Christianized Afro-Trinidadian and Hindu Indo-Trinidadian communities.
South Africa is home to a small Hindu minority. In 2006, Yusuf Deedat, the son of an Islamic cleric named Ahmed Deedat circulated a DVD that denounced South African Hindus. The elder Deedat, former head of the Arab-funded organization known as "Islamic Propagation Centre International" (IPCI), had previously circulated an anti-Hindu video in the 1980s where he said that Indian Muslims were 'fortunate' that their Hindu forefathers 'saw the light' and converted to Islam when Muslim rulers dominated some areas of India. His video was widely criticised. While Hindus in South Africa have largely ignored the new anti-Hindu DVD circulated by the younger Deedat, he has been severely criticised by local Muslims, including other members of the IPCI.The IPCI said in a statement that Yusuf Deedat did not represent the organisation in any way. The younger Deedat, undeterred by the opposition from his own brethren, continues to circulate the material.He has placed advertisements in newspapers inviting anyone to collect a free copy from his residence to see for themselves "what the controversy is about".
Hindu immigrants constitute approximately 0.5% of the total population of the United States. They are also the second most affluent religious group after the Jews. Hindus in the US enjoy both de jure and de facto legal equality. However, a series of attacks were made on people Indian origin by a street gang called the "Dotbusters" in New Jersey in 1987, the dot signifying the Bindi dot sticker worn on the forehead by Indian women. The lackadaisical attitude of the local police prompted the South Asian community to arrange small groups all across the state to fight back against the street gang. The perpetrators have been put to trial. On 2 January 2012, a Hindu worship center in New York City was firebombed.
The Dotbusters was a hate group in Jersey City, New Jersey, that attacked and threatened South Asians in the fall of 1987. The name originated from the fact that traditional Hindu women and girls wear a bindi on their forehead.
In December 1987, Kaushal Saran, was found beaten to a coma at Central and Ferry Avenues, near a city park and firehouse, according to police reports. Saran, a licensed physician in India who was awaiting licensing in the United States, was discharged later from University Hospital in Newark. The unprovoked attack left Saran in a partial coma for over a week with severe damage to his skull and brain. In September 1992, Thomas Kozak, Martin Ricciardi, and Mark Evangelista were brought to trial on federal civil rights charges in connection with the attack on Saran. However, the three were acquitted of the charges in two separate trials in 1993. Saran testified at both trials that he could not remember the incident.
The Dotbusters were primarily based in New York and New Jersey and committed most of their crimes in Jersey City. A number of perpetrators have been brought to trial for these assaults. Although tougher anti-hate crime laws were passed by the New Jersey legislature in 1990, the attacks continued, with 58 cases of hate crimes against Indians in New Jersey reported in 1991.
- Expulsion of Indians from Burma in 1962
- Hindu Temples: What Happened to Them
- The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians
- Love Jihad
- Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947
- Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg: The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest. 
- Wink, Andre, "Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World", Brill Academic Publishers, 1 August 2002, ISBN 0-391-04173-8 pg. 51, 204-205
- André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries. BRILL. p. 161. ISBN 978-0391041738.
- Trifkovic, Serge (11 September 2002). The Sword of the Prophet: History, Theology, Impact on the World. Regina Orthodox Press. ISBN 1-928653-11-1.
- Chopra, P. N.; Puri, B. N.; Das, M. N.; Pradhan, A. C. (2003). A Comprehensive History of India, Vol. 2 — Medieval India. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 8120725085.
- Bostom, Andrew G., ed. (2010). The Legacy of Jihad: Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims. Prometheus Books. p. 82. ISBN 9781615920174.
- Saunders, Kenneth James. A Pageant of India. H. Milford, Oxford University Press pg. 162.
- Avari 2013, p. 40
- Growse, F. S. (2000). Mathura-Brindaban — The Mystical Land Of Lord Krishna. New Delhi: Diamond Pocket Books. p. 51. ISBN 8171824439.
- Schofield, Victoria (2010). Afghan Frontier: At the Crossroads of Conflict. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 25. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Kapoor, Subodh (2002). Ancient Hindu society. Genesis. p. 365. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Encyclopædia Britannica 14 (15 ed.). July 1987. pp. 238–240.
