|Islamic Republic of Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Jomhuri ye Eslāmi ye Irān (Persian)
"استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی"
"Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri ye Eslāmi"
"Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic"
|Anthem: Mehr e Xāvarān
"The Eastern Sun"
and largest city
Other recognized religions:
|Government||Unitary theocratic presidential republic|
|-||Supreme Leader||Ali Khamenei|
|-||Vice President||Eshaq Jahangiri|
|Legislature||Islamic Consultative Assembly|
|-||Median Empire||c. 678 BC|
|-||Achaemenid Empire||550 BC|
|-||Sassanid Empire||224 AD|
|-||Islamic Republic||1 April 1979|
|-||Current constitution||24 October 1979|
|-||Constitution amendment||28 July 1989|
|-||Total||1,648,195 km2 (18th)
636,372 sq mi
|-||2013 estimate||78,192,200  (17th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|-||Total||$1.354 trillion (18th)|
|-||Per capita||$17,141 (70th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|-||Total||$393.495 billion (28th)|
|-||Per capita||$4,983 (95th)|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.749
high · 75th
|Currency||Rial (﷼) (IRR)|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|-||Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+4:30)|
|Date format||yyyy/mm/dd (SH)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||IR|
Iran (i// or //; Persian: ایران - Irān [ʔiːˈɾɑn] ( listen)), also known as Persia (// or //), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan; with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest nation in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world; with 78.4 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th most populous nation. It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and Indian Ocean coastline. Iran has long been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz.
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Proto-Elamite and Elamite kingdom in 3200–2800 BC. The Iranian Medes unified the area into the first of many empires in 625 BC, after which it became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. Iran reached the pinnacle of its power during the Achaemenid Empire (First Persian Empire) founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC, which at its greatest extent comprised major portions of the ancient world, stretching from parts of the Balkans (Bulgaria-Pannonia) and Thrace-Macedonia in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great. The Parthian Empire emerged from the ashes and was succeeded by the Sasanian dynasty (Neo-Persian empire) in 224 AD, under which Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world, along with the Byzantine Empire, for the next four centuries.
Rashidun Muslims invaded Persia in 633 AD, and conquered it by 651 AD, largely replacing Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism. Iran thereafter played a vital role in the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. The emergence in 1501 of the Safavid dynasty, which promoted Twelver Shi'a Islam as the official religion, marked one of the most important turning points in Iranian and Muslim history. Starting in 1736 under Nader Shah, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world. The Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906 established the nation's first parliament, which operated within a constitutional monarchy. Following a coup d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became autocratic. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression culminated in the Iranian Revolution, which led to the establishment of an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979.
Tehran is the capital and largest city, serving as the cultural, commercial, and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a major regional and middle power, exerting considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy through its large reserves of fossil fuels, which include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves. It hosts Asia's 4th-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC. Its unique political system, based on the 1979 constitution, combines elements of a parliamentary democracy with a religious theocracy governed by the country's clergy, wherein the Supreme Leader wields significant influence. A multicultural nation comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shi'ites, the Iranian rial is the currency, and Persian is the official language.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The name of Iran is the Modern Persian derivative from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānā, meaning "Land of the Aryans", first attested in Zoroastrianism's Avesta tradition. The term Ērān is found to refer to Iran in a 3rd-century Sassanid inscription, and the Parthian inscription that accompanies it uses the Parthian term "aryān" in reference to Iranians.
Historically Iran has been referred to as "Persia" or similar (La Perse, Persien, Perzië, etc.) by the Western world, mainly due to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis (Περσίς), meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive and close interaction the Ancient Greeks ever had with any outsider was that with the Persians, the term became coined forever, even long after the Persian rule in Ancient Greece and beyond had ended and other dynasties were now ruling the regions. In 1935, Reza Shah requested that the international community refer to the country as Iran. As the New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, Nowruz, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country. Defenders of the name change, point to its use by the Greek historians citing that "Aryan" means "noble". In truth during the rise and fall of the Persian Empire the land was known to its people as 'Aryanam', which is equated to the current “Iran” in the proto-Iranian language. During the reign of the Sassanids it became Eran – meaning "land of the Aryans". Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, as also the work of Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, Columbia University, who propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably, which was approved by Mohammad Reza Shah. Today both "Persia" and "Iran" are used interchangeably in cultural contexts; however, "Iran" is the name used officially in political contexts.
The historical and cultural wider usage of "Iran" is not restricted to the modern state proper. Irānshahr or Irānzamīn (Greater Iran) corresponded to territories of Iranian cultural or linguistic zones. Besides modern Iran, it included portions of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Central Asia.
Early history in Iran
The earliest archaeological artifacts in Iran, like those excavated at the Kashafrud and Ganj Par sites, attest to a human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic era. Neanderthal artifacts dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period have been found mainly in the Zagros region at sites such as Warwasi and Yafteh Cave.[page needed] Early agricultural communities such as Chogha Golan in 10,000 BC began to flourish in Iran along with settlements such as Chogha Bonut in 8000 BC, as well as Susa and Chogha Mish developing in and around the Zagros region.[page needed]
The emergence of Susa as a city is determined by C14 dating as early as 4395 BC. There are dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau pointing to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the 4th millennium BCE. During the Bronze age Iran was home to several civilisations such as Elam, Jiroft and Zayandeh Rud civilisations. Elam, the most prominent of these civilisations developed in the southwest of Iran alongside those in Mesopotamia. The development of writing in Elam in 4th millennium BC paralleled that in Sumer. The Elamite kingdom continued its existence until the emergence of the Median and Achaemenid Empires.
During the 2nd millennium BCE, Proto-Iranian tribes arrived in Iran from the Eurasian steppes, rivaling the native settlers of the country. As these tribes dispersed into the wider area of Greater Iran and beyond, the boundaries of modern Iran were dominated by the Persian, Parthian, and Median tribes. From the late 10th to late 7th centuries BC, these Iranian peoples, together with the pre Iranian kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia. Under king Cyaxares, the Medes and Persians entered into an alliance with Nabopolassar of Babylon, as well as the Scythians and the Cimmerians and together they attacked the Assyrian Empire. The civil war ravaged Assyrian Empire between 616 BC and 605 BC, thus freeing their respective peoples from three centuries of Assyrian rule. The unification of the Median tribes under a single ruler in 728 BC led to the creation of a Median empire which, by 612 BC, controlled the whole of Iran as well as eastern Anatolia.
In 550 BC, Cyrus the Great from the state of Anshan took over the Median empire, and founded the Achaemenid empire by unifying other city states. The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the Persian revolt; the brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of the Median ruler Astyages and quickly spread to other provinces as they allied with the Persians. Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia, Babylon, Egypt, and the lands to the west of the Indus and Oxus rivers. At its greatest extent, the empire included the modern territories of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya, Turkey, Thrace and Macedonia, much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, much of Central Asia, Afghanistan, northern Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and parts of Oman and the UAE, making it the first world empire. Conflict on the western borders began with the famous Greco-Persian Wars which continued through the first half of the 5th century BC and ended with the Persian withdrawal from all of their European territories. The empire had a centralised, bureaucratic administration under the Emperor and a large professional army and civil services, inspiring similar developments in later empires.
In 334 BC, Alexander the Great invaded the Achaemenid Empire, defeating the last Achaemenid Emperor Darius III at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. Following the premature death of Alexander, Iran came under the control of Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. In the middle of the 2nd century BC, the Parthian Empire rose to become the main power in Iran and continued as a feudal monarchy for nearly five centuries until 224 CE, when it was succeeded by the Sassanid Empire. The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, with the capital at Ctesiphon, Tisfoon, and were alongside the Byzantines the two most dominant powers in the world for nearly four centuries. Most of the period of the Parthian and Sassanid Empires were overshadowed by the Roman-Persian Wars, which raged on their western borders for over 700 years. These wars exhausted both Romans and Sassanids, which arguably led to the defeat of both at the hands of the invading Muslim Arabs.
Middle Ages (652–1501)
The prolonged Byzantine-Persian wars, as well as social conflict within the Empire opened the way for an Arab invasion of Iran in the 7th century. Gundeshapur was the most important medical centre of the ancient world at the time of the Islamic conquest. Initially defeated by the Arab Rashidun Caliphate, Iran later came under the rule of their successors the Arab Ummayad and Arab Abbasid Caliphates. The process of conversion of Iranians to Islam which followed was prolonged and gradual. Under the new Arab elite of the Rashidun and later Ummayad Caliphates Iranians, both Muslim (mawali) and non-Muslim (Dhimmi), were discriminated against, being excluded from government and military, and having to pay a special tax. In 750 the Abbasids succeeded in overthrowing the Ummayad Caliphate, mainly due to the support from dissatisfied Iranian mawali. The mawali formed the majority of the rebel army, which was led by the Iranian general Abu Muslim. After two centuries of Arab rule semi-independent and independent Iranian kingdoms (such as the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids and Buyids) began to appear on the fringes of the declining Abbasid Caliphate. By the Samanid era in the 9th and 10th centuries Iran's efforts to regain its independence had been well solidified.
The arrival of the Abbasid Caliphs saw a revival of Persian culture and influence, and a move away from Arabic culture. The role of the old Arab aristocracy was slowly replaced by a Persian bureaucracy.
