Islamic Republic of Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران (Persian)
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
سرود ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Sorud-e Melli-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
("National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran")
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages|
Islam (Twelver Shia)
Constitutionally recognized minorities:
Islam (Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali, Zaydi),
Christianity (Armenian, Assyrian, Chaldean),
Unitary Khomeinist presidential Islamic republic
Unitary theocratic-republican authoritarian presidential system subject to a Supreme Leader
|Expediency Discernment Council|
Assembly of Experts
|Islamic Consultative Assembly|
|c. 678 BC|
|15 December 1925|
|7 January 1978 – 11 February 1979|
|24 October 1979|
|28 July 1989|
|1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi) (17th)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
|48/km2 (124.3/sq mi) (162nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$1.540 trillion (18th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$484 billion (27th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2017)|| 0.798|
high · 60th
|Currency||Rial (ریال) (IRR)|
|Time zone||UTC+3:30 (IRST)|
• Summer (DST)
|Date format||yyyy/mm/dd (SH)|
|ISO 3166 code||IR|
Iran,[a] also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran,[b] is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan,[c] to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the political and economic center of Iran, and the largest and most populous city in Western Asia with more than 8.8 million residents in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area.
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, and reached its territorial height in the sixth century BCE under Cyrus the Great, whose Achaemenid Empire stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, one of the largest empires in history. The empire fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion established the Parthian Empire in the third century BCE, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries.
Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, and the subsequent Islamization of Iran led to the decline of the once dominant Zoroastrian religion. Iran's major contributions to art, philosophy, and science spread throughout the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age. Over the next two centuries, a series of native Muslim dynasties emerged before the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols conquered the region. The rise of the native Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history.
Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. The Persian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century created a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocratic rule under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and growing Western political influence. A far-reaching series of reforms known as the White Revolution was launched by the Shah in 1963, prompting industrial growth, land reforms, and increased women's rights. Nevertheless, widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy persisted, leading to the Iranian Revolution, which established the current Islamic Republic. For most of the 1980s, Iran fought a war with Iraq that resulted in severe casualties and economic devastation for both sides.
Iran's political system has elements of a presidential democracy with a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". It has been described as authoritarian, with significant constraints and abuses against human rights.
Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels—including the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves—exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Historically a multi-ethnic country, Iran remains a pluralistic society comprising numerous ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris, Kurds, Mazandaranis and Lurs.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education, science and technology
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
The term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- (Middle Persian) and ary- (Parthian), both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya- (meaning "Aryan", i.e. "of the Iranians"), recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles (skilfully)". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta,[d] and remains also in other Iranian ethnic names Alan (Ossetian: Ир Ir) and Iron (Ирон). According to the Iranian mythology, the country's name comes from name of Iraj, a legendary prince and shah who was killed by his brothers.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís (Ancient Greek: Περσίς; from Old Persian 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿 Pārsa), meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran that is today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted, even long after the Greco-Persian Wars (499–449 BC).
In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, Iran, effective March 22 that year. Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision in 1959, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably.[unreliable source?] Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceable in official state contexts.
Historical and cultural usage of the word Iran is not restricted to the modern state proper. "Greater Iran" (Irānzamīn or Irān e Bozorg) refers to territories of the Iranian cultural and linguistic zones. In addition to modern Iran, it includes portions of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.
The Persian pronunciation of Iran is [ʔiːˈɾɒːn]. Common Commonwealth English pronunciations of Iran are listed in the Oxford English Dictionary as // and //, while American English dictionaries such as Merriam-Webster's provide pronunciations which map to / - , /,, or likewise in Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary as / , /,. The Cambridge Dictionary lists // as the British pronunciation and // as the American pronunciation. Similarly, Glasgow-based Collins English Dictionary provides both English English and American English pronunciations. The pronunciation guide from Voice of America also provides //.
The American English pronunciation // eye-RAN may be heard in U.S. media. Max Fisher in The Washington Post prescribed // for Iran, while proscribing //. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, in the dictionary's 2014 Usage Ballot, addressed the topic of the pronunciations of Iran and Iraq. According to this survey, the pronunciations // and // were deemed almost equally acceptable, while // was preferred by most panelists participating in the ballot. With regard to the // pronunciation, more than 70% of the panelists deemed it unacceptable. Among the reasons given by those panelists were that // has "hawkish connotations" and sounds "angrier", "xenophobic", "ignorant", and "not...cosmopolitan". The // pronunciation remains standard and acceptable, reflected in the entry for Iran in the American Heritage Dictionary itself, as well as in each of the other major dictionaries of American English.
The earliest attested archaeological artifacts in Iran, like those excavated at Kashafrud and Ganj Par in northern Iran, confirm a human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic. Iran's Neanderthal artifacts from the Middle Paleolithic have been found mainly in the Zagros region, at sites such as Warwasi and Yafteh.[page needed] From the 10th to the seventh millennium BC, early agricultural communities began to flourish in and around the Zagros region in western Iran, including Chogha Golan, Chogha Bonut, and Chogha Mish.[page needed]
The emergence of Susa as a city, as determined by radiocarbon dating, dates back to early 4,395 BC. There are dozens of prehistoric sites across the Iranian Plateau, pointing to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BC. During the Bronze Age, the territory of present-day Iran was home to several civilizations, including Elam, Jiroft, and Zayanderud. Elam, the most prominent of these civilizations, developed in the southwest alongside those in Mesopotamia, and continued its existence until the emergence of the Iranian empires. The advent of writing in Elam was paralleled to Sumer, and the Elamite cuneiform was developed since the third millennium BC.