- Ibn Battuta; Samuel Lee (Translator) (2009). The Travels of Ibn Battuta. Cosimo. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-60520-621-9., Quote: "they call it the Hindu Kush, i.e. Hindoo-slayer, because most of the slaves brought thither from India die on account of the intenseness of the cold."
- The World Book Encyclopedia 19. 1990. p. 237.
- Christoph Witzenrath (2016). Eurasian Slavery, Ransom and Abolition in World History, 1200-1860. Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-317-14002-3., Quote: "Ibn Battuta, the renowned Moroccan fourteenth century world traveller remarked in a spine-chilling passage that Hindu Kush means slayer of the Indians, because the slave boys and girls who are brought from India die there in large numbers as a result of the extreme cold and the quantity of snow."
- Douglas, W.O., (July 1958). "West of Khyber Pass". National Geographic Magazine. 114,1: 13–23.
- Encyclopedia Americana 14. 1993. p. 206.
- Kakar, Sudhir. The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and Conflict. University of Chicago Press P 50. ISBN 0-226-42284-4.
- P. M. (Peter Malcolm) Holt, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 21 April 1977, ISBN 0-521-29137-2 pg 3–4.
- Satish Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals, (Har-Anand, 2009), 278.
- Sachau, Edward (1910). Alberuni's India, Vol. 1. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. p. 22.
- Duiker and Spielvogel (2008). World History, Volume 1. Cengage Learning. p. 251.
- Gaborieau, Marc (June 1985). "From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the Hindu-Muslim Confrontation in South Asia". Anthropology Today 1 (3): 7–14.
- Hardy, Peter (1972). The Muslims of British India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521097833.
- Elliot, Henry Miers (1953). The History of India: as told by its own historians; the Muhammadan period (Excerpt from Jamiu'l-Hikayat). University of Michigan.
- Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
- Welch and Crane note that the Quwwatu'l-Islam was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
- Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai "Hindustan Islami Ahad Mein" (Hindustan under Islamic rule), Eng Trans by Maulana Abdul Hasan Nadwi
- Richard Eaton(2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
- R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non-Muslim Subjects in the Sultanate of Delhi under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229
- Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378
- William Wilson Hunter, The Indian Empire: Its Peoples, History, and Products, p. 334, at Google Books, WH Allen & Co., London, pp 334-337
- Irfan Habib (1978), Economic history of the Delhi Sultanate: An essay in interpretation, Indian Council of Historical Research, Vol 4, No. 2, pp 90-98, 289-297
- Scott Levi (2002), Hindu beyond Hindu Kush: Indians in Central Asian Slave Trade, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, Vol 12, Part 3, pp 281-283
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, p. 86, at Google Books, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 86-89
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 164-165, 104-107
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 183-185
- Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0, pp 160-161
- R. A. Donkin (1978), Beyond Price: Pearls and Pearl-fishing, American Philosophical Society, ISBN 978-0871692245, pp 170-172
- Narasimhachary, M. (2004). Śrī Vedānta Deśika (1st ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Academi. pp. 25–28. ISBN 8126018909.; V. N. Hari Rao, V. M. Reddi (1976). History of the Śrīrangam Temple. Sri Venkateswara University. p. 101.
- Aiyangar, S. Krishnaswami (1991). South India and her Muhammadan invaders ([1st ed., repr.] ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 112–113. ISBN 8120605365.
- L. Renganathan (26 January 2013). "Regal glorification for Lord Ranganatha at Srirangam". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 May 2013.; Prema Nandakumar (4 January 2012). "Koil Ozhugu, authentic documentation of history". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "Sri Venkateswara University Oriental Journal" 10. 1967: 48–50.
- Journal of South Asian Literature (Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University). 23–24: 102. 1988. Missing or empty
- Banerjee, Jamini (1967). History of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Munshiram Manoharlal.