The blossoming Persian literature, philosophy, medicine, and art became major elements in the forming of a Muslim civilization during the Islamic Golden Age. The Islamic Golden Age reached its peak in the 10th and 11th centuries, during which Persia was the main theatre of scientific activity. After the 10th century, Persian, alongside Arabic, was used for scientific, philosophical, historical, mathematical, musical, and medical works, as important Iranian writers such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Avicenna, Qotb al-Din Shirazi, Naser Khusraw and Biruni made contributions to Persian scientific writing.
The cultural revival that began in the Abbasid period led to a resurfacing of Iranian national identity, and so earlier attempts of Arabization never succeeded in Iran. The Iranian Shuubiyah movement became a catalyst for Iranians to regain their independence in their relations with the Arab invaders. The most notable effect of the movement was the continuation of the Persian language attested to the epic poet Ferdowsi, now regarded as the most important figure in Persian literature.
The 10th century saw a mass migration of Turkic tribes from Central Asia into the Iranian plateau. Turkic tribesmen were first used in the Abbasid army as slave-warriors (Mamluks), replacing Persian and Arab elements within the army. As a result the Mamluks gained significant political power. In 999, large parts of Iran came briefly under the rule of the Ghaznavid dynasty, whose rulers were of Mamluk Turk origin, and longer subsequently under the Turkish Seljuk and Khwarezmian Empires. These Turks had been fully Persianised and had adopted Persian models of administration and rulership.
In 1219–21 the Khwarezmian Empire suffered a devastating invasion by Genghis Khan's Mongol army. According to Steven R. Ward, "Mongol violence and depredations killed up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, possibly 10 to 15 million people. Some historians have estimated that Iran's population did not again reach its pre-Mongol levels until the mid-20th century." Following the fracture of the Mongol Empire in 1256 Hulagu Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson, established the Ilkhanate dynasty in Iran. In 1370 yet another conqueror, Timur, commonly known as Tamerlane in the West, followed Hulagu's example, establishing the Timurid Dynasty which lasted for another 156 years. In 1387, Timur ordered the complete massacre of Isfahan, reportedly killing 70,000 citizens. Hulagu, Timur and their successors soon came to adopt the ways and customs of the Persians, choosing to surround themselves with a culture that was distinctively Persian.
At the start of the 1500s, Shah Ismail I established the Safavid Dynasty in western Persia and Azerbaijan. He subsequently extended his authority over all of Persia, and established intermittent Persian hegemony over vast nearby regions which would last for many centuries onwards. Ismail instigated a forced conversion from Sunni to Shi'a Islam. The rivalry between Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire led to numerous Ottoman–Persian Wars. The Safavid era peaked in the reign of the brilliant soldier, statesman and administrator Shah Abbas I (1587–1629), surpassing their Ottoman arch rivals in strength, and making the empire a leading hub in Western Eurasia for the sciences and arts. The Safavid era also saw the start of the creation of new layers in Persian society, composed of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Georgians, Circassians, Armenians, and other peoples of the Caucasus. Following a slow decline in the late 1600s and early 1700s by internal strife, royal intrigues, continuous wars between them and their Ottoman arch rivals, and foreign interference (most notably by the Russians) the Safavid dynasty was ended by Pashtun rebels who besieged Isfahan and defeated Soltan Hosein in 1722.
In 1729, an Iranian Khorasan chieftain and military genius, Nader Shah, successfully drove out, then conquered the Pashtun invaders.
During Nader Shah's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sassanian Empire, reestablishing Persian hegemony over all of the Caucasus, other major parts of West Asia, Central Asia and parts of South Asia, and briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world.
In 1738-39, he invaded India and sacked Delhi, bringing great loot back to Persia. Nader Shah's assassination sparked a brief period of civil war and turmoil, after which Karim Khan came to power in 1750, bringing a period of relative peace and prosperity.
Another civil war ensued after Karim Khan's death in 1779, out of which Aga Muhammad Khan emerged victorious, founding the Qajar Dynasty in 1794. In 1795, following the disobedience of their Georgian subjects and their alliance with the Russians, the Qajars sacked and ravaged Tblisi, and drove the Russians out of the entire Caucasus, reestablishing Persian suzerainty over the region. However reestablishment of Persian control was short-lived, and the Russo-Persian War (1804–13) and the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) resulted in large irrevocable territorial losses for Persia but substantial gains for the Russian Empire which took over the Caucasus (modern Dagestan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) from Iran as a result of the treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay. Apart from Agha Mohammad Khan rule, Qajar rule is characterised as a century of misrule.
Whilst resisting efforts to be colonised, Iran lost lands in the 1800s as a result of Russian and British empire-building, known as 'The Great Game', losing much of its territory in the Russo-Persian and the Anglo-Persian Wars. A series of protests took place in response to the sale of concessions to foreigners by Nasser al-Din Shah and Mozaffar ad-Din Shah between 1872 and 1905, the last of which resulted in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and establishment of Iran's first national parliament in 1906, which was abolished in 1908. The struggle continued until 1911, when Mohammad Ali was defeated and forced to abdicate. On the pretext of restoring order, the Russians occupied northern Iran in 1911. During World War I, the British occupied much of western Iran, not fully withdrawing until 1921.
In 1921, Reza Khan, Prime Minister of Iran and former general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, overthrew the Qajar Dynasty and became Shah. In 1941 he was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, after Iran came under British and Russian occupation following the Anglo-Soviet invasion that established the Persian Corridor and would last until 1946.
In 1951 Mohammad Mosaddegh was elected prime minister. He became enormously popular in Iran after he nationalized Iran's petroleum industry and oil reserves. He was deposed in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, an Anglo-American covert operation that marked the first time the US had overthrown a foreign government during the Cold War.
After the coup, the Shah became increasingly autocratic and Sultanistic. Arbitrary arrests and torture by his secret police, SAVAK, were used to crush all forms of political opposition. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became an active critic of the Shah's White Revolution and publicly denounced the government. Khomeini was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months. After his release in 1964, Khomeini publicly criticized the United States government. The Shah sent him into exile. He went first to Turkey, then to Iraq and finally to France.
Due to the 1973 spike in oil prices Iran’s economy was flooded with foreign currency which caused inflation. By 1974 Iran’s economy was experiencing double digit inflation and despite many large projects to modernize the country corruption was rampant and caused large amounts of waste. By 1975 and 1976 an economic recession led to increased unemployment, especially among millions of young men who had migrated to Iran’s cities looking for construction jobs during the boom years of the early 1970s. By 1977 many of these men opposed the shah’s regime and began to organize and join protests against it.
After the Iranian Revolution (1979–)
The Iranian Revolution, later known as the Islamic Revolution, began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah. After a year of strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country and its economy the Shah fled the country and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to Tehran in February 1979. A new government was formed and in April 1979 Iran officially became an Islamic Republic, after its establishment was supported in a referendum. A second referendum in December 1979 approved a theocratic constitution.
Almost immediately nationwide uprisings against the new regime began in Iranian Kurdistan, Khuzestan, Balochistan and other areas. Over the next several years these uprisings were subdued in a violent manner by the new Islamic government. The new government went about purging itself of the non-Islamist political opposition (e.g. although both nationalists and Marxists had initially joined with Islamists to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands were executed by the Islamic regime afterward).
On March 8, 1979, coinciding with International Women's Day, many Iranian women demonstrated against perceived reductions to the status and rights of women, especially with regard to family law and mandatory veiling. The Iranian Cultural Revolution began in 1980 and universities were closed by the theocratic regime.
On 4 November 1979, a group of Iranian students seized the U.S. embassay and took 52 US citizens and embassy personnel hostage after the US refused to return the former Shah to Iran to face trial and execution. Attempts by the Jimmy Carter administration to negotiate for the release of the hostages and a failed rescue attempt helped force Carter out of office and brought Ronald Reagan to power. On Jimmy Carter's final day in office the last hostages were finally set free as a result of the Algiers Accords.
On 22 September 1980 the Iraqi army invaded Iranian Khuzestan, the start of the Iran–Iraq War. Although Saddam Hussein's forces made several early advances, by mid 1982 the Iranian forces successfully managed to drive the Iraqi army back into Iraq. In July 1982 with Iraq thrown on the defensive, Iran took the decision to invade Iraq and conducted countless offensives in a bid to conquer Iraqi territory and capture cities, such as Basra. The war continued until 1988, when Iraqi army defeated the Iranian forces inside Iraq and pushed the remaining Iranian troops back across the border, subsequently Khomeini accepted a truce mediated by the UN. The total Iranian casualties in the war were estimated to be 123,220–160,000 KIA, 60,711 MIA and 11,000-16,000 civilians killed.
Following the Iran–Iraq War, President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and his administration (1989-1997) concentrated on a pragmatic pro-business policy of rebuilding and strengthening the economy without making any dramatic break with the ideology of the revolution. Rafsanjani was succeeded by the moderate reformist Mohammad Khatami whose government (1997-2005) attempted, unsuccessfully, to make the country more free and democratic.
The 2005 presidential election brought the conservative populist candidate, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, to power. During the 2009 Iranian presidential election the Interior Ministry announced incumbent president Ahmadinejad had won 62.63% of the vote, while Mir-Hossein Mousavi had come in second place with 33.75%. Allegations of large irregularities and fraud provoked the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests both within Iran and in major cites outside the country.
