Persecution

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Persecutory)
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group. The most common forms are religious persecution, racism and political persecution, though there is naturally some overlap between these terms. The inflicting of suffering, harassment, imprisonment, internment, fear, or pain are all factors that may establish persecution, but not all suffering will necessarily establish persecution. The suffering experienced by the victim must be sufficiently severe. The threshold level of severity has been a source of much debate.[1]

International law[edit]

As part of the Nuremberg Principles, crimes against humanity are part of international law. Principle VI of the Nuremberg Principles states that

The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under international law:...

(c) Crimes against humanity:

Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime.

Telford Taylor, who was Counsel for the Prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials wrote "[at] the Nuremberg war crimes trials, the tribunals rebuffed several efforts by the prosecution to bring such 'domestic' atrocities within the scope of international law as 'crimes against humanity'".[2] Several subsequent international treaties incorporate this principle, but some have dropped the restriction "in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime" that is in Nuremberg Principles.

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which is binding on 111 states, defines crimes against humanity in Article 7.1. The article criminalises certain acts "committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack". These include:

(h) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender.[3]..or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph [e.g. murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, imprisonment, torture, sexual violence, apartheid, and other inhumane acts] or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court

Religious[edit]

Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. Not only theorists of secularization (who presume a decline of religiosity in general) would willingly assume that religious persecution is a thing of the past[citation needed]. However, with the rise of fundamentalism and religiously related terrorism, this assumption has become even more controversial[citation needed]. Indeed, in many countries of the world today, religious persecution is a Human Rights problem.

Atheists[edit]

Atheists have experienced persecution throughout history. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property.

Baháʼís[edit]

The persecution of Baháʼís refers to the religious persecution of Baháʼís in various countries, especially in Iran,[4] which has the seventh largest Baháʼí population in the world, with just over 251,100 as of 2010.[5] The Baháʼí Faith originated in Iran, and it represents the largest religious minority in that country.

Buddhists[edit]

Persecution of Buddhists was a widespread phenomenon throughout the history of Buddhism, lasting to this day. This begun as early as the 3rd century AD, by the Zoroastrian high priest Kirder of the Sasanian Empire.[citation needed]

Anti-Buddhist sentiments in Imperial China between the 5th and 10th century led to the Four Buddhist Persecutions in China of which the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution of 845 was probably the most severe. However Buddhism managed to survive but was greatly weakened. During the Northern Expedition, in 1926 in Guangxi, Kuomintang Muslim General Bai Chongxi led his troops in destroying Buddhist temples and smashing idols, turning the temples into schools and Kuomintang party headquarters.[6] During the Kuomintang Pacification of Qinghai, the Muslim General Ma Bufang and his army wiped out many Tibetan Buddhists in the northeast and eastern Qinghai, and destroyed Tibetan Buddhist temples.[7]

The Muslim invasion of the Indian subcontinent was the first great iconoclastic invasion into the Indian subcontinent.[8] According to William Johnston, hundreds of Buddhist monasteries and shrines were destroyed, Buddhist texts were burnt by the Muslim armies, monks and nuns killed during the 12th and 13th centuries in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region.[9] The Buddhist university of Nalanda was mistaken for a fort because of the walled campus. The Buddhist monks who had been slaughtered were mistaken for Brahmins according to Minhaj-i-Siraj.[10] The walled town, the Odantapuri monastery, was also conquered by his forces. Sumpa basing his account on that of Śākyaśrībhadra who was at Magadha in 1200, states that the Buddhist university complexes of Odantapuri and Vikramshila were also destroyed and the monks massacred.[11] Muslim forces attacked the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times.[12] Many places were destroyed and renamed. For example, Odantapuri's monasteries were destroyed in 1197 by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji and the town was renamed.[13] Likewise, Vikramashila was destroyed by the forces of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji around 1200.[14] The sacred Mahabodhi Temple was almost completely destroyed by the Muslim invaders.[15][16] Many Buddhist monks fled to Nepal, Tibet, and South India to avoid the consequences of war.[17] Tibetan pilgrim Chöjepal (1179-1264), who arrived in India in 1234,[18] had to flee advancing Muslim troops multiple times, as they were sacking Buddhist sites.[19]

In Japan, the haibutsu kishaku during the Meiji Restoration (starting in 1868) was an event triggered by the official policy of separation of Shinto and Buddhism (or shinbutsu bunri). This caused great destruction to Buddhism in Japan, the destruction of Buddhist temples, images and texts took place on a large scale all over the country and Buddhist monks were forced to return to secular life.[citation needed]

During the 2012 Ramu violence in Bangladesh, a 25,000-strong Muslim mob set fire to at least five Buddhist temples and dozens of homes throughout the town and surrounding villages after seeing a picture of an allegedly desecrated Quran, which they claimed had been posted on Facebook by Uttam Barua, a local Buddhist man.[20][21]

Christians[edit]

A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. A Christian woman is martyred under Nero in this re-enactment of the myth of Dirce (painting by Henryk Siemiradzki, 1897, National Museum, Warsaw).

The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians may undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. Early Christians were persecuted for their faith at the hands of both Jews from whose religion Christianity arose and the Roman Empire which controlled much of the land across which early Christianity was distributed. Early in the fourth century, the religion was legalized by the Edict of Milan, and it eventually became the State church of the Roman Empire.

Christian missionaries, as well as the people that they converted to Christianity, have been the target of persecution, many times to the point of being martyred for their faith.

There is also a history of individual Christian denominations suffering persecution at the hands of other Christians under the charge of heresy, particularly during the 16th century Protestant Reformation as well as throughout the Middle Ages when various Christian groups deemed heretical were persecuted by the Papacy.

In the 20th century, Christians have been persecuted by various groups, and by atheistic states such as the USSR and North Korea. During the Second World War members of many Christian churches were persecuted in Germany for resisting the Nazi ideology.

In more recent times the Christian missionary organization Open Doors (UK) estimates 100 million Christians face persecution, particularly in Muslim-dominated countries such as Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.[22][23] According to the International Society for Human Rights, up to 80% of all acts of persecution are directed against people of the Christian faith.[24]

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism)[edit]

With the Missouri extermination order Mormons became the only religious group to have a state of the United States legalize the extermination of their religion. This was after a speech given by Sidney Rigdon called the July 4th Oration which while meant to state that Mormons would defend their lives and property was taken as inflammatory. Their forcible expulsion from the state caused the death of over a hundred due to exposure, starvation, and resulting illnesses. The Mormons suffered through tarring and feathering, their lands and possessions being repeatedly taken from them, mob attacks, false imprisonments, and the US sending an army to Utah to deal with the "Mormon problem" in the Utah War which resulted in a group of Mormons lead by John D. Lee massacring settlers at the Mountain Meadows Massacre. A government militia slaughtered Mormons in what is now known as the Haun's Mill massacre. The founder of the church, Joseph Smith, was killed in Carthage, Illinois by a mob of about 200 men, almost all of whom were members of the Illinois state militia including some members of the militia who were assigned to guard him.