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, p. 340, at Google Books, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 340-342
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, page 365
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, p. 380, at Google Books, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 380-382
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, p. 381, at Google Books, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 381-382
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, Oxford University Press, Chapter 2
- John Keay (2011). India: A History: From the Earliest Civilisations to the Boom of the Twenty-First Century. Grove Press. ISBN 0802195504. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, p. 497, at Google Books, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 497-503
- Burgan, Michael (2009). Empire of the Mongols. Infobase Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1604131632. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Raychaudhuri and Habib (2004). Cambridge Economic History Of India Vol-1. Orient Blackswan. p. 91. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, p. 503, at Google Books, Vol. 3, Trubner & Co., London, pages 503-504
- Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 4, Brill, Netherlands, ISBN 90-04-097902, page 793
- W Haig, The Cambridge History of India, Cambridge University Press, London, pages 279-280
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, p. 457, at Google Books, Vol. 6, Trubner & Co., London, pages 457-459
- Walter Roper Lawrence (2005), The Valley of Kashmir, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-8120616301, pages 190-191
- John Hutchison and Jean Philippe Vogel (1933), History of the Punjab Hill States, Volume 1, ISBN 978-8120609426, Reprinted in 1994, pages 268-271
- Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 4, Trubner & Co., London, page 47-59
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 4, Trubner & Co., London, page 72-73
- W Haig, The Cambridge History of India, Cambridge University Press, London, Chapter 9
- W Haig, The Cambridge History of India, Cambridge University Press, London, page 240
- This form of religious violence is summarized by multiple Muslim historians, for example in Zubdatu-t Tawarikh; Elliot and Dowson, Zubdatu-t Tawarikh The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 6, Trubner & Co., London, page 187
- Ahmad Yadgar, Wakiat-i Mushtaki and other texts describe that this use of stone idol parts to weigh food and particularly meat served as a daily reminder and humiliated the religious sentiments of Hindus who held all killing of animal life to be wrong and practiced vegetarianism.
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 4, Trubner & Co., London, page 447
- Tuzak-i Babari: The Autobiography of Babur, Republished in 2006 as: ISBN 978-9693518733, Translators: Elliot and Dowson
- Annette Susannah Beveridge, Babur-nama Volume 2, page 478-479; and Religious war and the massacres of 1526-1527 at pages 562-578
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 4, Trubner & Co., London, page 408-409
- Eyre Chatterton, The Story of Gondwana, Isaac Pitman & Sons, London, pp 19-29
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 5, Trubner & Co., London, pages 168-176
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 5, Trubner & Co., London, pages 173-174
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 5, Trubner & Co., London, pages 356-360
- Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 6, Trubner & Co., London, page 451
- Matthew White (2011), Aurangzeb - in Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History, W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN 978-0393081923
- Vincent Smith (1919), The Oxford History of India, Oxford University Press, page 438
- Vincent Smith (1919), The Oxford History of India, Oxford University Press, pages 437-439
- Vincent Smith (1919), The Oxford History of India, Oxford University Press, page 437
- Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). p. 297.
- Cynthia Talbot (1995), Inscribing the other, inscribing the self: Hindu-Muslim identities in pre-colonial India, Comparative studies in society and history, 37(4), pages 692-722
- Braudel, Fernand (1994). A History of Civilizations. translated by Richard Mayne. Penguin Books/Allen Lane. pp. 232–236. ISBN 0-713-99022-8.
- Bowring, Lewin (1893). Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan and the struggle with the Musalman powers of the south (1974 ed.). Delhi: ADABIYAT-I DELLI. ISBN 81-206-1299-X.
- "The Military in British India: The Development of British Land Forces in South Asia, 1600-1947", p. 62, by T. A. Heathcote, 1995
- Valath, V. v. k. (1981). Keralathile Sthacharithrangal – Thrissur Jilla (in Malayalam). Kerala Sahithya Academy. pp. 74–79.
- Kareem, C.K (1973). Kerala Under Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan. Kerala History Association: distributors, Paico Pub. House. p. 322.
- Brittlebank Tipu Sultan pp. 1-3; Phillip B. Wagoner "Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu Domain by Kate Brittlebank (Review)” The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 58, No. 2 (May 1999) pp. 541–543
- Prabhu 1999, p. 223
- Cariappa 1981, p. 48
- Sen 1930, p. 157
- Mappila Muslims of Kerala: a study in Islamic trends (1992), Roland E. Miller, Orient Longman, p. 93
- Hasan, The History of Tipu Sultan, pp. 362–363
- Tipu sent a letter on 19 January 1790 to the Governor of Bekal, Budruz Zuman Khan. It says: "Don't you know I have achieved a great victory recently in Malabar and over four lakh Hindus were converted to Islam? I am determined to march against that cursed Raman Nair (Rajah of Travancore) very soon. Since I am overjoyed at the prospect of converting him and his subjects to Islam, I have happily abandoned the idea of going back to Srirangapatanam now." - K.M. Panicker, Bhasha Poshini, August 1923;
The following is a translation of an inscription on the stone found at Seringapatam, which was situated in a conspicuous place in the fort: "Oh Almighty God! dispose the whole body of infidels! Scatter their tribe, cause their feet to stagger! Overthrow their councils, change their state, destroy their very root! Cause death to be near them, cut off from them the means of sustenance! Shorten their days! Be their bodies the constant object of their cares (i.e., infest them with diseases), deprive their eyes of sight, make black their faces (i.e., bring shame). - Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao (rao sahib), Benjamin Lewis Rice, (1930). Mysore gazetteer, Volume 2, Issue 4,. Government Press. p. 2697.