Hassan Rouhani was elected as President of Iran on 15 June 2013, defeating Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and four other candidates. The electoral victory of new Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has improved Iran's relations with other countries.
Iran is the 18th largest country in the world, with an area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi). Its area roughly equals that of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany combined, or somewhat more than the US state of Alaska. Iran lies between latitudes 24° and 40° N, and longitudes 44° and 64° E. Its borders are with Azerbaijan (611 km (380 mi)) (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave (179 km (111 mi) )) and Armenia (35 km (22 mi)) to the north-west; the Caspian Sea to the north; Turkmenistan (992 km (616 mi)) to the north-east; Pakistan (909 km (565 mi)) and Afghanistan (936 km (582 mi)) to the east; Turkey (499 km (310 mi)) and Iraq (1,458 km (906 mi)) to the west; and finally the waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south.
Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan Province. It is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaux from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus, Zagros and Alborz Mountains; the last contains Iran's highest point, Mount Damavand at 5,610 m (18,406 ft), which is also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush.
The northern part of Iran is covered by dense rain forests called Shomal or the Jungles of Iran. The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins such as the Dasht-e Kavir, Iran's largest desert, in the north-central portion of the country, and the Dasht-e Lut, in the east, as well as some salt lakes. This is because the mountain ranges are too high for rain clouds to reach these regions.
The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where Iran borders the mouth of the Arvand river. Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman.
Iran's climate ranges from arid or semiarid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western part. United Nations Resident Coordinator for Iran Gary Lewis has said that "Water scarcity poses the most severe human security challenge in Iran today".
To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (5.3 to 14.0 in).
Iran's wildlife is composed of several animal species including bears, gazelles, wild pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian lynx, and foxes.
Domestic animals include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, eagles and falcon are also native to Iran.
One of the most famous members of Iranian wildlife is the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah, also known as the Iranian Cheetah, whose numbers were greatly reduced after the Iranian Revolution.
Today there are ongoing efforts to increase its population and introduce it back in India. Iran had lost all its Asiatic Lion and the now extinct Caspian Tigers by the earlier part of the 20th century.
Regions, provinces and cities
Iran is divided into five regions with thirty one provinces (ostān), each governed by an appointed governor (ostāndār). The provinces are divided into counties (shahrestān), and subdivided into districts (bakhsh) and sub-districts (dehestān).
Iran has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world. From 1950 to 2002, the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%. The United Nations predicts that by 2030, 80% of the population will be urban.[not in citation given] Most internal migrants have settled near the cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom. The listed populations are from the 2006/07 (1385 AP) census.[not in citation given] Tehran, with a population of 7,705,036, is the largest city in Iran and is the capital. Tehran, like many big cities, suffers from severe air pollution. It is the hub of the country's communication and transport network.
Mashhad, with a population of 2,410,800, is the second largest Iranian city and the centre of the Razavi Khorasan Province. Mashhad is one of the holiest Shia cities in the world as it is the site of the Imam Reza shrine. It is the centre of tourism in Iran, and between 15 and 20 million pilgrims go to the Imam Reza's shrine every year.
Another major Iranian city is Isfahan (population 1,583,609), which is the capital of Isfahan Province. The Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city contains a wide variety of Islamic architectural sites ranging from the 11th to the 19th century. The growth of the suburban area around the city has turned Isfahan into Iran's second most populous metropolitan area (3,430,353).
The fourth major city of Iran is Tabriz (population 1,378,935), the capital of the East Azerbaijan Province. It is also the second industrial city of Iran after Tehran. Tabriz had been the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s and one of its former capitals and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history.
The fifth major city is Karaj (population 1,377,450), located in Alborz Province and situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountains; however, the city is increasingly becoming an extension of metropolitan Tehran.
The sixth major Iranian city is Shiraz (population 1,214,808); it is the capital of Fars Province. The Elamite civilization to the west greatly influenced the area, which soon came to be known as Persis. The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 9th century BC, and became rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the 6th century BC. The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in or near Shiraz. Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire and is situated 70 kilometres (43 mi) northeast of modern Shiraz. UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.
Largest cities or towns in Iran
Statistical Center of Iran: Results of national census, 2012
|2||Mashhad||Razavi Khorasan||2,772,287||12||Zahedan||Sistan and Baluchestan||575,116|
Government and politics
The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution, and comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The Leader of the Revolution ("Supreme Leader") is responsible for delineation and supervision of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Supreme Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations; and has sole power to declare war or peace. The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the Guardian Council are appointed by the Supreme Leader. The Assembly of Experts elects and dismisses the Supreme Leader on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem.
After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years and can only be re-elected for one term.[dubious ] Presidential candidates must be approved by the Guardian Council prior to running in order to ensure their allegiance to the ideals of the Islamic revolution.
The President is responsible for the implementation of the Constitution and for the exercise of executive powers, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader, who has the final say in all matters. The President appoints and supervises the Council of Ministers, coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the legislature. Eight Vice-Presidents serve under the President, as well as a cabinet of twenty-two ministers, who must all be approved by the legislature.
The legislature of Iran (known in English as the Islamic Consultative Assembly) is a unicameral body. The Parliament of Iran comprises 290 members elected for four-year terms. The parliament drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All parliament candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council.
The Guardian Council comprises twelve jurists including six appointed by the Supreme Leader. The others are elected by the Iranian Parliament from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judiciary. The Council interprets the constitution and may veto Parliament. If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia (Islamic law), it is referred back to Parliament for revision. The Expediency Council has the authority to mediate disputes between Parliament and the Guardian Council, and serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country. Local city councils are elected by public vote to four-year terms in all cities and villages of Iran.
The Supreme Leader appoints the head of Iran's judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor. There are several types of courts including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and revolutionary courts which deal with certain categories of offenses, including crimes against national security. The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed. The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving lay people. The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader. The Court's rulings are final and cannot be appealed. The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week annually, comprises 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by adult suffrage for eight-year terms. As with the presidential and parliamentary elections, the Guardian Council determines candidates' eligibility. The Assembly elects the Supreme Leader and has the constitutional authority to remove the Supreme Leader from power at any time. It has not challenged any of the Supreme Leader's decisions.
The state-owned Telecommunication Company of Iran handles telecommunications. The media of Iran is a mixture of private and state-owned, but books and movies must be approved by the The ministry of Ershaad before being released to the public. Iran originally received access to the internet in 1993, and it has become enormously popular among the Iranian youth.
The Iranian government's officially stated goal is to establish a new world order based on world peace, global collective security and justice although the current Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, had stated that these terms should be understood in the context of the Shia Islamic belief system. Iran's foreign relations are based on two strategic principles: eliminating outside influences in the region and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries.
As of 2009 Iran maintained full diplomatic relations with 99 countries worldwide but not the U.S. or Israel (which Iran does not officially recognize). Iran is also a member of dozens of international organizations including the G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Interpol, OIC, OPEC, the United Nations, WHO, and currently has observer status at the World Trade Organization.
Since 2005, Iran's nuclear program has become the subject of contention with the international community. Many countries have expressed concern that Iran's nuclear program could divert civilian nuclear technology into a weapons program. This has led the UN Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran which has further isolated Iran politically, economically and socially from the rest of the global community. Following the departure of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from power the 2013 Geneva Agreement was signed and provided for a temporary lifting of some sanctions and on 2 April 2015 a comprehensive agreement was reached.
The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: the regular forces Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy and the Revolutionary Guards, totaling about 545,000 active troops. Iran also has around 350,000 Reserve Force totaling around 900,000 trained troops. Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the IRGC, called the Basij, which includes about 90,000 full-time, active-duty uniformed members. Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service; GlobalSecurity.org estimates Iran could mobilize "up to one million men". This would be among the largest troop mobilizations in the world. In 2007, Iran's military spending represented 2.6% of the GDP or $102 per capita, the lowest figure of the Persian Gulf nations. Iran's military doctrine is based on deterrence.
Since the Iranian Revolution, to overcome foreign embargo, Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks, armored personnel carriers, guided missiles, submarines, military vessels, guided missile destroyer, radar systems, helicopters and fighter planes. In recent years, official announcements have highlighted the development of weapons such as the Hoot, Kowsar, Zelzal, Fateh-110, Shahab-3 and Sejjil missiles, and a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The Fajr-3 (MIRV) is currently Iran's most advanced ballistic missile, it is a liquid fuel missile with an undisclosed range which was developed and produced domestically.
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. In 2011 GDP was $482.4 billion ($1.003 trillion at PPP), or $13,200 at PPP per capita. Iran is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank. In the early 21st century the service sector contributed the largest percentage of the GDP, followed by industry (mining and manufacturing) and agriculture. The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for developing and maintaining the Iranian rial, which serves as the country's currency. The government doesn't recognize trade unions other than the Islamic Labour Councils, which are subject to the approval of employers and the security services. The minimum wage in June 2013 was 487 million rials a month ($134). Unemployment has remained above 10% since 1997, and the unemployment rate for women is almost double that of the men.