Jehovah's Witnesses[edit]

Throughout the history of Jehovah's Witnesses, their beliefs, doctrines and practices have engendered controversy and opposition from local governments, communities, and mainstream Christian groups.

Copts[edit]

The persecution of Copts is a historical and ongoing issue in Egypt against Coptic Orthodox Christianity and its followers. It is also a prominent example of the poor status of Christians in the Middle East despite the religion being native to the region. Copts are the Christ followers in Egypt, usually Oriental Orthodox, who currently make up around 10% of the population of Egypt — the largest religious minority of that country.[a] Copts have cited instances of persecution throughout their history and Human Rights Watch has noted "growing religious intolerance" and sectarian violence against Coptic Christians in recent years, as well as a failure by the Egyptian government to effectively investigate properly and prosecute those responsible.[29][30]

The Muslim conquest of Egypt took place in AD 639, during the Byzantine empire. Despite the political upheaval, Egypt remained a mainly Christian, but Copts lost their majority status after the 14th century,[31] as a result of the intermittent persecution and the destruction of the Christian churches there,[32] accompanied by heavy taxes for those who refused to convert.[33] From the Muslim conquest of Egypt onwards, the Coptic Christians were persecuted by different Muslims regimes,[34] such as the Umayyad Caliphate,[35] Abbasid Caliphate,[36][37][38] Fatimid Caliphate,[39][40][41] Mamluk Sultanate,[42][43] and Ottoman Empire; the persecution of Coptic Christians included closing and demolishing churches and forced conversion to Islam.[44][45][46]

Since 2011 hundreds of Egyptian Copts have been killed in sectarian clashes, and many homes, Churches and businesses have been destroyed. In just one province (Minya), 77 cases of sectarian attacks on Copts between 2011 and 2016 have been documented by the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights.[47] The abduction and disappearance of Coptic Christian women and girls also remains a serious ongoing problem.[48][49][50]

Dogons[edit]

For almost 1000 years,[51] the Dogon people, an ancient tribe of Mali[52] had faced religious and ethnic persecution—through jihads by dominant Muslim communities.[51] These jihadic expeditions were to forced the Dogon to abandon their traditional religious beliefs for Islam. Such jihads caused the Dogon to abandon their original villages and moved up to the cliffs of Bandiagara for better defense and to escape persecution—often building their dwellings in little nooks and crannies.[51][53] In the early era of French colonialism in Mali, the French authorities appointed Muslim relatives of El Hadj Umar Tall as chiefs of the Bandiagara—despite the fact that the area has been a Dogon area for centuries.[54]

In 1864, Tidiani Tall, nephew and successor of the 19th century Senegambian jihadist and Muslim leader—El Hadj Umar Tall, chose Bandiagara as the capital of the Toucouleur Empire thereby exacerbating the inter-religious and inter-ethnic conflict. In recent years, the Dogon accused the Fulanis of supporting and sheltering Islamic terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda in Dogon country, leading to the creation of the Dogon militia Dan Na Ambassagou in 2016—whose aim is to defend the Dogon from systematic attacks. That resulted in the Ogossagou massacre of Fulanis in March 2019, and a Fula retaliation with the Sobane Da massacre in June of that year. In the wake of the Ogossagou massacre, the President of Mali, Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta and his government ordered the dissolution of Dan Na Ambassagou—whom they hold partly responsible for the attacks. The Dogon militia group denied any involvement in the massacre and rejected calls to disband.[55]

Druze[edit]

Qalb Loze: in June 2015, Druze were massacred there by the jihadist Nusra Front.[56]

Historically the relationship between the Druze and Muslims has been characterized by intense persecution.[57][58][59] The Druze faith is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, most Druze do not identify as Muslims,[60][61][62] and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam.[63] The Druze have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes such as the Shia Fatimid Caliphate,[64] Mamluk,[65] Sunni Ottoman Empire,[66] and Egypt Eyalet.[67][68] The persecution of the Druze included massacres, demolishing Druze prayer houses and holy places and forced conversion to Islam.[69] Those were no ordinary killings in the Druze's narrative, they were meant to eradicate the whole community according to the Druze narrative.[70] Most recently, the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, saw persecution of the Druze at the hands of Islamic extremists.[71][72]

Ibn Taymiyya a prominent Muslim scholar muhaddith, dismissed the Druze as non-Muslims,[73] and his fatwa cited that Druzes: "Are not at the level of ′Ahl al-Kitāb (People of the Book) nor mushrikin (polytheists). Rather, they are from the most deviant kuffār (Infidel) ... Their women can be taken as slaves and their property can be seized ... they are be killed whenever they are found and cursed as they described ... It is obligatory to kill their scholars and religious figures so that they do not misguide others",[74] which in that setting would have legitimized violence against them as apostates.[75][76] Ottomans have often relied on Ibn Taymiyya religious ruling to justify their persecution of Druze.[77]

Falun Gong[edit]

Falun Gong was introduced to the general public by Li Hongzhi in Changchun, China, in 1992. For the next few years, Falun Gong was the fastest growing qigong practice in Chinese history and, by 1999, there were millions of practitioners. Following the seven years of widespread popularity, on July 20, 1999, the government of the People's Republic of China began a nationwide persecution campaign against Falun Gong practitioners, except in the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.[78][79] In late 1999, legislation was created to outlaw "heterodox religions" and retroactively applied to Falun Gong.[80] Amnesty International states that the persecution is "politically motivated" with "legislation being used retroactively to convict people on politically-driven charges, and new regulations introduced to further restrict fundamental freedoms".[81]

Hindus[edit]

Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus that may undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. Hindus have been brutally persecuted during the historical Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent[82][better source needed] and during Portuguese rule of Goa.