- Mohibbul Hasan The History of Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 1971 pp 359
- B.A. Saletare "Tipu Sultan as Defender of the Hindu Dharma" in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism, pp. 116–8
- Ali, Sheikh. "Persian script of Tipu Sultan on the gateway to Krishnaraja Sagar Dam (KRS)". Biography of Tipu Sultan. Cal-Info. http://www.tipusultan.org/script1.htm. Retrieved 17 October 2006
- Rao, Hayavadana C. History of Mysore 1399–1799: Incorporating the latest Epigraphical, Literary and Historical Researches Vol. 3 pgs 1047–53. Bangalore Government Press.
- Firishta, Muhammad Qãsim Hindû Shãh (1981) [First published 1829]. Tãrîkh-i-Firishta (History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India). John Briggs (trans.). New Delhi.
- Salomon, H. P. and Sassoon, I. S. D., in Saraiva, Antonio Jose. The Marrano Factory. The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians, 1536–1765 (Brill, 2001), pp. 345–7.
- de Souza, Teotonio (1994). Discoveries, Missionary Expansion, and Asian Cultures. Concept Publishing Company. p. 80. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Recall the Goa Inquisition to stop the Church from crying foul". Rediff (India). 16 March 1999.
- L'Inquisition de Goa. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Stokes, Eric (1973). The First Century of British Colonial Rule in India: Social Revolution or Social Stagnation?" Past and Present.
- "WAR STATS REDIRECT". Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Tsugitaka, Sato (2 Oct 2012). Muslim Societies: Historical and Comparative Aspects. Routledge. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Tyson, John D. IOR: Tyson Papers, Eur E341/41, Tyson's note on Calcutta disturbances, 29 September 1946.
- Burrows, Frederick (1946). Report to Viceroy Lord Wavell. The British Library IOR: L/P&J/8/655 f.f. 95, 96–107.
- Batabyal 2005, p. 263
- Fort, Adrian (31 Dec 2011). Archibald Wavell: The Life and Times of an Imperial Servant. Random House. p. 398.
- Fraser 2008, p. 21
- Batabyal 2005, p. 246
- Sanyal, Sunanda; Basu, Soumya (2011). The Sickle & the Crescent: Communists, Muslim League and India's Partition. London: Frontpage Publications. pp. 149–151. ISBN 978-81-908841-6-7.
- Das, Suranjan (May 2000). "The 1992 Calcutta Riot in Historical Continuum: A Relapse into 'Communal Fury'?". Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press) 34 (2): 281–306. doi:10.1017/S0026749X0000336X. JSTOR 313064.
- Sengupta, Debjani (2006). A City Feeding on Itself: Testimonies and Histories of ‘Direct Action’ Day. Sarai Reader.
- Wavell, Archibald P. (1946). Report to Lord Pethick-Lawrence. British Library Archives: IOR.
- Rashid, Harun-or (1987). The Foreshadowing of Bangladesh: Bengal Muslim League and Muslim Politics, 1936–1947,. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Chatterji 2002, p. 239: "The riots in Noakhali and Tippera, in which local Muslims, reacting ... to rumours of how their fellow-Muslims had been massacred in Calcutta and Bihar, killed hundreds of Hindus in reprisal ..."
- Fraser 2008, p. 19
- Batabyal 2005, p. 272
- Batabyal 2005, p. 280
- Chakrabarty 2004, p. 104
- Batabyal 2005, p. 273
- Batabyal 2005, p. 282
- Chatterji 2002, p. 114: "Ghulam Sarwar Hossain was an influential Noakhali pir who had led the extreme wing of the Noakhali Krishak Samiti."