In 2006, about 45% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 31% came from taxes and fees. As of 2007, Iran had earned $70 billion in foreign exchange reserves mostly (80%) from crude oil exports. Iranian budget deficits have been a chronic problem, mostly due to large-scale state subsidies, that include foodstuffs and especially gasoline, totaling more than $84 billion in 2008 for the energy sector alone. In 2010, the economic reform plan was approved by parliament to cut subsidies gradually and replace them with targeted social assistance. The objective is to move towards free market prices in a 5-year period and increase productivity and social justice.
The administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one and indicated that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran has also developed a biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmaceuticals industry. However, nationalized industries such as the bonyads have often been managed badly, making them ineffective and uncompetitive with years. Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries, and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness. In 2010, Iran was ranked 69, out of 139 nations, in the Global Competitiveness Report.
Iran has leading manufacturing industries in the fields of car-manufacture and transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, power and petrochemicals in the Middle East. According to FAO, Iran has been a top five producer of the following agricultural products in the world in 2012: apricots, cherries, sour cherries, cucumbers and gherkins, dates, eggplants, figs, pistachios, quinces, walnuts, and watermelons.
Economic sanctions against Iran, such as the embargo against Iranian crude oil, have affected the economy. Sanctions have led to a steep fall in the value of the rial, and as of April 2013 one US dollar is worth 36,000 rial, compared with 16,000 in early 2012.
Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has subsequently recovered. About 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004 and 2.3 million in 2009 mostly from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while about 10% came from the European Union and North America.
The most popular tourist destinations are Isfahan, Mashhad and Shiraz. In the early 2000s the industry faced serious limitations in infrastructure, communications, industry standards and personnel training. The majority of the 300,000 tourist visas granted in 2003 were obtained by Asian Muslims, who presumably intended to visit important pilgrimage sites in Mashhad and Qom. Several organized tours from Germany, France and other European countries come to Iran annually to visit archaeological sites and monuments. In 2003 Iran ranked 68th in tourism revenues worldwide. According to UNESCO and the deputy head of research for Iran Travel and Tourism Organization (ITTO), Iran is rated among the "10 most touristic countries in the world". Domestic tourism in Iran is one of the largest in the world. Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poor public image in some parts of the world, and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.
Iran has the largest proved gas reserves in the world, with 33.6 trillion cubic metres. It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is OPEC's 2nd largest oil exporter and is an energy superpower. In 2005, Iran spent US$4 billion on fuel imports, because of contraband and inefficient domestic use. Oil industry output averaged 4 million barrels per day (640,000 m3/d) in 2005, compared with the peak of six million barrels per day reached in 1974. In the early years of the 2000s (decade), industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags. Few exploratory wells were drilled in 2005.
In 2004, a large share of natural gas reserves in Iran were untapped. The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts. Of that amount, about 75% was based on natural gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power. In 2004, Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant is to come online in 2009. Iran is the third country in the world to have developed GTL technology.
Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8% per year. The government’s goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants and by adding hydroelectric, and nuclear power generating capacity. Iran’s first nuclear power plant at Bushehr went online in 2011. It is the second Nuclear Power Plant that ever built in the Middle East after Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant in Armenia.
Education and science
Education in Iran is highly centralized. K-12 education is supervised by the Ministry of Education, and higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The adult literacy rate in 2008 was 85.0%, up from 36.5% in 1976.
The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a high school diploma and pass the national university entrance examination, Iranian University Entrance Exam (known as concour), which is the equivalent of the US SAT exams. Many students do a 1-2 year course of pre-university (piš-dānešgah), which is the equivalent of GCE A-levels and International Baccalaureate. The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate. Iran is the only country in the Middle East with a high school course equivalent to the A-levels, SAT and International Baccalaureate.
Higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas. Kārdāni (associate degree; also known as fowq e diplom) is delivered after 2 years of higher education; kāršenāsi (bachelor's degree; also known as licāns) is delivered after 4 years of higher education; and kāršenāsi e aršad (master's degree) is delivered after 2 more years of study, after which another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD; known as doctorā).
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are the University of Tehran (468th worldwide), the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (612th) and Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (815th).
Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China. According to SCImago, Iran could rank fourth in the world in terms of research output by 2018, if the current trend persists.
In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores, and now runs 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS. Sorena 2 Robot, which was designed by engineers at the University of Tehran, was unveiled in 2010. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has placed the name of Surena among the five prominent robots of the world after analyzing its performance.
In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics is a UNESCO chair in biology. In late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Royan Research Center in Tehran.
According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khadem Hosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world. Iran ranks 15th in the world in nanotechnologies.
Iran placed its domestically built satellite, Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution, on 2 February 2009, through Safir rocket, becoming the ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launcher.
Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser, and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh. Iranian cardiologist, Tofy Mussivand invented and developed the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart. Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory, with many papers being published in Iran. Iranian-American string theorist Kamran Vafa proposed the Vafa-Witten theorem together with Edward Witten. In August 2014, Maryam Mirzakhani became the first-ever woman, as well as the first-ever Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal, the highest prize in mathematics.
|Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook|
Iran's population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 19 million in 1956 to around 75 million by 2009. However, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly in recent years, leading to a population growth rate—recorded from July 2012—of about 1.29 percent. Studies project that Iran's rate of growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 105 million by 2050.
Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation. According to estimates, about five million Iranian citizens have emigrated to other countries, mostly since the Iranian Revolution in 1979.
According to the Iranian Constitution, the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security that covers retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services. This is covered by tax revenues and income derived from public contributions. According to the World Health Organization, Iran ranked 58th in national health metrics and 93rd in the overall performance of its healthcare system in 2000.
The majority of the population speaks the Persian language, which is also the official language of the country. Others include the rest of the Iranian languages belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages, and the languages of the other ethnicities in Iran.
Notable minority languages in Iran include Armenian, Georgian, and Neo-Aramaic. Circassian was also once widely used by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore.
The CIA World Factbook has estimated that around 79% of the population of Iran are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages, with Persians constituting 61% of the population, Kurds 10%, Lurs 6%, and Balochs 2%. Peoples of the other ethnicities in Iran make up the remaining 21%, with Azerbaijanis constituting 16%, Arabs 2%, Turkmens and Turkic tribes 2%, and others 1% (such as Armenians, Georgians, Circassians, and Assyrians). It found Persian to be the first language of 53% of the population, Azeri and other Turkic dialects being spoken by 18%, Kurdish by 10%, Gilaki and Mazandarani by 7%, Luri by 6%, Balochi by 2%, Arabic by 2%, and other languages at 2%.
The Library of Congress issued slightly different estimates: Persians 65%, Azerbaijanis 16%, Kurds 7%, Lurs 6%, Arabs 2%, Baluchi 2%, Turkmens 1%, Turkic tribal groups such as the Qashqai 1%, and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups such as Armenians, Georgians, Assyrians, and Circassians less than 1%. It determined that Persian is the first language of at least 65% of the country's population and is the second language for most of the remaining 35%.
|Religion|| % of
Historically, Zoroastrianism was the dominant religion in Iran, particularly during the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid empires. This changed after the fall of the Sassanid Empire by the Muslim Conquest of Iran, when Zoroastrianism was gradually replaced with Islam.
Today, the Twelver Shia branch of Islam is the official state religion, to which about 90% to 95% of Iranians officially are. About 4% to 8% of Iranians are Sunni Muslims, mainly Kurds and Balochs. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, Bahais, Mandeans, Yezidis, and Yarsanis.
Zoroastrians are the oldest religious community of the nation, with a long history continuing up to the present day.
Judaism also has a long history in Iran, dating back to the Achaemenid Conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1979 Revolution, around 8,756 Jews remain in Iran, according to the latest census.
Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Sunni Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament. But the Bahá'í Faith, which is said to be the largest religious minority in Iran, is not officially recognized, and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran since the 19th century. Since the 1979 Revolution, the persecution of Bahais has increased with executions, the denial of civil rights and liberties, and the denial of access to higher education and employment.
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (June 2014)|
Persian culture has long been a predominant culture of the region, with Persian considered the language of intellectuals during much of the 2nd millennium, and the language of religion and the populace before that.
The Sassanid era was an important and influential historical period in Iran as Iranian culture influenced China, India and Roman civilization considerably, and so influenced as far as Western Europe and Africa.
This influence played a prominent role in the formation of both Asiatic and European medieval art. This influence carried forward to the Islamic world. Much of what later became known as Islamic learning, such as philology, literature, jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, architecture and the sciences were based on some of the practises taken from the Sassanid Persians.
Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry. There is also a very vibrant Iranian modern and contemporary art scene. The modern art movement in Iran had its genesis in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The 1949 opening of the Apadana gallery in Tehran by Mahmoud Javadipour and other colleagues, and the emergence of artists like Marcos Grigorian in the 1950s, signaled a commitment to the creation of a form of modern art grounded in Iran.
Carpet-weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to ancient Persia and the Bronze Age. Iran is the world's largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three quarters of the world's total output and having a share of 30% of world's export markets.
According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre-and post-Islamic periods. The history of architecture of Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC.
Iranian architecture generally displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience. Without sudden innovations, and despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved "an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries". Its paramount virtues are several: "a marked feeling for form and scale; structural inventiveness, especially in vault and dome construction; a genius for decoration with a freedom and success not rivaled in any other architecture".