Even in modern times, Hindus in Pakistan and Bangladesh have suffered persecution. Most recently, thousands of Hindus from Sindh province in Pakistan have been fleeing to India voicing fear for their safety. After the Partition of India in 1947, there were 8.8 million Hindus in Pakistan (excluding Bangladesh) in 1951. In 1951, Hindus constituted 22% of the Pakistani population (including present-day Bangladesh which formed part of Pakistan).[83][84] Today, the Hindu minority amounts to 1.7 percent of Pakistan's population.[85]

The Bangladesh Liberation War (1971) resulted in one of the largest genocides of the 20th century. While estimates of the number of casualties was 3,000,000, it is reasonably certain that Hindus bore a disproportionate brunt of the Pakistan Army's onslaught against the Bengali population of what was East Pakistan. An article in Time magazine dated 2 August 1971, stated "The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Muslim military hatred."[86] Senator Edward Kennedy wrote in a report that was part of United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations testimony dated 1 November 1971, "Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, mass rape and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked "H". All of this has been officially sanctioned, ordered and implemented under martial law from Islamabad". In the same report, Senator Kennedy reported that 80% of the refugees in India were Hindus and according to numerous international relief agencies such as UNESCO and World Health Organization the number of East Pakistani refugees at their peak in India was close to 10 million. In a syndicated column "The Pakistani Slaughter That Nixon Ignored", Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Sydney Schanberg wrote about his return to liberated Bangladesh in 1972. "Other reminders were the yellow "H"s the Pakistanis had painted on the homes of Hindus, particular targets of the Muslim army" (by "Muslim army", meaning the Pakistan Army, which had targeted Bengali Muslims as well), (Newsday, 29 April 1994).

In Bangladesh, on 28 February 2013, the International Crimes Tribunal sentenced Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, the Vice President of the Jamaat-e-Islami to death for the war crimes committed during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. Following the sentence, activists of Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing Islami Chhatra Shibir attacked the Hindus in different parts of the country. Hindu properties were looted, Hindu houses were burnt into ashes and Hindu temples were desecrated and set on fire.[87][88] The violence included the looting of Hindu properties and businesses, the burning of Hindu homes, the rape of Hindu women,[citation needed] and the desecration and destruction of, according to community leaders, more than 50 Hindu temples; 1,500 Hindu homes were destroyed in 20 districts.[89][90] While the government has held the Jamaat-e-Islami responsible for the attacks on the minorities, the Jamaat-e-Islami leadership has denied any involvement. The minority leaders have protested the attacks and appealed for justice. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh has directed the law enforcement to start suo motu investigation into the attacks. US Ambassador to Bangladesh express concern about attack of Jamaat on Bengali Hindu community.[91][92]

Jews[edit]

Persecution of Jews is a recurring phenomenon throughout Jewish history. It has occurred on numerous occasions and in widely different geographical locations. It may include pogroms, looting and demolition of private and public Jewish property (e.g., Kristallnacht), unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, torture, killing, or even mass execution (in World War II alone, approximately six million people were deliberately killed only for being Jewish). They have been expelled from their hometowns/countries, hoping to find havens in other polities. In recent times anti-Semitism has often been manifested as Anti-Zionism,[93][94] where Anti-Zionism is a prejudice against the Jewish movement for self-determination and the right of the Jewish people to a homeland in the State of Israel. Anti-Zionism can include threats to destroy the State of Israel (or otherwise eliminate its Jewish character), unfounded and inaccurate characterizations of Israel’s power in the world, and language or actions that hold Israel to a different standard than other countries.[95]

Muslims[edit]

Mass grave where events of the Srebrenica massacre of Bosnian Muslims unfolded

The persecution of Muslims has been a recurring phenomenon throughout the history of Islam. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beatings, torture, or execution. It may also refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or incitement to hate Muslims.

Persecution can extend beyond those who perceive themselves to be Muslims and include those who are perceived by others as Muslims, or it can include Muslims who are considered non-Muslims by fellow Muslims. The Ahmadiyya regard themselves as Muslims, but are seen by many other Muslims as non-Muslims and "heretics". In 1984, the Government of Pakistan, under General Zia-ul-Haq, passed Ordinance XX,[96] which banned proselytizing by Ahmadis and also banned Ahmadis from referring to themselves as Muslims. According to this ordinance, any Ahmadi who refers to oneself as a Muslim by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, directly or indirectly, or makes the call for prayer as other Muslims do, is punishable by imprisonment of up to 3 years. Because of these difficulties, Mirza Tahir Ahmad migrated to London.[citation needed]

Pagans & Heathens[edit]

Philosophers[edit]

Philosophers throughout the history of philosophy have been held in courts and tribunals for various offenses, often as a result of their philosophical activity, and some have even been put to death. The most famous example of a philosopher being put on trial is the case of Socrates, who was tried for, amongst other charges, corrupting the youth and impiety.[97] Others include:

  • Baruch Spinoza - Jewish philosopher who, at age 23, was put in cherem (similar to excommunication) by Jewish religious authorities for heresies such as his controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible, which formed the foundations of modern biblical criticism, and the pantheistic nature of the Divine.[101] Prior to that, he had been attacked on the steps of the community synagogue by a knife-wielding assailant shouting "Heretic!",[102] and later his books were added to the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books.

Serers[edit]

The persecution of the Serer people of Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania is multifaceted, and it includes both religious and ethnic elements. Religious and ethnic persecution of the Serer people dates back to the 11th century when King War Jabi usurped the throne of Tekrur (part of present-day Senegal) in 1030, and by 1035, introduced Sharia law and forced his subjects to submit to Islam.[103] With the assistance of his son (Leb), their Almoravid allies and other African ethnic groups who have embraced Islam, the Muslim coalition army launched jihads against the Serer people of Tekrur who refused to abandon Serer religion in favour of Islam.[104][105][106][107] The number of Serer deaths are unknown, but it triggered the exodus of the Serers of Tekrur to the south following their defeat, where they were granted asylum by the lamanes.[107] Persecution of the Serer people continued from the medieval era to the 19th century, resulting in the Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune. From the 20th to the 21st centuries, persecution of the Serers is less obvious, nevertheless, they are the object of scorn and prejudice.[108][109]

Sikhs[edit]

The 1984 anti-Sikh riots or the 1984 Sikh Massacre was a series of pogroms[110][111][112][113] directed against Sikhs in India, by anti-Sikh mobs, in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi, on 31 October 1984, by two of her Sikh bodyguards in response to her actions authorising the military operation Operation Blue Star. There were more than 8,000[114] deaths, including 3,000 in Delhi.[112] In June 1984, during Operation Blue Star, Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to attack the Golden Temple and eliminate any insurgents, as it had been occupied by Sikh separatists who were stockpiling weapons. Later operations by Indian paramilitary forces were initiated to clear the separatists from the countryside of Punjab state.[115]

The Indian government reported 2,700 deaths in the ensuing chaos. In the aftermath of the riots, the Indian government reported 20,000 had fled the city, however the People's Union for Civil Liberties reported "at least" 1,000 displaced persons.[116] The most affected regions were the Sikh neighbourhoods in Delhi. The Central Bureau of Investigation, the main Indian investigating agency, is of the opinion that the acts of violence were organized with the support from the then Delhi police officials and the central government headed by Indira Gandhi's son, Rajiv Gandhi.[117] Rajiv Gandhi was sworn in as Prime Minister after his mother's death and, when asked about the riots, said "when a big tree falls, the earth shakes" thus trying to justify the communal strife.[118]