- Chakrabarty 2004, p. 107
- Chatterji 2002, p. 202: "Namasudras and other low-caste and tribal groups ... When Noakhali experienced one of the worst carnages in Bengal's bloody history of communal conflict, many of the victims were Namasudras."
- Chakrabarty 2004, p. 106
- Telangana Liberation – A People's Struggle
- Veer Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (An Important Revolutionary of India) – Bhawan Singh Rana – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z By James Minahan
- HYDERABAD: The Holdout TIME Magazine, Monday, 30 August 1948
- D'Costa, Bina (2011), Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, Routledge, pp. 100–, ISBN 978-0-415-56566-0
- "Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan". statpak.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010.
- "rediff.com: No more safe at home, Pak Hindus flee". Specials.rediff.com. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- Press Trust of India (12 July 2010). "Hindus attacked, evicted from their homes in Pak’s Sindh". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- "Hindus attacked in Pakistan". Oneindia.in. 13 July 2010.
- "At least 25 Hindu Girls Abducted Every Month in Pakistan". The Chakra. April 2010.
- "Hindu temple guard gunned down in Peshawar". Newsweek Pakistan (AG Publications (Private) Limited.). Agence France-Presse. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Pakistan: The Ravaging of Golden Bengal". Time. 2 August 1971.
- U.S. Consulate (Dacca) Cable, Sitrep: Army Terror Campaign Continues in Dacca; Evidence Military Faces Some Difficulties Elsewhere, 31 March 1971, Confidential, 3 pp
- Telegram 978 From the Consulate General in Dacca to the Department of State, March 29, 1971, 1130Z
- Bose, S. (2011). Dead Reckoning: Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War. London: Hurst and Co. pp. 73, 122.
- U.S. State Department, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969–1976, Volume XI, "South Asia Crisis, 1971", page 165
- Kennedy, Senator Edward, "Crisis in South Asia – A report to the Subcommittee investigating the Problem of Refugees and Their Settlement, Submitted to U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee", 1 November 1971, U.S. Govt. Press, page 66. Sen. Kennedy wrote, "Field reports to the U.S. Government, countless eye-witness journalistic accounts, reports of International agencies such as World Bank and additional information available to the subcommittee document the reign of terror which grips East Bengal (East Pakistan). Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked 'H'. All of this has been officially sanctioned, ordered and implemented under martial law from Islamabad."
- "The Government's policy for East Bengal was spelled out to me in the Eastern Command headquarters at Dacca. It has three elements: 1. The Bengalis have proved themselves unreliable and must be ruled by West Pakistanis; 2. The Bengalis will have to be re-educated along proper Islamic lines. The – Islamization of the masses – this is the official jargon – is intended to eliminate secessionist tendencies and provide a strong religious bond with West Pakistan; 3. When the Hindus have been eliminated by death and flight, their property will be used as a golden carrot to win over the under privileged Muslim middle-class. This will provide the base for erecting administrative and political structures in the future."Hazelhurst, Peter (13 June 1971). "Dwindling flow of refugees suggests West Bengal border has been closed". London: The Times.
- "Bangladesh: A Bengali Abbasi Lurking Somewhere?". South Asia Analysis Group. 23 April 2001.
- DEATH BY GOVERNMENT, By R.J. Rummel New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994 
- "World: Pakistan: The Ravaging of Golden Bengal - Printout". TIME. 2 August 1971. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India After Gandhi. MacMillan. pp. 640–680.
- Gill, Kanwar Pal Singh. "The Kashmiri Pandits: An Ethnic Cleansing the World Forgot". South Asian Terrorism Portal. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- "Under renewed threats, pandits may flee the Valley". Hindustan Times. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- KASHMIR SENTINEL 16 August – 15 September 2000-Terrorists massacre Amarnath yatris
- "Fuelling the Fire". indiatoday.intoday.in. 22 July 2002. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Dasgupta, Manas (6 March 2011). "It was not a random attack on S-6 but kar sevaks were targeted, says judge". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Godhra verdict: 31 convicted, 63 acquitted NDTV – 1 March 2011
- "Hindu preacher killed by Tripura rebels". BBC News. 28 August 2000.
- "National Liberation Front of Tripura, India". South Asia Terrorism Portal. Archived from the original on 1 April 2015.