Persians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry, and astronomy in architecture and also have extraordinary skills in making massive domes which can be seen frequently in the structure of bazaars and mosques. This greatly inspired the architecture of Iran's neighbors as well. The main building types of classical Iranian architecture are the mosque and the palace. Besides being home to a large number of art houses and galleries, Iran also holds one of the largest and most valuable jewel collections in the world. Iran ranks seventh among countries in the world with the most archeological architectural ruins and attractions from antiquity as recognized by UNESCO. Fifteen of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites are creations of Iranian architecture.
Persian literature is one of the world's oldest literatures. It dates back to the poetry of Avesta, about 1000 years BC. These poems which were a part of the oral traditions of ancient Iran, were orally transferred, and later created parts of the Avesta’s book during the Sassanid era. Its sources have been within historical Persia where the Persian language has historically been the national language.
Persian literature inspired Goethe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and many others, and it has been often dubbed as a most worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry. Dialects of Persian are sporadically spoken throughout the region from China to Syria to Russia, though mainly in the Iranian Plateau.
Poetry is used in many Persian classical works, whether from literature, science, or metaphysics. Persian literature has been considered by such thinkers as Goethe as one of the four main bodies of world literature.
The Persian language has produced a number of famous poets; however, only a few poets as Rumi and Omar Khayyám have surfaced among western popular readership, even though the likes of Hafez, Saadi, Nizami, Attar, Sanai, Nasir Khusraw and Jami are considered by many Iranians to be just as influential.
Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC. The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism."
Throughout Iranian history and due to remarkable political and social changes such as the Arab and Mongol invasions of Persia, a wide spectrum of schools of thoughts showed a variety of views on philosophical questions extending from Old Iranian and mainly Zoroastrianism-related traditions, to schools appearing in the late pre-Islamic era such as Manicheism and Mazdakism as well as various post-Islamic schools.
Iranian philosophy after the Muslim conquest of Persia, is characterized by different interactions with the Old Iranian philosophy, the Greek philosophy and with the development of Islamic philosophy. The Illumination School and the Transcendent Philosophy are regarded as two of the main philosophical traditions of that era in Persia.
Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings. Drawn from the legendary past of Iran, they reflect the attitudes of the society to which they first belonged - attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, the actions of the gods, yazats (lesser gods), and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.
Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of Iranian history. For this purpose we must ignore modern political boundaries and look at historical developments in the Greater Iran, a vast area covering the Caucasus, and Central Asia, beyond the frontiers of present-day Iran. The geography of this region, with its high mountain ranges, plays a significant role in many of the mythological stories. The 2nd millennium BC is usually regarded as the age of migration because of the emergence in western Iran of a new form of Iranian pottery, similar to earlier wares of north-eastern Iran, suggesting the arrival of the Ancient Iranian peoples. This pottery, light grey to black in colour, appeared around 1400 BC. It is called Early Grey Ware or Iron I, the latter name indicating the beginning of the Iron Age in this area.
The central collection of Persian mythology is the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, written over a thousand years ago. Ferdowsi's work draws heavily, with attribution, on the stories and characters of Mazdaism and Zoroastrianism, not only from the Avesta, but from later texts such as the Bundahishn and the Denkard as well as many others.
Theater background in Persia goes back to antiquity (641–1000 BC).
The first initiation of theater and phenomena of acting in people of the land could be traced in the ceremonial theaters which were performed to glorify the heroes and humiliate the enemies, like Soug e Sivash or Mogh Koshi (Megakhouni), and also dances and theater narrations, and the musical history of mythological and love stories reported by Herodotos and Xenophon.
There were many dramatic performance arts popular before the advent of cinema in Persia. A few examples include Kheyme Shab Bazi (Puppetry), Saye Bazi (Shadow play), Rouhozi (Comical acts) and Tazieh (Martyr plays).
Rostam o Sohrab is an example of the opera performances in the modern day Iran.
Iranian music, as evidenced by the archeological records of Elam in southwestern Iran, dates back thousands of years. In ancient Iran musicians held socially respectable positions. The Elamites and the Achaemenids certainly made use of musicians.
The history of the musical performance in Sassanid Iran is, however, better documented than earlier periods. This is specially more evident in the context of Zoroastrian ritual. By the time of Xusro Parviz the Sassanid royal court was the host of prominent musicians such as Ramtin, Bamshad, Nakisa, Azad, Sarkash, and Barbad.
Like most of the world’s cultures, the music of Persia has depended on oral transmission and learning.
Persian symphonic music has a long history. In fact Opera originated from Persia, much before its emergence in Europe. Iranians traditionally performed Tazieh, which in many respects resembles the European Opera. Iran's main orchestra include National Orchestra, Tehran Symphony Orchestra, and Nations Orchestra.
Today the musical culture of Persia, while distinct, is closely related to other musical systems of the West and Central Asia. It has also affinities to the music cultures of the Indian subcontinent, to a certain degree even to those of Africa, and in the period after 1850 particularly, to that of Europe. Its history can be traced to some extent through these relationships.
Cinema and animation
The earliest examples of visual representations in Iranian history may be traced back to the bas-reliefs in Persepolis (c. 500 BC). Persepolis was the ritual center of the ancient kingdom of Achaemenids and the figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language. During the Sasanian reign, Iranian visual arts reached a pinnacle. A bas-relief from this period in Taq e Bostan depicts a complex hunting scene. Similar works from the period have been found to articulate movements and actions in a highly sophisticated manner. It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinema close-up in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.
In the early 20th century, five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. The first Iranian filmmaker was Mirza Ebrahim Khan (Akkas Bashi), the official photographer of Mozaffar al Din Shah of Qajar. He obtained a camera and filmed the Shah's visit to Europe, upon the Shah's orders.
In 1904, Mirza Ebrahim Khan (Sahhaf Bashi) opened the first movie theater in Tehran. After him, several others like Russi Khan, Ardeshir Khan, and Ali Vakili tried to establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Until the early 1930s, there were little more than 15 theatres in Tehran and 11 in other provinces.
The 1960s was a significant decade for Iranian cinema, with 25 commercial films produced annually on average throughout the early 60s, increasing to 65 by the end of the decade. The majority of production focused on melodrama and thrillers. With the screening of the films Kaiser and The Cow, directed by Masoud Kimiai and Dariush Mehrjui respectively in 1969, alternative films established their status in the film industry. Attempts to organize a film festival that had begun in 1954 within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, bore fruits in the form of the Sepas Festival in 1969. The endeavors also resulted in the formation of the Tehran World Festival in 1973.
After the Revolution of 1979, as the new government imposed new laws and standards, a new age in Iranian cinema emerged, starting with Viva... by Khosrow Sinai and followed by many other Iranian directors who emerged in the last few decades, such as Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi. Kiarostami, who some critics regard as one of the few great directors in the history of Iranian cinema, planted Iran firmly on the map of world cinema when he won the Palme d'Or for Taste of Cherry in 1997. The continuous presence of Iranian films in prestigious international festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival, and the Berlin Film Festival, attracted world attention to Iranian masterpieces. In 2006, six Iranian films, of six different styles, represented Iranian cinema at the Berlin Film Festival. Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema.
Asghar Farhadi, a well-known Iranian director, has received a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and was named as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the world by Time Magazine in 2012.
Marjane Satrapi, Shohreh Aghdashloo, Nazanin Boniadi, Shirin Neshat, Amir Mokri, Bahar Soomekh, Amir Talai, Nasim Pedrad, Daryush Shokof, and Rosie Malek-Yonan are among cinema people in the Iranian diaspora.
The oldest records of animation in Iran date back to the late half of 3rd millennium BC. An earthen goblet discovered at the site of the 5,200-year-old Burnt City in southeastern Iran, depicts what could possibly be the world’s oldest example of animation. The artifact bears five sequential images depicting a Persian Desert Ibex jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree.
The art of animation, as practiced in modern day Iran, started in the 1950s. After four decades of animation production in Iran and three-decade experience of Kanoon Institute, Tehran International Animation Festival (TIAF) was established in February 1999. Every two years, participants from more than 70 countries attend this event which holds the biggest national animation market in Tehran.
With two thirds of Iran's population under the age of 25, many sports are played in Iran, both traditional and modern.
Iran is the birthplace of polo, (Naqsh-i Jahan Square in Isfahan is a polo field which was built by king Abbas I in the 17th century.) and Varzesh-e Pahlavani. Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally regarded as Iran's national sport. Iranian wrestling, known as koshti in Persian, has been practiced since ancient times throughout Iran. Iran's national wrestling team have been Olympic and world champion. The most popular sport in Iran is football with the national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions. Basketball is also very popular in Iran where the national team won three of the last four Asian Championships. In 1974, Iran became the first country in West Asia to host the Asian Games.
Iran is home to several unique skiing resorts. 13 ski resorts operate in Iran, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak. All are within one to three hours traveling time of Tehran. Tochal resort is the world's fifth-highest ski resort (3,730 m or 12,238 ft at its highest station). Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for hiking, rock climbing, and mountain climbing.
Among the most popular athletes in the country are Hossein Rezazadeh and Behdad Salimi. Volleyball is Iran's second most popular sport in recent years. Men's National Team ranked fourth in 2014 FIVB Volleyball World League, ranked six in 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship and the best result an Asian nation ever achieved.