There are allegations that the government destroyed evidence and shielded the guilty. The Asian Age front-page story called the government actions "the Mother of all Cover-ups"[119][120] There are allegations that the violence was led and often perpetrated by Indian National Congress activists and sympathisers during the riots.[121] The chief weapon used by the mobs, kerosene, was supplied by a group of Indian National Congress Party leaders who owned filling stations.[122]

Yazidis[edit]

The Persecution of Yazidis has been ongoing since at least the 10th century.[123][124] The Yazidi religion is regarded as devil worship by Islamists.[125] Yazidis have been persecuted by Muslim Kurdish tribes since the 10th century,[123] and by the Ottoman Empire from the 17th to the 20th centuries.[126] After the 2014 Sinjar massacre of thousands of Yazidis by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Yazidis still face violence from the Turkish Armed Forces and its ally the Syrian National Army, as well as discrimination from the Kurdistan Regional Government. According to Yazidi tradition (based on oral traditions and folk songs), estimated that 74 genocides against the Yazidis have been carried out in the past 800 years.[127]

Zoroastrians[edit]

A Zoroastrian family in Qajar Iran about 1910.

Persecution of Zoroastrians is the religious persecution inflicted upon the followers of the Zoroastrian faith. The persecution of Zoroastrians occurred throughout the religion's history. The discrimination and harassment began in the form of sparse violence and forced conversions. Muslims are recorded to have destroyed fire temples. Zoroastrians living under Muslim rule were required to pay a tax called jizya.[128]

Zoroastrian places of worship were desecrated, fire temples were destroyed and mosques were built in their place. Many libraries were burned and much of their cultural heritage was lost. Gradually an increasing number of laws were passed which regulated Zoroastrian behavior and limited their ability to participate in society. Over time, the persecution of Zoroastrians became more common and widespread, and the number of believers decreased by force significantly.[128]

Most were forced to convert due to the systematic abuse and discrimination inflicted upon them by followers of Islam. Once a Zoroastrian family was forced to convert to Islam, the children were sent to an Islamic school to learn Arabic and study the teachings of Islam, as a result some of these people lost their Zoroastrian faith. However, under the Samanids, who were Zoroastrian converts to Islam, the Persian language flourished. On occasion, the Zoroastrian clergy assisted Muslims in attacks against those whom they deemed Zoroastrian heretics.[128]

A Zoroastrian astrologer named Mulla Gushtasp predicted the fall of the Zand dynasty to the Qajar army in Kerman. Because of Gushtasp's forecast, the Zoroastrians of Kerman were spared by the conquering army of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. Despite the aforementioned favorable incident, the Zoroastrians during the Qajar dynasty remained in agony and their population continued to decline. Even during the rule of Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the dynasty, many Zoroastrians were killed and some were taken as captives to Azerbaijan.[129] Zoroastrians regard the Qajar period as one of their worst.[130] During the Qajar Dynasty, religious persecution of the Zoroastrians was rampant. Due to the increasing contacts with influential Parsi philanthropists such as Maneckji Limji Hataria, many Zoroastrians left Iran for India. There, they formed the second major Indian Zoroastrian community known as the Iranis.[131]

Ethnic[edit]

Ethnic persecution refers to perceived persecution based on ethnicity. Its meaning is parallel to that of racism, (based on race). The Rwandan genocide remains an atrocity that the indigenous Hutu and Tutsi peoples still believe is unforgivable. The Japanese occupation of China caused the death of millions of people, mostly peasants who were murdered after the Doolittle Raid in early-World War II.[citation needed]

Assyrians[edit]

Due to their Christian faith and ethnicity, the Assyrians have been persecuted since their adoption of Christianity. During the reign of Yazdegerd I, Christians in Persia were viewed with suspicion as potential Roman subversives, resulting in persecutions while at the same time promoting Nestorian Christianity as a buffer between the Churches of Rome and Persia. Persecutions and attempts to impose Zoroastrianism continued during the reign of Yazdegerd II.[132][133]

During the eras of Mongol rule under Genghis Khan and Timur, there was indiscriminate slaughter of tens of thousands of Assyrians and destruction of the Assyrian population of northwestern Iran and central and northern Iran.[134]

More recent persecutions since the 19th century include the Massacres of Badr Khan, the Massacres of Diyarbakır (1895), the Adana massacre, the Assyrian genocide, the Simele Massacre, and the al-Anfal campaign.

Germans[edit]

The persecution of ethnic Germans refers to systematic activity against groups of ethnic Germans based on their ethnicity.

Historically, this has been due to two causes: the German population was considered, whether factually or not, linked with German nationalist regimes such as those of the Nazis or Kaiser Wilhelm. This was the case in the World War I era persecution of Germans in the United States, and also in Eastern and Central Europe following the end of World War II. While many victims of these persecutions did not, in fact, have any connection to those regimes, cooperation between German minority organisations and Nazi regime did occur, as the example of Selbstschutz shows, which is still used as a pretense of hostilities against those who did not take part in such organisations. After World War II, many such Volksdeutsche were killed or driven from their homes[who?] in acts of vengeance, others in ethnic cleansing of territories prior to populating them with citizens of the annexing country.[where?] In other cases (e.g. in the case of the formerly large German-speaking populations of Russia, Estonia, or the Transylvanian (Siebenbürgen) German minority in Rumania and the Balkans) such persecution was a crime committed against innocent communities who had played no part in the Third Reich.

Hazara people[edit]

The Hazara people of central Afghanistan have been persecuted by Afghan rulers at various times in the history. Since the tragedy of 9/11, Sunni Muslim terrorists have been attacking the Hazara community in southwestern Pakistani town of Quetta, home to some 500,000 Hazara who fled persecution in neighbouring Afghanistan. Some 2,400 men, women and children have been killed or wounded with Lashkar-e-Jhangvi claiming responsibility for most of the attacks against the community. Consequently, many thousands have fled the country seeking asylum in Australia.[citation needed]

Roma[edit]

Antiziganism is hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism directed against the Romani people as an ethnic group, or people who are perceived as being of Romani heritage.