- Christianity threat looms over Bhuvan Pahar Assam Times – 23 June 2009
- Gunment Slaughter 38 on Bus in India in Bloodiest Attack of Sikh Campaign. 7 July 1987. Page A03. The Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Marad report slams Muslim League The Indian Express, 27 September 2006
- 62 get life term for Marad killings The Indian Express, 16 January 2009
- Mujtaba, Syed Ali (2005). Soundings on South Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-932705-40-9.
- Gupta, Jyoti Bhushan Das (2007). Science, technology, imperialism, and war – History of science, philosophy, and culture in Indian civilization. Volume XV. Science, technology, and philosophy ; pt. 1. Pearson Education India. p. 733. ISBN 978-81-317-0851-4.
- "Discrimination against Bangladeshi Hindus: Refugees International". Rediff.com. 9 August 2003. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- Bangladesh: The Next Afghanistan? by Hiranmay Karlekar. New Delhi: Sage, January 2006. ISBN 0-7619-3401-4
- "The 'Talibanization' of Bangladesh". The Nation. 18 May 2002. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- "The Talibanization of Bangladesh". metransparent.com. 9 August 2003. Archived from the original on 20 November 2006. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- Frank Pallone (17 May 2004). "Persecution of Hindus in Bangladesh (article mirrored from the US Library of Congress)". Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- Bangladesh slammed for persecution of Hindus,Rediff.com
- "Hindu temple attacked, idols destroyed in B'desh: Official". The Times of India. 6 February 2010.
- Choudhury, Salah Uddin Shoaib (4 September 2011). "Fresh atrocities on Hindu families in Bangladesh". Weekly Blitz. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013.
- "Bangladesh: Wave of violent attacks against Hindu minority". Press releases. Amnesty International. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Hindus Under Attack in Bangladesh". News Bharati. 3 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Bagerhat Hindu Temple Set on Fire". bdnews24.com. 2 March 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "US worried at violence". The Daily Star (Bangladesh). 12 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Mozena: Violence is not the way to resolution". The Daily Ittefaq. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Ethirajan, Anbarasan (9 March 2013). "Bangladesh minorities 'terrorised' after mob violence". BBC News (London). Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Nayyar, A.H. and Salim, A. (eds.)(2003). The subtle Subversion: A report on Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan. Report of the project A Civil Society Initiative in Curricula and Textbooks Reform. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad.
- Hate mongering worries minorities, Daily Times (Pakistan), 25 April 2006
- In Pakistan's Public Schools, Jihad Still Part of Lesson Plan – The Muslim nation's public school texts still promote hatred and jihad, reformers say. By Paul Watson, Times Staff Writer; 18 August 2005; Los Angeles Times. 4 Page article online Retrieved on 2 January 2010
- Primers Of Hate – History or biology, Pakistani students get anti-India lessons in all their textbooks; 'Hindu, Enemy Of Islam' – These are extracts from government-sponsored textbooks approved by the National Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education. By AMIR MIR; 10 October 2005; Outlook India Magazine Retrieved on 2 January 2010
- Noor's cure: A contrast in views; by Arindam Banerji; 16 July 2003; Rediff India Abroad Retrieved on 2 January 2010
- Curriculum of hatred, Dawn (newspaper), 26 May 2009
- ‘School texts spreading more extremism than seminaries’ By Our Special Correspondent; Tuesday, 19 May 2009; Dawn Newspaper. Retrieved 1 January 2010
- The threat of Pakistan's revisionist texts, The Guardian, 18 May 2009
- http://www.dawn.com/news/648524/the-ideology-of-thought-control The Ideology of Thought Control in Pakistan Dawn (newspaper)
- Pakistan: Do school texts fuel bias?, Christian Science Monitor, 21 January 2009
- Anwar, Syed. "State of minorities". Retrieved 18 August 2006.
- 25 Hindu girls abducted every month, claims HRCP official The News, Tuesday, 30 March 2010
- "Opp MNAs fight in PM’s presence". Retrieved 23 August 2006.
- "Pakistan". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Abduction of Hindus, Sikhs have become a business in Pak: PML MP Times of India – 28 August 2011
- ‘Pak Hindus not treated equally under law’ Zee News – 20 April 2012
- Hounded in Pakistan Daily Pioneer – 20 March 2012
- Another temple is no more,Dawn
- Sohail, Riaz (2 March 2007). "Hindus feel the heat in Pakistan". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Pakistani Hindu Youth Murdered in Sindh". news.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- "Hindus fleeing persecution in Pak". The Times of India. 5 September 2001.