Holidays and festivals
Iran has three official calendar systems, including the Persian calendar as the main and national calendar, the Gregorian calendar for international events and Christian holidays, and the Lunar calendar for Islamic holidays.
Nowruz is the main national holiday of Iran, and is an ancient tradition celebrated on 21 March to mark the beginning of the spring. It is a secular holiday, enjoyed by people of different faiths; however, it is a holy day for Zoroastrians. It was registered on the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and described as the Persian New Year by UNESCO in 2009.
Some other national festivals of Iran include:
- Cha'r Shanbe Suri: A prelude to Nowruz, in honor of Atar (the Holy Fire) – It is celebrated by fire-jumping and fireworks, on the last Wednesday before Nowruz.
- Sizda' be Dar: Leaving the house and joining the nature, on the thirteenth day of the Persian new year (April 2) – It is followed by the Nowruz holidays.
- Chelle: Also known as Yalda – It is the longest night of the year, on the eve of Winter Solstice, and is celebrated by reading poetical horoscopes (commonly the poems of Hafez) and having the traditional fruits of this night which include watermelon, pomegranate and nuts.
- Tirgan: Celebrated on the thirteenth day of Tir (July 4), in honor of Tishtrya
- Mehrgan: Celebrated on the sixteenth day of Mehr (October 8), in honor of Mithra
- Spandarmad (Spenda Armad): Dedicated to Amesha Spenta (the Holy Devotion) – It is celebrated by giving presents to the people you love, on the fifth day of Esfand (February 24).
Beside of the national celebrations, festivals such as Ramezan, Eid e Fetr, and Ruz e Ashura are celebrated by Muslims; Noel, Chelle ye Ruze, and Eid e Pak are celebrated by Christians; and the festivals Purim, Fateer, and Tu BiShvat are celebrated by Jewish people in Iran.
The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, culinary traditions and styles unique to their region. The main Persian cuisines feature combinations of rice with meat, chicken or fish and some onion, vegetables, nuts, and herbs. Herbs are frequently used along with fruits such as plums, pomegranates, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins.
Iranians usually eat plain yogurt with lunch and dinner; it is a staple of the diet in Iran. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavourings such as saffron, dried limes, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Onions and garlic are normally used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form. Iranian cuisine has greatly inspired its neighbors.
- Jeroen Temperman (2010). State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. BRILL. pp. 87–. ISBN 90-04-18148-2.
- Ethnologue. "Iran". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. "Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopedia Article: Media ancient region, Iran". Britannica.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name 'Iran' disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".
- Andrew J. Newman (21 April 2006). Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-667-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "official population clock as of March 17, 2015". http://www.amar.org.ir/.
- "Islamic Republic of Iran". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Central bank: Income equality improved in Iran
- "Human Development Report 2010" (PDF). United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- "Definition for Iran – Oxford Dictionaries Online (World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "Iran". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000.
- D. N. Mackenzie (15 December 1998). "Ērān, Ērānšahr". Encyclopaedia Iranica. iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Iran Country Profile". BBC NEWS. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- ""CESWW" – Definition of Central Eurasia". Cesww.fas.harvard.edu. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran Guide". National Geographic. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Christopher A Whatley (2001). Bought and Sold for English Gold: The Union of 1707 (Tuckwell Press, 2001)
- Lowell Barrington (January 2012). Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices, 2nd ed.tr: Structures and Choices. Cengage Learning. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-111-34193-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
Like China, Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations
- David Sacks, Oswyn Murray, Lisa R. Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody (2005). Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing. pp. 256 (at the right portion of the page). ISBN 978-0-8160-5722-1.
- "Sassanid Empire". Iran Chamber Society. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Janey Levy (15 August 2009). Iran and the Shia. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4358-5282-2. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- R.M. Savory, Safavids, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition
- "The Islamic World to 1600". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "20th-century international relations". Britannica.com. 8 December 1987. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- The Committee Office, House of Commons. "Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, Eighth Report, Iran". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran @ 2000 and Beyond lecture series, opening address, W. Herbert Hunt, 18 May 2000". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "BP Cuts Russia, Turkmenistan Natural Gas Reserves Estimates". WSJ.com. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- CIA World Factbook. "Iran". Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- World Heritage List, UNESCO World Heritage Sites official sites
- قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران (in Persian). Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- V.Jayaram (9 January 2007). "The Concepts of Hinduism – Arya". Hinduwebsite.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iranian Languages". LSS.wis.edu. 21 February 2006. pp. 26–7. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- ""Iran – The Ancient Name of Iran", N.S. Gill". Ancienthistory.about.com. 4 September 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Bailey, Harold Walter (1987). "Arya". Encyclopaedia Iranica 2. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 681–683.
- MacKenzie, David Niel (1998). "Ērān, Ērānšahr". Encyclopedia Iranica 8. Costa Mesa: Mazda.
- Renaming Persia - What’s in a name?
- "Renaming Persia". persiansarenotarabs.com. 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Persia or Iran, a brief history". Art-arena.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Richard N. Frye (20 October 2007). interview by Asieh Namdar. CNN.
I spent all my life working in Iran. and as you know I don't mean Iran of today, I mean Greater Iran, the Iran which in the past, extended all the way from China to borders of Hungary and from other Mongolia to Mesopotamia
- Christoph Marcinkowski (2010). Shi'ite Identities: Community and Culture in Changing Social Contexts. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 83. ISBN 978-3-643-80049-7. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
The 'historical lands of Iran' – 'Greater Iran' – were always known in the Persian language as Irānshahr or Irānzamīn.
- Frye, Richard Nelson (October 1962). "Reitzenstein and Qumrân Revisited by an Iranian". The Harvard Theological Review 55 (4): 261–268. doi:10.1017/S0017816000007926. JSTOR 1508723.
I use the term Iran in an historical context[...]Persia would be used for the modern state, more or less equivalent to "western Iran". I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia – that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.
- Mīr Khvānd, Muḥammad ibn Khāvandshāh, Tārīkh-i rawz̤at al-ṣafā. Taṣnīf Mīr Muḥammad ibn Sayyid Burhān al-Dīn Khāvand Shāh al-shahīr bi-Mīr Khvānd. Az rū-yi nusakh-i mutaʻaddadah-i muqābilah gardīdah va fihrist-i asāmī va aʻlām va qabāyil va kutub bā chāphā-yi digar mutamāyiz mībāshad.[Tehrān] Markazī-i Khayyām Pīrūz [1959–60]. ایرانشهر از کنار فرات تا جیهون است و وسط آبادانی عالم است. Iranshahr stretches from the Euphrates to the Oxus, and it is the center of the prosperity of the World
- Richard Frye (23 May 2012). Persia (RLE Iran A). Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-136-84154-5. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
This 'greater Iran' included and still includes part of the Caucasus Mountains, Central Asia, Afghanistan and Iraq; for Kurds, Baluchis, Afghans, Tajiks, Ossetes, and other smaller groups are Iranians
- Farrokh, Kaveh. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. ISBN 1846031087
- Biglari, Fereidoun; Saman Heydari; Sonia Shidrang. "Ganj Par: The first evidence for Lower Paleolithic occupation in the Southern Caspian Basin, Iran". Antiquity. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "National Museum of Iran". Pbase.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- J. D. Vigne; J. Peters; D. Helmer (August 2002). First Steps of Animal Domestication, Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology. Oxbow Books, Limited. ISBN 978-1-84217-121-9.
- Early humans in Iran were growing wheat 12,000 years ago, First published July 5th 2013
- "Emergence of Agriculture in the Foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran", by Simone Riehl, Mohsen Zeidi, Nicholas J. Conard - University of Tübingen, publication 10 May 2013
- "Excavations at Chogha Bonut: The earliest village in Susiana". Oi.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Hole, Frank (20 July 2004). "NEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN". Encyclopedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Collon, Dominique (1995). Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20307-5. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- K. Kris Hirst. "Chogha Mish (Iran)". Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "New evidence: modern civilization began in Iran". News.xinhuanet.com. 10 August 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- D. T. Potts (29 July 1999). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-521-56496-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Panorama – 03/03/07". Iran Daily. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Iranian.ws, "Archaeologists: Modern civilization began in Iran based on new evidence", 12 August 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.[dead link]
- "Ancient Scripts:Elamite". 1996. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "Persepolis". UNESCO. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Basu, Dipak. "Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory". iVarta.com. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Cory Panshin. "The Palaeolithic Indo-Europeans". Panshin.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Afary, Janet; Peter William Avery; Khosrow Mostofi. "Iran (Ethnic Groups)". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq
- "Median Empire". Iran Chamber Society. 2001. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Maka". Livius.org. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
- "Greco-Persian Wars". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Schmitt, Rüdiger. "Achaemenid dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 3. Routledge & Kegan Paul.[dead link]
- Jakobsson, Jens (2004). "Seleucid Empire". Iran Chamber Society. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Sassanid Empire". Iran Chamber Society. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- George Liska (1998). Expanding Realism: The Historical Dimension of World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Incorporated. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8476-8680-3.
- "The Rise and Spread of Islam, The Arab Empire of the Umayyads -Weakness of the Adversary Empires". Occawlonline.pearsoned.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Richard Nelson Frye (26 June 1975). The Cambridge History of Iran 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, pg. 218–219.