The Porajmos was the planned and attempted effort, often described as a genocide, during World War II by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate the Romani (Gypsy) people of Europe. Under the rule of Adolf Hitler, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws was issued on 26 November 1935, defining Gypsies as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews. Thus, the fate of Roma in Europe in some ways paralleled that of the Jews.[135] Historians estimate that 220,000 to 500,000 Romani were killed by the Nazis and their collaborators, or more than 25% of the slightly less than 1 million Roma in Europe at the time.[135] Ian Hancock puts the death toll as high as 1.5 million.[136]

Rohingyas[edit]

The UN human rights chief slammed Myanmar's apparent "systematic attack" on the Rohingya minority, warning that "ethnic cleansing" seemed to be underway. Ethnic Rohingya Muslims fleeing security forces in Myanmar’s Rakhine State have described killings, shelling, and arson in their villages that have all the hallmarks of a campaign of “ethnic cleansing,” Human Rights Watch said. “Rohingya refugees have harrowing accounts of fleeing Burmese army attacks and watching their villages be destroyed,” said Meenakshi Ganguly, South Asia director. “Lawful operations against armed groups do not involve burning the local population out of their homes.” [137]

Sri Lankan Tamils[edit]

Widespread attacks on Sri Lankan Tamils came in the form of island wide ethnic riots, including The 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom and the Black July riots. Further persecution through murders, targeted rape and kidnapping occurred. Whilst previously, the majority of Tamils demanded instead for a separate state, by 1983 armed struggles against Sinhalese extremists began to rise, culminating in the formation of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.[citation needed]

Uyghurs[edit]

Uyghurs and other Turkic peoples in modern-day Xinjiang (called East Turkestan by independence activists) declared two short-lived independent East Turkestan Republics[disambiguation needed] in the 20th century.[138][139] In late 1949, the region and the rest of China came under the control of the People's Republic of China.[138]

Uyghur activist groups have said that anger towards the Chinese government has been fueled by years of state-sponsored oppression and discrimination.[138] In 2017, the China began a large-scale crackdown on the Xinjiang region, which it justifies as a counterterrorism campaign following sporadic terrorist attacks in Xinjiang.[138] Scholars estimate that the Chinese government detained over one million Uyghurs in interment camps (also called re-education camps) for indoctrination away from religion and towards assimilation.[138][139] Critics of the policy have described it as the Sinicization of Xinjiang and have called it an ethnocide or cultural genocide,[140][141][142] while some governments, activists, independent NGOs, human rights experts, academics, government officials, and the East Turkistan Government-in-Exile have called it a genocide.[143][144]

Based on genetics[edit]

People with albinism[edit]

Persecution on the basis of albinism is frequently based on the belief that albinos are inferior to persons with higher concentration of melanin in their skin. As a result, albinos have been persecuted, killed and dismembered, and graves of albinistic people dug up and desecrated. Such people have also been ostracized and even killed because they are presumed to bring bad luck in some areas. Haiti also has a long history of treating albinistic people as accursed, with the highest incidence under the influence of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier.[citation needed]

Of people with autism[edit]

People with autism spectrum disorders have commonly been victims of persecution, both throughout history and in the present era. In Cameroon children with autism are commonly accused of witchcraft and singled out for torture and even death.[145][146]

Additionally, it is speculated that many of the disabled children murdered during Action T4 in Nazi Germany may have been autistic,[147] making autistic people among the first victims of The Holocaust.

LGBT[edit]

A number of countries, especially those in the Western world, have passed measures to alleviate discrimination against sexual minorities, including laws against anti-gay hate crimes and workplace discrimination. Some have also legalized same-sex marriage or civil unions in order to grant same-sex couples the same protections and benefits as opposite-sex couples. In 2011, the United Nations passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights and, in 2015, same-sex marriage was legalized in all states of the United States.[citation needed]

Based on military service[edit]