- Goodbye To The Hindu Ghettos Tehelka – 17 October 2009 issue
- US Lawmakers Condemn Taliban Treatment Of Hindus, T.C. Malhotra
- "rediff.com US edition: US lawmakers say 'We are Hindus'". Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Taliban to mark Afghan Hindus,CNN
- "rediff.com: India deplores Taleban decree against Hindus". Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Taliban: Hindus Must Wear Identity Labels,People's Daily
- US lawmakers say: We are Hindus,Rediff.com
- US Lawmakers Condemn Taliban Treatment Of Hindus,CNSnews.com
- Immigrant Hinduism in Germany: Tamils from Sri Lanka and Their Temples,pluralism.org
- Bruce Haigh (2 January 2014). "Tribunal delivers Sri Lanka's guilty verdict". The Canberra Times (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Contacts". Tamils Against Genocide. 29 April 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
- Rosie DiManno (6 February 2014). "Sri Lanka's hidden genocide". Toronto Star. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Tamil group files lawsuit against Rajapaksa in US - Indian Express". The Indian Express. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- "TGTE Launches Signature Campaign for Sri Lanka Genocide Investigation". Transitional Government of Tamil Eelam. 24 April 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- In Rome, Durga is not welcome Daily Pioneer – 27 September 2009
- Italy is no longer (only) Christian Articolo Tre – 14 December 2012
- "KAZAKHSTAN: State bulldozes Hare Krishna commune, bids to chair OSCE". Forum 18 News Service. Retrieved 24 January 2007.
- "U.S. Embassy urges Kazakh authorities to end harassment of Hare Krishna". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 24 January 2007.
- Temple row – a dab of sensibility please,malaysiakini.com
- "Malaysia demolishes century-old Hindu temple". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Pressure on multi-faith Malaysia,BBC
- Hindu group protests 'temple cleansing' in Malaysia,Financial Express
- Malaysia ethnic Indians in uphill fight on religion Reuters India – 8 November 2007
- Malaysia Muslims protest proposed Hindu temple Associated Press – 28 August 2009
- Malaysia strips Hindus of rights Daily Pioneer – 19 January 2010
- Marshall, Paul. Saudi Arabia's Religious Police Crack Down at the Wayback Machine (archived May 22, 2006). Freedom House
- Jonathan Fraenkel; Stewart Firth (2007). From Election to Coup in Fiji: The 2006 Campaign and Its Aftermath. ANU E Press. p. 306.
- Roots of Land and Church: the Christian State Debate in Fiji – International journal for the Study of the Christian Church
- Singh, Sherry-Ann, Hinduism and the State in Trinidad,Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Volume 6, Number 3, September 2005, pp. 353–365(13)
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2002: Trinidad and Tobago". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- South African Muslims reject anti-Hindu DVD,India Enews
- "In Jersey City, Indians Protest Violence". The New York Times.
- "New York firebomb attacks hit mosque, Hindu site". News Daily. 2 January 2012
- Marriott, Michel (12 October 1987). "In Jersey City, Indians Protest Violence". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- In Jersey City, Indians Protest Violence. The New York Times, p. 2
- "DotBusters victim looks back", Ricardo Kaulessar, Hudson (N.J.) Reporter, 2 May 2009.
- Dot Busters in New Jersey.
- Avari, Burjor (2013). Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A history of Muslim power and presence in the Indian subcontinent. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-58061-8..
- Batabyal, Rakesh (2005). Communalism in Bengal: From Famine To Noakhali, 1943-47. SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-3335-9.
- Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2004). Partition of Bengal and Assam, 1932-1947. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-33275-5.
- Chatterji, Joya (2002). Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932-1947. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52328-8.
- Fraser, Bashabi (2008). Bengal Partition Stories: An Unclosed Chapter. Anthem Press. ISBN 978-1-84331-299-4.
- Prabhu, Alan Machado (1999). Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians. I.J.A. Publications. ISBN 978-81-86778-25-8..
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Religious persecution.|
- Human Rights Congress for Bangladesh Minorities
- The Hindu Minority in Bangladesh
- Attacks on the Hindu Minority in Bangladesh – Amnesty International
- Atrocities on Hindus catch US Congressmen's attention – United States Commission on Religious Freedom
- Bangladesh Chapter - 2015 Annual Report by United States Commission on International Religious Freedom USCIRF