- "The Arab Empire of the Umayyads – Converts and "People of the Book"". Occawlonline.pearsoned.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Islamic History: The Abbasid Dynasty". Religion Facts. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Hooker, Richard (1996). "The Abbasid Dynasty". Washington State University. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Joel Carmichael (1967). The Shaping of the Arabs. p. 235. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
Abu Muslim, the Persian general and popular leader
- Frye, Richard Nelson (1960). Iran (2, revised ed.). G. Allen & Unwin. p. 47. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
A Persian Muslim called Abu Muslim.
- Richard Nelson Frye (26 June 1975). The Cambridge History of Iran 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "The Islamic World to 1600". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Richard G. Hovannisian; Georges Sabagh (1998). The Persian Presence in the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-521-59185-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
The Golden age of Islam [...] attributable, in no small measure, to the vital participation of Persian men of letters, philosophers, theologians, grammarians, mathematicians, musicians, astronomers, geographers, and physicians
- Bernard Lewis (2 May 2004). From Babel to Dragomans : Interpreting the Middle East: Interpreting the Middle East. Oxford University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-803863-4. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
...the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance.
- Bosworth, C. E. "ʿAjam". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Gene R. Garthwaite (15 April 2008). The Persians. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-4051-4400-1.
- Steven R. Ward (2009). Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-58901-587-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Isfahan: Iran's Hidden Jewel". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Spuler, Bertold (1960). The Muslim World. Vol. I The Age of the Caliphs. E.J. Brill. p. 29. ISBN 0-685-23328-6.
- "Safavid Empire (1501–1722)". BBC Religion. BBC. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Muhammad Ali ibn Abd al-Bayg ign Ali Quli Jabbadar?. "Nadir Shah at the sack of Delhi". mid-1700's.
- Farrokh, Kaveh. Iran at War: 1500-1988. ISBN 1780962215
- Yeroushalmi, David (2009). The Jews of Iran in the nineteenth century: aspects of history, community. BRILL. p. 327. ISBN 90-04-15288-1.
- Stephen Kinzer (1 June 2011). All the Shah's Men. John Wiley & Sons. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-118-14440-4. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Conversations with History: U.S. Iran and Saudi Arabia with Andrew Scott Cooper
- "Islamic Revolution of 1979". Iranchamber.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Islamic Revolution of Iran. Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Fereydoun Hoveyda, The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution ISBN 0-275-97858-3, Praeger Publishers
- "The Iranian Revolution". Fsmitha.com. 22 March 1963. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "BBC On this Day Feb 1 1979". BBC. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Jahangir Amuzegar (1991). The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: The Pahlavis' Triumph and Tragedy. SUNY Press. pp. 4, 9–12. ISBN 978-0-7914-9483-7. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Cheryl Benard (1984). "The Government of God": Iran's Islamic Republic. Columbia University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-231-05376-1. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Iran and the Surrounding World: Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics. University of Washington Press. 2002. p. 206. ISBN 978-0295982069.
- "American Experience, Jimmy Carter, "444 Days: America Reacts"". Pbs.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 9780415904063. OCLC 22347651.
- Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–175, 212. ISBN 9780521528917. OCLC 171111098.
- Dan De Luce in Tehran (4 May 2004). "The Guardian, Tuesday 4 May 2004, Khatami blames clerics for failure". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Iran hardliner becomes president". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 6 December 2006.
- نتایج نهایی دهمین دورهٔ انتخابات ریاست جمهوری (in Persian). Ministry of Interior of Iran. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- "Leader addresses nation on election results, 13 June 2009". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Tait, Robert; Black, Ian; Tran, Mark (17 June 2009). "Iran protests: Fifth day of unrest as regime cracks down on critics". The Guardian (London).
- "Hassan Rouhani wins Iran presidential election". BBC News. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Fassihi, Farnaz (15 June 2013). "Moderate Candidate Wins Iran's Presidential Vote". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- Strategic Asia 2013-14: Asia in the Second Nuclear Age - Page 229, Abraham M. Denmark, Travis Tanner - 2013
- "Iran-Location, size, and extent". Nationsencyclopedia.com. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Hindu Kush". News.surfwax.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Nature & Mountains of Iran". Wayback.archive.org. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iran- Current Information". My.simmons.edu. Retrieved 18 June 2011.[dead link]
- Moghtader, Michelle (3 August 2014). "Farming reforms offer hope for Iran's water crisis". Reuters. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- Guggisberg, C.A.W. (1961). Simba: The Life of the Lion. Howard Timmins, Cape Town.
- "همشهری آنلاین-استانهای کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)". Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
- Payvand. "Iran: Focus on reverse migration". Retrieved 17 April 2006.
- "Islamic Azad University". Retrieved 28 January 2008". Wayback.archive.org. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iranian National Portal of Statistics". Wayback.archive.org. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Religious Tourism Potentials Rich- Iran Daily". archive.org.
- "Mashhad, Iran". Sacredsites.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Iran – Statistical Centre. Retrieved 27 February 2008.[dead link]
- Population according to statistical center of Iran in Persian
- "Leadership in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran". Leader.ir. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. "Iran – The Constitution". Retrieved 14 April 2006.
- "Iran The Presidency". Photius.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Chibli Mallat (29 January 2004). The Renewal of Islamic Law: Muhammad Baqer As-Sadr, Najaf and the Shi'i International. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53122-1. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iran – The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "The Structure of Power in Iran". Iranchamber.com. 24 June 2005. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "IFES Election Guide". Electionguide.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran – The Council of Guardians". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran The Council of Guardians". Photius.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Manou & Associates Inc. "Iranian Government Constitution, English Text". Iranonline.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Expediency council". BBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2008.
- "Iran Chamber Society: The Structure of Power in Iran". Iranchamber.com. 24 June 2005. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "The limits of the Russian-Iranian strategic alliance: its history andgeopolitics, and the nuclear issue". Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "The Strategic Partnership of Russia and Iran". Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Russia and Iran: Strategic Partners or Competing Regional Hegemons? A Critical Analysis of Russian-Iranian Relations in the Post-Soviet Space". Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Iran urges NAM to make collective bids to establish global peace. PressTV, 26 August 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Ahmadinejad calls for new world order based on justice. PressTV 26 May 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- 'Who Is Ali Khamenei?' Akbar Gangi, Foreign Affairs Magazine website, October 2013. Khamenai is quoted as saying: 'We believe in freedom, too. But we do not accept liberal democracy. . . . We don’t want to use that name for our pure, sound, righteous, and clean meaning. We say Islamic democracy, or the Islamic Republic.'
- "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamic Republic of Iran". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Key Events in Iran Since 1921". Pbs.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Rubin, Barry (1980). Paved with Good Intentions (PDF). New York: Penguin Books. p. 83.
- IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p.187
- John Pike. "Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij Mobilisation Resistance Force". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran's defense spending 'a fraction of Persian Gulf neighbors'". Payvand.com. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran's doctrine based on deterrence". IRNA. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran Launches Production of Stealth Sub". Fox News. 10 May 2005. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- "Advanced attack chopper joins Iran fleet". PressTv. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iran launches advanced Jamaran destroyer". Presstv.com. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran tests new long-range missile". BBC. 12 November 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- "Iran economy". Traveldocs.com. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran, Islamic Rep". World Bank. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Iran Investment Monthly. Turquoise Partners (April 2012). Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Iran's banned trade unions: Aya-toiling". The Economist. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Iran in numbers: How cost of living has soared under sanctions". BBC News. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "IRNA: Crude price pegged at dlrs 39.6 a barrel under next year's budget". Payvand.com. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran Daily Forex Reserves Put at $70b". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Ahmadinejad's Achilles Heel: The Iranian Economy". Payvand.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Energy subsidies reach $84b". Iran-Daily. 8 January 2007. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Iran – Country Brief". Go.worldbank.org. Retrieved 30 January 2010.[dead link]
- "List of Iranian Nanotechnology companies". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "World Economic Forum: Iran ranks 69th out of 139 in global competitiveness". Payvand.com. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "UK Trade & Investment". Wayback.archive.org. 13 February 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "FAOSTAT". faostat3.fao.org. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
- "Iran and sanctions: When will it ever end?". The Economist. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Useless Rial Is U.S. Goal in New Iran Sanctions, Treasury Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Iran's entry". Microsoft Encarta. 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
- "Iran Travel And Tourism Forecast". Economist Intelligence Unit. 2008.
- Iran hosted 2.3 million tourists this year. PressTV, March 19, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Sightseeing and excursions in Iran. Tehran Times, September 28, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Curtis, Glenn; Hooglund, Eric (April 2008). "Iran, a country study" (PDF). Washington, D.C., USA: Library of Congress. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-8444-1187-3.
- Iran ranks 68th in tourism revenues worldwide. Payvand/IRNA, September 7, 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
- Ayse, Valentine; Nash, Jason John; Leland, Rice (January 2013). "The Business Year 2013: Iran". London, U.K.: The Business Year. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-908180-11-7.