In fiction, Robert A. Heinlein depicts a society where suffrage rights depend on military service in his 1959 novel Starship Troopers.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 2017, the Wall Street Journal reported that "the vast majority of Egypt's estimated 9.5 million Christians, approximately 10% of the country's population, are Orthodox Copts."[25] In 2019, the Associated Press cited an estimate of 10 million Copts in Egypt.[26] In 2015, the Wall Street Journal reported: "The Egyptian government estimates about 5 million Copts, but the Coptic Orthodox Church says 15-18 million. Reliable numbers are hard to find but estimates suggest they make up somewhere between 6% and 18% of the population."[27] The CIA World Factbook reported a 2015 estimate that 10% of the Egyptian population is Christian (including both Copts and non-Copts).[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rempell, Scott (2011). "Defining Persecution". Utah Law Review. Social Science Research Network. 2013 (1). doi:10.2139/ssrn.1941006.
  2. ^ Telford Taylor "When people kill a people", The New York Times, March 28, 1982.
  3. ^ Article 7.3 of the Rome Statute, which constitutes "compromise text" states that "For the purpose of this Statute, it is understood that the term 'gender' refers to the two sexes, male and female, within the context of society. The term 'gender' does not indicate any meaning different from the above." While under international criminal law persecution based on Gender Identity is also prohibited, during the Rome Diplomatic Conference that adopted the ICC Statute, it was decided to define gender narrowly in order to overcome opposition from the Holy See and other states that were concerned that the ICC could theoretically also look into discriminatory practices of religious institutions. This provision was balanced with that of Article 10, which states that "Nothing in this Part shall be interpreted as limiting or prejudicing in any way existing or developing rules of international law for purposes other than this Statute."
  4. ^ International Federation for Human Rights (2003-08-01). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
  5. ^ "QuickLists: Most Baha'i Nations (2010)". Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2020-10-14.
  6. ^ Diana Lary (1974). Region and nation: the Kwangsi clique in Chinese politics, 1925-1937. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-521-20204-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  7. ^ David S. G. Goodman (2004). China's campaign to "Open up the West": national, provincial, and local perspectives. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-521-61349-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  8. ^ Levy, Robert I. Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990 1990.
  9. ^ William M. Johnston (2000). Encyclopedia of Monasticism: A-L. Routledge. p. 335. ISBN 978-1-57958-090-2.
  10. ^ Eraly, Abraham (April 2015). The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. ISBN 9789351186588.
  11. ^ A Comprehensive History Of India, Vol. 4, Part 1, pp. 600 & 601.
  12. ^ Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions By C. J. Bleeker, G. Widengren p. 381.
  13. ^ S. Muthiah. Where the Buddha Walked. p. 41.
  14. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 89.
  15. ^ The Maha-Bodhi by Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 8)
  16. ^ The Maha-Bodhi by Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 205)
  17. ^ Islam at War: A History By Mark W. Walton, George F. Nafziger, Laurent W. Mbanda (p. 226)
  18. ^ The Holy Land Reborn: Pilgrimage and the Tibetan Reinvention of Buddhist India. University of Chicago Press. 15 September 2008. ISBN 9780226356501.
  19. ^ Roerich, G. 1959. Biography of Dharmasvamin (Chag lo tsa-ba Chos-rje-dpal): A Tibetan Monk Pilgrim. Patna: K. P. Jayaswal Research Institute. pp. 61–62, 64, 98.
  20. ^ "Protesters burn Bangladesh Buddhist temples". Al Jazeera. 30 September 2012.
  21. ^ "Religious attacks lead to 300 arrests in Bangladesh". ABC News. 2 October 2012.
  22. ^ Open Doors: The worst 50 countries for persecution of Christians Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Open Doors: Weltverfolgungsindex 2012 Archived 2012-07-13 at the Wayback Machine, p. 2
  24. ^ Philpott, Daniel, Pope Francis and Religious Freedom, Washington, DC: Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs
  25. ^ Francis X. Rocca & Dahlia Kholaif, Pope Francis Calls on Egypt’s Catholics to Embrace Forgiveness, Wall Street Journal (April 29, 2017).
  26. ^ Noha Elhennawy, Egyptian woman fights unequal Islamic inheritance laws, Associated Press (November 15, 2019).
  27. ^ "Five Things to Know About Egypt's Coptic Christians". Wall Street Journal. February 16, 2015.
  28. ^ "Egypt". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  29. ^ Egypt and Libya: A Year of Serious Abuses Archived 2011-07-04 at the Wayback Machine, hrw.org, January 24, 2010
  30. ^ Zaki, Moheb (May 18, 2010). "Egypt's Persecuted Christians". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
  31. ^ Shea, Nina (June 2017). "Do Copts have a future in Egypt". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20.
  32. ^ Etheredge, Laura S. (2011). Middle East, Region in Transition: Egypt. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 161. ISBN 9789774160936.
  33. ^ Conversion, Exemption, and Manipulation: Social Benefits and Conversion to Islam in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Forcing taxes on those who refuse to convert (PDF), ʿUmar is depicted as having ordered that "the poll-tax should be taken from all men who would not become Muslims"
  34. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Egypt : Copts of Egypt". Refworld. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  35. ^ H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 219.
  36. ^ Goddard, Hugh (2000). A History of Christian–Muslim Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 71. ISBN 1566633400. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  37. ^ Feder, Frank (2017). "The Bashmurite Revolts in the Delta and the 'Bashmuric Dialect'". In Gabra, Gawdat; Takla, Hany N. (eds.). Christianity and Monasticism in Northern Egypt: Beni Suef, Giza, Cairo, and the Nile Delta. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 33–35.
  38. ^ Lapidus, Ira M. (1972). "The Conversion of Egypt to Islam". Israel Oriental Studies. 2: 257.
  39. ^ Robert Ousterhout, "Rebuilding the Temple: Constantine Monomachus and the Holy Sepulchre" in The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 48, No. 1 (March, 1989), pp.66–78
  40. ^ John Joseph Saunders (11 March 2002). A History of Medieval Islam. Routledge. pp. 109–. ISBN 978-1-134-93005-0.
  41. ^ Marina Rustow (3 October 2014). Heresy and the Politics of Community: The Jews of the Fatimid Caliphate. Cornell University Press. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-0-8014-5529-2.
  42. ^ Teule, Herman G. B. (2013). "Introduction: Constantinople and Granada, Christian-Muslim Interaction 1350-1516". In Thomas, David; Mallett, Alex (eds.). Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History, Volume 5 (1350-1500). Brill. p. 10. ISBN 9789004252783.
  43. ^ Werthmuller, Kurt J. (2010). Coptic Identity and Ayyubid Politics in Egypt, 1218-1250. American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780805440737.
  44. ^ Lyster, William (2013). The Cave Church of Paul the Hermit at the Monastery of St. Pau. Yale University Press. ISBN 9789774160936. Al Hakim Bi-Amr Allah (r. 996—1021), however, who became the greatest persecutor of Copts.... within the church that also appears to coincide with a period of forced rapid conversion to Islam
  45. ^ N. Swanson, Mark (2010). The Coptic Papacy in Islamic Egypt (641-1517). American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 54. ISBN 9789774160936. By late 1012 the persecution had moved into high gear with demolitions of churches and the forced conversion of Christian ...
  46. ^ ha-Mizraḥit ha-Yiśreʼelit, Ḥevrah (1988). Asian and African Studies, Volume 22. Jerusalem Academic Press. Muslim historians note the destruction of dozens of churches and the forced conversion of dozens of people to Islam under al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah in Egypt ...These events also reflect the Muslim attitude toward forced conversion and toward converts.
  47. ^ Eltahawy, Mona (22 December 2016). "Egypt's Cruelty to Christians". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  48. ^ United States. Congress. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (July 18, 2012). Escalating Violence Against Coptic Women and Girls: Will the New Egypt be More Dangerous than the Old? : Hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Second Session, July 18, 2012. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  49. ^ "Masress : Sectarian tensions rise in wake of crime boss death". Masress. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  50. ^ Premier (2018-05-09). "Newlywed becomes 8th Egyptian Christian woman to be kidnapped since April". Premier. Retrieved 2019-10-14.