- "Iranian Hospitality Industry". PressTV. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "CIA.gov". CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "Iran – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "American Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-223X Issue 45 (2012), pp. 76–84" (PDF). Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "The EU should be playing Iran and Russia off against each other, by Julian Evans". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Kim Murphy – Los Angeles Times (7 January 2007). "U.S. targets Iran's vulnerable oil". Heraldextra.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran, Besieged by Gasoline Sanctions, Develops GTL to Extract Gasoline from Natural Gas". Oilprice.com. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "Iran" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Peter Krol. "Study in Iran :: Iran Educational System". arabiancampus.com.
- "WEP-Iran". Wes.org. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "Iraq". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Expert: Dr.VSR.Subramaniam (18 October 2006). "Economics: economic, medical uses of alcohol, uses of alcohol". Experts.about.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran could rank fourth in the world in terms of research output in 2018". Tehrantimes.com. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Patrick Thibodeau (22 June 2009). "AMD Chips Used in Iranian HPC for Rocket Research". Computerworld.com. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "No. 3817 | Front page | Page 1". Irandaily. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics". Ibb.ut.ac.ir. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "The first successfully cloned animal in Iran". Middle-east-online.com. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iranian Studies Group at MIT" (PDF). Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "INIC – News – 73% of Tehran's Students Acquainted with Nanotechnology". En.nano.ir. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran Ranks 15th In Nanotech Articles". Bernama. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran daily: Iranian Technology From Foreign Perspective". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iran scientific savvy 'amazes world'". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "West 'shocked by Iran spaceshot'". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran, 7th in UF6 production – IAEO official". Payvand.com. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran says it controls entire nuclear fuel cycle". USA Today. 11 April 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Project Retired - EECS at UC Berkeley" (PDF). berkeley.edu.
- "CERN Press Release – CERN signs draft Memorandum of Understanding with Iran". Press.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Ben Mathis-Lilley (12 August 2014). "A Woman Has Won the Fields Medal, Math's Highest Prize, for the First Time". Slate. Graham Holdings Company. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". un.org.
- "Encyclopaedia Iranica. R. N. Frye. Peoples of Iran". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Asia-Pacific Population Journal, United Nations. "A New Direction in Population Policy and Family Planning in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Retrieved 14 April 2006.
- "Iran – population". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran – کاهش غیرمنتظره نرخ رشد جمعیت در ایران". DW Persian. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Census Bureau, Government of the U.S.A. "IDB Summary Demographic Data for Iran". Retrieved 14 April 2006.[dead link]
- Iran News, Payvand.com. "Iran's population growth rate falls to 1.5 percent: UNFP". Retrieved 18 October 2006.
- "Afghanistan-Iran: Iran says it will deport over one million Afghans". Irinnews.org. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- United Nations, UNHCR. "Tripartite meeting on returns to Afghanistan". Retrieved 14 April 2006.
- "Iran to start bank for expat-investors". Presstv.com. 18 April 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Migration Information Institute: Characteristics of the Iranian Diaspora". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- WHO, World Health Organisation. "The World Health Report 2000" (PDF). Retrieved 12 October 2006.
- Oberling, Pierre (7 February 2012). "Georgia viii: Georgian communities in Persia". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Circassian". Official Circassian Association. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Chardin, Sir John (June 1997). "Persians: Kind, hospitable, tolerant flattering cheats?". The Iranian. Archived from the original on 20 June 1997. Retrieved 9 June 2014. Excerpted from:
- Sönmez, Metin (2005). "Circassians". Circassian World. Archived from the original on 16 June 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- J. Harmatta in "History of Civilizations of Central Asia", Chapter 14, The Emergence of Indo-Iranians: The Indo-Iranian Languages, ed. by A. H. Dani & V.N. Masson, 1999, p. 357
- "Country Profile: Iran" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. May 2008. p. 5. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- 2011 General Cencus Selected Results (PDF), Statistical Center of Iran, 2012, p. 26, ISBN 978-964-365-827-4
- Walter Martin (1 October 2003). Kingdom of the Cults, The. Baker Books. p. 421. ISBN 978-0-7642-2821-6. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
Ninety-five percent of Iran's Muslims are Shi'ites.
- Bhabani Sen Gupta (1987). The Persian Gulf and South Asia: prospects and problems of inter-regional cooperation. South Asian Publishers. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-7003-077-5.
Shias constitute seventy-five percent of the population of the Gulf. Of this, ninety-five percent of Iranians and sixty of Iraqis are Shias.
- Contrera, Russell. "Saving the people, killing the faith – Holland, MI". The Holland Sentinel. Retrieved 2015-03-07.
- "Jewish woman brutally murdered in Iran over property dispute". The Times of Israel. November 28, 2012. Retrieved Aug 16, 2014.
A government census published earlier this year indicated there were a mere 8,756 Jews left in Iran
- Ahmadinejad: Religious minorities live freely in Iran (PressTV, 24 Sep 2009)
- Country Information and Guidance "Christians and Christian converts, Iran" December 2014. p.9
- U.S. State Department (26 October 2009). "Iran – International Religious Freedom Report 2009". The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affair. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- International Federation for Human Rights (1 August 2003). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. p. 6. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- International Federation for Human Rights (1 August 2003). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. Retrieved 19 March 2007.
- Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). "A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran" (PDF). Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved 19 March 2007.
- Kamali, Saeed (27 February 2013). "Bahá'í student expelled from Iranian university 'on grounds of religion'". Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Public Opinion Survey of Iranian Americans. Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans (PAAIA)/Zogby, December 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "Disparaging Islam and the Iranian-American Identity: To Snuggle or to Struggle". payvand.com. 21 September 2009.
- Greater Iran, Mazda Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1-56859-177-2 p. xi
- John Bagnell Bury (1958). History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian 1. DOVER PUBN Incorporated. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-486-20398-0.
- "Sassanids in Africa". Transoxiana.com.ar. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iransaga: The art of Sassanids". Artarena.force9.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran – A country study". Parstimes.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "History of Islamic Science 5". Levity.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Afary, Janet (2006). "Iran". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- Khalaj, Mehrnosh (2010-02-10). "Iran’s oldest craft left behind". FT.com. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- Arthur Pope, Introducing Persian Architecture. Oxford University Press. London. 1971.
- Arthur Upham Pope. Persian Architecture. George Braziller, New York, 1965. p.266
- Arthur Upham Pope. Persian Architecture. George Braziller, New York, 1965. p.266
- "Virtual Conference". American.edu. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Arthur John Arberry, The Legacy of Persia, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953, ISBN 0-19-821905-9, p. 200.
- Von David Levinson; Karen Christensen, Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, Charles Scribner's Sons. 2002 p. 48
- David Levinson; Karen Christensen (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia: Iaido to Malay. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-684-80617-4.
- François de Blois (April 2004). Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical Survey 5. Routledge. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-947593-47-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
Nizami Ganja’i, whose personal name was Ilyas, is the most celebrated native poet of the Persians after Firdausi.
- Sarkhosh-Curtis, V., Persian Myths (1993) London, ISBN 0-7141-2082-0
- (Lawergren 2009) iv. First millennium C.E. (1) Sasanian music, 224–651.
- "Iran: Music". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iranian performance of Beethoven's 9th Symphony". bbc.co.uk.
- Honour, Hugh and John Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History. New Jersey, Prentice Hall Inc, 1992. Page: 96.
- "Iranian Cinema: Before the Revolution". horschamp.qc.ca.
- "Massoud Mehrabi - Articles". massoudmehrabi.com.
- Kiarostami Will Carry Us; The Iranian Master Gives Hope
- "Iran's strong presence in 2006 Berlin Film Festival". bbc.co.uk.
- "BBC NEWS - Entertainment - Iran films return to Berlin festival". bbc.co.uk.
- "World’s oldest animation?". The Heritage Trust.
- "Oldest Animation Discovered In Iran". Animation Magazine.
- "Tehran International Animation Festival (1st Festival 1999 )". tehran-animafest.ir.
- "Tehran International Animation Festival (TIAF)". animation-festivals.com.
- Harrison, Frances (22 September 2005). "Polo comes back home to Iran". BBC News. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- Alipour, Sam (21 April 2012). "Mission Improbable". ESPN. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Wolfensberger, Marc (13 April 2006). "Iran's Sun, Snow Lure European Skiers to Nuclear Pariah's 'Fun'". Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Rock Climbing Routes, Gear, Photos, Videos & Articles". Rockclimbing.com. 27 October 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran Mountain Zone (IMZ)". Mountainzone.ir. 11 June 1966. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Mountaineering in Iran". Abc-of-mountaineering.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Iranˈs world 4th volleyball power in FIVB League, best Asian rank ever Irna
- "Leaders of regional countries to mark Nowruz". PressTV. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Norouz Persian New Year". British Museum. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- "General Assembly Fifty-fifth session 94th plenary meeting Friday, 9 March 2001, 10 a.m. New York" (PDF). United Nations General Assembly. 9 March 2001. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- "Nowrooz, a Persian New Year Celebration, Erupts in Iran – Yahoo!News". News.yahoo.com. 16 March 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- "US mulls Persian New Year outreach". Washington Times. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- "Sturgeon Stocks Slump". Iran-daily.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Media from Commons|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- The e-office of the Supreme Leader of Iran
- The President of Iran
- Iran entry at The World Factbook
- Iran web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
- Iran at DMOZ
- Wikimedia Atlas of Iran