  51. ^ a b c Griaule, Marcel; Dieterlen, Germaine; (1965). Le mythe cosmologique. Le renard pâle., 1. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie Musée de l'homme, p. 17
  52. ^ The Independent, Caught in the crossfire of Mali's war (25 January 2013) by Kim Sengupta [1] (retrieved March 14, 2020)
  53. ^ Africa Today, Volume 7, Afro Media (2001), p. 126
  54. ^ Wise, Christopher, Sorcery, Totem, and Jihad in African Philosophy, Bloomsbury Publishing (2017), p. 68, ISBN 9781350013100 (retrieved March 14, 2020) [2]
  55. ^ World Politics Review, What Explains the Rise of Communal Violence in Mali, Nigeria and Ethiopia? (Sept. 11, 2019) by Hilary Matfess. [3]
  56. ^ Syria Druze back Sunnis' revolt with words but not arms. Agence France-Presse. 2012-09-08.
  57. ^ Swayd, Samy (2015). Historical Dictionary of the Druzes. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 132. ISBN 9781442246171. Some Muslim rulers and jurists have advocated the persecution of members of the Druze Movement beginning with the seventh Fatimi Caliph Al-Zahir, in 1022. Recurring period of persecutions in subsequent centuries ... failure to elucidate their beliefs and practices, have contributed to the ambiguous relationship between Muslims and Druzes
  58. ^ K. Zartman, Jonathan (2020). Conflict in the Modern Middle East: An Encyclopedia of Civil War, Revolutions, and Regime Change. ABC-CLIO. p. 199. ISBN 9781440865039. Historically, Islam classified Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians as protected “People of the Book,” a secondary status subject to payment of a poll tax. Nevertheless, Zoroastrians suffered significant persecution. Other religions such as the Alawites, Alevis, and Druze often suffered more.
  59. ^ Layiš, Aharôn (1982). Marriage, Divorce, and Succession in the Druze Family: A Study Based on Decisions of Druze Arbitrators and Religious Courts in Israel and the Golan Heights. BRILL. p. 1. ISBN 9789004064126. the Druze religion, though originating from the Isma'lliyya, an extreme branch of the Shia, seceded completely from Islam and has, therefore, experienced periods of persecution by the latter.
  60. ^ "Are the Druze People Arabs or Muslims? Deciphering Who They Are". Arab America. Arab America. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  61. ^ J. Stewart, Dona (2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781135980795. Most Druze do not consider themselves Muslim. Historically they faced much persecution and keep their religious beliefs secrets.
  62. ^ Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne (2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780199862634. While they appear parallel to those of normative Islam, in the Druze religion they are different in meaning and interpretation. The religion is consider distinct from the Ismaili as well as from other Muslims belief and practice... Most Druze consider themselves fully assimilated in American society and do not necessarily identify as Muslims..
  63. ^ De McLaurin, Ronald (1979). The Political Role of Minority Groups in the Middle East. Michigan University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780030525964. Theologically, one would have to conclude that the Druze are not Muslims. They do not accept the five pillars of Islam. In place of these principles the Druze have instituted the seven precepts noted above..
  64. ^ Parsons, L. (2000). The Druze between Palestine and Israel 1947–49. Springer. p. 2. ISBN 9780230595989. With the succession of al-Zahir to the Fatimid caliphate a mass persecution (known by the Druze as the period of the mihna) of the Muwaḥḥidūn was instigated ...
  65. ^ Hitti 1924.
  66. ^ C. Tucker, Spencer C. (2019). Middle East Conflicts from Ancient Egypt to the 21st Century: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 364–366. ISBN 9781440853531.
  67. ^ Taraze Fawaz, Leila. An occasion for war: civil conflict in Lebanon and Damascus in 1860. p.63.
  68. ^ Goren, Haim. Dead Sea Level: Science, Exploration and Imperial Interests in the Near East. p.95-96.
  69. ^ C. Tucker, Spencer C. (2019). Middle East Conflicts from Ancient Egypt to the 21st Century: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 9781440853531.
  70. ^ Zabad, Ibrahim (2017). Middle Eastern Minorities: The Impact of the Arab Spring. Routledge. ISBN 9781317096726.
  71. ^ "Syria conflict: Al-Nusra fighters kill Druze villagers". BBC News. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  72. ^ "Nusra Front kills Syrian villagers from minority Druze sect". thestar.com. 11 June 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  73. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie (2011). Religious Minorities in the Middle East: Domination, Self-Empowerment, Accommodation. BRILL. p. 255. ISBN 9789004207424. Therefore, many of these scholars follow Ibn Taymiyya'sfatwa from the beginning of the fourteenth century that declared the Druzes and the Alawis as heretics outside Islam ...
  74. ^ Zabad, Ibrahim (2017). Middle Eastern Minorities: The Impact of the Arab Spring. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 9781317096733.
  75. ^ Knight, Michael (2009). Journey to the End of Islam. Soft Skull Press. p. 129. ISBN 9781593765521.
  76. ^ S. Swayd, Samy (2009). The A to Z of the Druzes. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 37. ISBN 9780810868366. Subsequently, Muslim opponents of the Druzes have often relied on Ibn Taymiyya's religious ruling to justify their attitudes and actions against Druzes...
  77. ^ S. Swayd, Samy (2009). The Druzes: An Annotated Bibliography. University of Michigan Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780966293203.
  78. ^ Faison, Seth (April 27, 1999) "In Beijing: A Roar of Silent Protesters" New York Times, retrieved June 10, 2006
  79. ^ Kahn, Joseph (April 27, 1999) "Notoriety Now for Exiled Leader of Chinese Movement" New York Times, retrieved June 14, 2006
  80. ^ Leung, Beatrice (2002) 'China and Falun Gong: Party and society relations in the modern era', Journal of Contemporary China, 11:33, 761 – 784
  81. ^ The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so-called heretical organizations , The Amnesty International
  82. ^ Durant, Will. The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage. p. 459. The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within. The Hindus had allowed their strength to be wasted in internal division and war; they had adopted religions like Buddhism and Jainism, which unnerved them for the tasks of life; they had failed to organize their forces for the protection of their frontiers and their capitals, their wealth and their freedom, from the hordes of Scythians, Huns, Afghans and Turks hovering about India's boundaries and waiting for national weakness to let them in. For four hundred years (600–1000 AD) India invited conquest; and at last it came.
  83. ^ Census of Pakistan, 1951
  84. ^ Hindu Masjids by Prafull Goradia, 2002 "In 1951, Muslims were 77 percent and Hindus were 22 percent."
  85. ^ Census of Pakistan Archived December 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  86. ^ "World: Pakistan: The Ravaging of Golden Bengal - Printout". TIME. 2 August 1971. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
  87. ^ "Hindus Under Attack in Bangladesh". News Bharati. March 3, 2013. Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  88. ^ "Bagerhat Hindu Temple Set on Fire". bdnews24.com. March 2, 2013. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  89. ^ "Bangladesh: Wave of violent attacks against Hindu minority". Press releases. Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 2013-03-09. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  90. ^ Ethirajan, Anbarasan (9 March 2013). "Bangladesh minorities 'terrorised' after mob violence". BBC News. London. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  91. ^ "US worried at violence". The Daily Star (Bangladesh). March 12, 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  92. ^ "Mozena: Violence is not the way to resolution". The Daily Ittefaq. March 11, 2013. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  93. ^ New antisemitism
  94. ^ "Anti-zionism as an expression of anti-Semitism in recent years". huji.ac.il. Archived from the original on 12 May 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  95. ^ What Is… Anti-Israel, Anti-Semitic, Anti-Zionist?
  96. ^ "Government of Pakistan – Law for Ahmadis". www.thepersecution.org. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  97. ^ "What Was the Charge Against Socrates?" Retrieved September 1, 2009
  98. ^
    • Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate 1750–1900, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 10, "[Bruno's] sources... seem to have been more numerous than his followers, at least until the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century revival of interest in Bruno as a supposed 'martyr for science.' It is true that he was burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, but the church authorities guilty of this action were almost certainly more distressed at his denial of Christ's divinity and alleged diabolism than at his cosmological doctrines."
    • Adam Frank (2009). The Constant Fire: Beyond the Science vs. Religion Debate, University of California Press, p. 24, "Though Bruno may have been a brilliant thinker whose work stands as a bridge between ancient and modern thought, his persecution cannot be seen solely in light of the war between science and religion."
    • White, Michael (2002). The Pope and the Heretic: The True Story of Giordano Bruno, the Man who Dared to Defy the Roman Inquisition, p. 7. Perennial, New York. "This was perhaps the most dangerous notion of all... If other worlds existed with intelligent beings living there, did they too have their visitations? The idea was quite unthinkable."
    • Shackelford, Joel (2009). "Myth 7 That Giordano Bruno was the first martyr of modern science". In Numbers, Ronald L. (ed.). Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion. Harvard University Press. p. 66. "Yet the fact remains that cosmological matters, notably the plurality of worlds, were an identifiable concern all along and appear in the summary document: Bruno was repeatedly questioned on these matters, and he apparently refused to recant them at the end.14 So, Bruno probably was burned alive for resolutely maintaining a series of heresies, among which his teaching of the plurality of worlds was prominent but by no means singular."
  99. ^ Martínez, Alberto A. (2018). Burned Alive: Giordano Bruno, Galileo and the Inquisition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-1780238968.
  100. ^ "Tommaso Campanella" - first published Wed Aug 31, 2005" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved September 1, 2009
  101. ^
  102. ^ Scruton, Roger (2002). Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-280316-0.
  103. ^ Clark, Andrew F., & Phillips, Lucie Colvin, "Historical Dictionary of Senegal". ed: 2, Metuchen, New Jersey : Scrarecrow Press (1994) p 265
  104. ^ Page, Willie F., "Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms (500 to 1500)", pp 209, 676. Vol.2, Facts on File (2001), ISBN 0-8160-4472-4
  105. ^ Streissguth, Thomas, "Senegal in Pictures, Visual Geography", Second Series, p 23, Twenty-First Century Books (2009), ISBN 1-57505-951-7
  106. ^ Oliver, Roland Anthony, Fage, J. D., "Journal of African history", Volume 10, p 367. Cambridge University Press (1969)
  107. ^ a b Mwakikagile, Godfrey, "Ethnic Diversity and Integration in The Gambia: The Land, The People and The Culture," (2010), p 11, ISBN 9987-9322-2-3
  108. ^ Abbey, M T Rosalie Akouele, "Customary Law and Slavery in West Africa", Trafford Publishing (2011), pp 481-482, ISBN 1-4269-7117-6
  109. ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey, "Ethnic Diversity and Integration in The Gambia: The Land, The People and The Culture," (2010), p 241, ISBN 9987-9322-2-3
  110. ^ State pogroms glossed over. The Times of India. 31 December 2005.
  111. ^ "Anti-Sikh riots a pogrom: Khushwant". Rediff.com. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  112. ^ a b Bedi, Rahul (1 November 2009). "Indira Gandhi's death remembered". BBC. Archived from the original on 2 November 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2009. The 25th anniversary of Indira Gandhi's assassination revives stark memories of some 3,000 Sikhs killed brutally in the orderly pogrom that followed her killing
  113. ^ Nugus, Phillip (Spring 2007). "The Assassinations of Indira & Rajiv Gandhi". BBC Active. Retrieved 23 July 2010.[dead link]
  114. ^ "Delhi court to give verdict on re-opening 1984 riots case against Congress leader Jagdish Tytler". ndtv.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  115. ^ Charny, Israel W. (1999). Encyclopaedia of genocide. ABC-CLIO. pp. 516–517. ISBN 978-0-87436-928-1. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  116. ^ Mukhoty, Gobinda; Kothari, Rajni (1984), Who are the Guilty ?, People's Union for Civil Liberties, retrieved 4 November 2010
  117. ^ "1984 anti-Sikh riots backed by Govt, police: CBI". IBN Live. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  118. ^ "1984 anti-Sikh riots 'wrong', says Rahul Gandhi". Hindustan Times. 18 November 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  119. ^ Mustafa, Seema (2005-08-09). "1984 Sikhs Massacres: Mother of All Cover-ups". The Asian Age. p. 1.
  120. ^ Agal, Renu (2005-08-11). "Justice delayed, justice denied". BBC News.
  121. ^ "Leaders 'incited' anti-Sikh riots". BBC News. August 8, 2005. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  122. ^ Kaur, Jaskaran; Crossette, Barbara (2006). Twenty years of impunity: the November 1984 pogroms of Sikhs in India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Ensaaf. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-9787073-0-9. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  123. ^ a b Naby, Eden (2009). "Yazīdīs". In Esposito, John (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195305135.
  124. ^ Acikyildiz, Birgul (2014-08-20). The Yezidis: The History of a Community, Culture and Religion. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-78453-216-1.
  125. ^ Jalabi, Raya (2014-08-11). "Who are the Yazidis and why is Isis hunting them?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  126. ^ Evliya Çelebi, The Intimate Life of an Ottoman Statesman: Melek Ahmed Pasha (1588–1662), Translated by Robert Dankoff, 304 pp., SUNY Press, 1991; ISBN 0-7914-0640-7, pp. 169–171
  127. ^
  128. ^ a b c Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1936). First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936: E.J.Brill's. 2. BRILL. p. 100. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. 9789004097964.
  129. ^ Shahmardan, Rashid, History of Zoroastrians past Sasanians, p. 125
  130. ^ Price, Massoume (2005), Iran's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook (Illustrated ed.), ABC-CLIO, p. 205, ISBN 9781576079935
  131. ^ "ZOROASTRIANISM ii. Arab Conquest to Modern – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  132. ^ Bauer, Susan Wise (2010). The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-0-393-07817-6.
  133. ^ Mullin, Robert Bruce (2006). A Short World History of Christianity. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 82–85. ISBN 978-0-664-23664-9.
  134. ^ "Nestorian (Christian sect)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  135. ^ a b "Holocaust Encyclopedia - Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939-1945". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM). Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  136. ^ Hancock, Ian (2005), "True Romanies and the Holocaust: A Re-evaluation and an overview", The Historiography of the Holocaust, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 383–396, ISBN 1-4039-9927-9[permanent dead link]
  137. ^ http://www.thedailystar.net/world/south-asia/atrocities-rohingyas-myanmar-have-hallmarks-ethnic-cleansing-hrw-1459276
  138. ^ a b c d e Dou, Eva (11 February 2021). "Who are the Uighurs, and what's happening to them in China?". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  139. ^ a b Simons, Marlise (6 July 2020). "Uighur Exiles Push for Court Case Accusing China of Genocide". New York Times. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  140. ^ "'Cultural genocide': China separating thousands of Muslim children from parents for 'thought education'". The Independent. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  141. ^ "'Cultural genocide' for repressed minority of Uighurs". The Times. 17 December 2019. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  142. ^ "China's Oppression of the Uighurs 'The Equivalent of Cultural Genocide'". Der Spiegel. 28 November 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  143. ^ Alecci, Scilla (October 14, 2020). "British lawmakers call for sanctions over Uighur human rights abuses". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  144. ^ "Uighurs: 'Credible case' China carrying out genocide". BBC News. 2021-02-08. Retrieved 2021-02-08.
  145. ^ "The Thin Line Between Autism and Witchcraft in Cameroon". africaontheblog.com. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  146. ^ "Autism Services - New York - ICare4Autism". Autism Services - New York - ICare4Autism. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  147. ^ "NeuroTribes, Steve Silberman on a haunting history and new hope for autistic people - Your Say". Your Say. Retrieved 22 October 2017.

External links[edit]