From the 34th to the 20th century BC, northwestern Iran was part of the Kura-Araxes culture, which stretched into the neighboring Caucasus and Anatolia. Since the earliest second millennium BC, Assyrians settled in swaths of western Iran and incorporated the region into their territories.
By the second millennium BC, the ancient Iranian peoples arrived in what is now Iran from the Eurasian Steppe, rivaling the native settlers of the region. As the Iranians dispersed into the wider area of Greater Iran and beyond, the boundaries of modern-day Iran were dominated by Median, Persian, and Parthian tribes.
From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the "pre-Iranian" kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia. Under king Cyaxares, the Medes and Persians entered into an alliance with Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, as well as the fellow Iranian Scythians and Cimmerians, and together they attacked the Assyrian Empire. The civil war ravaged the Assyrian Empire between 616 and 605 BC, thus freeing their respective peoples from three centuries of Assyrian rule. The unification of the Median tribes under king Deioces in 728 BC led to the foundation of the Median Empire which, by 612 BC, controlled almost the entire territory of present-day Iran and eastern Anatolia. This marked the end of the Kingdom of Urartu as well, which was subsequently conquered and dissolved.
In 550 BC, Cyrus the Great, the son of Mandane and Cambyses I, took over the Median Empire, and founded the Achaemenid Empire by unifying other city-states. The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the Persian Revolt. The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of the Median ruler Astyages, and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians. Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia, Babylon, Egypt, parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper, as well as the lands to the west of the Indus and Oxus rivers.
539 BC was the year in which Persian forces defeated the Babylonian army at Opis, and marked the end of around four centuries of Mesopotamian domination of the region by conquering the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Cyrus entered Babylon and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch. Subsequent Achaemenid art and iconography reflect the influence of the new political reality in Mesopotamia.
At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire included territories of modern-day Iran, Republic of Azerbaijan (Arran and Shirvan), Armenia, Georgia, Turkey (Anatolia), much of the Black Sea coastal regions, northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria (Thrace), northern Greece and North Macedonia (Paeonia and Macedon), Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya, Kuwait, northern Saudi Arabia, parts of the United Arab Emirates and Oman, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and much of Central Asia, making it the first world government and the largest empire the world had yet seen.
It is estimated that in 480 BC, 50 million people lived in the Achaemenid Empire. The empire at its peak ruled over 44% of the world's population, the highest such figure for any empire in history.
The Achaemenid Empire is noted for the release of the Jewish exiles in Babylon, building infrastructures such as the Royal Road and the Chapar (postal service), and the use of an official language, Imperial Aramaic, throughout its territories. The empire had a centralized, bureaucratic administration under the emperor, a large professional army, and civil services, inspiring similar developments in later empires.
Eventual conflict on the western borders began with the Ionian Revolt, which erupted into the Greco-Persian Wars and continued through the first half of the fifth century BC, and ended with the withdrawal of the Achaemenids from all of the territories in the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper.
In 334 BC, Alexander the Great invaded the Achaemenid Empire, defeating the last Achaemenid emperor, Darius III, at the Battle of Issus. Following the premature death of Alexander, Iran came under the control of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. In the middle of the second century BC, the Parthian Empire rose to become the main power in Iran, and the century-long geopolitical arch-rivalry between the Romans and the Parthians began, culminating in the Roman–Parthian Wars. The Parthian Empire continued as a feudal monarchy for nearly five centuries, until 224 CE, when it was succeeded by the Sasanian Empire. Together with their neighboring arch-rival, the Roman-Byzantines, they made up the world's two most dominant powers at the time, for over four centuries.
The Sasanians established an empire within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, with their capital at Ctesiphon. Late antiquity is considered one of Iran's most influential periods, as under the Sasanians their influence reached the culture of ancient Rome (and through that as far as Western Europe), Africa, China, and India, and played a prominent role in the formation of the medieval art of both Europe and Asia.
Most of the era of the Sasanian Empire was overshadowed by the Roman–Persian Wars, which raged on the western borders at Anatolia, the Western Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Levant, for over 700 years. These wars ultimately exhausted both the Romans and the Sasanians and led to the defeat of both by the Muslim invasion.
Throughout the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras, several offshoots of the Iranian dynasties established eponymous branches in Anatolia and the Caucasus, including the Pontic Kingdom, the Mihranids, and the Arsacid dynasties of Armenia, Iberia (Georgia), and Caucasian Albania (present-day Republic of Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan).
The prolonged Byzantine–Sasanian wars, most importantly the climactic war of 602–628, as well as the social conflict within the Sasanian Empire, opened the way for an Arab invasion of Iran in the seventh century. The empire was initially defeated by the Rashidun Caliphate, which was succeeded by the Umayyad Caliphate, followed by the Abbasid Caliphate. A prolonged and gradual process of state-imposed Islamization followed, which targeted Iran's then Zoroastrian majority and included religious persecution, demolition of libraries and fire temples, a special tax penalty ("jizya"), and language shift.
In 750, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads, notably by the support from the "mawali" (converted Iranians). The mawali formed the majority of the rebel army, which was led by converted Iranian general Abu Muslim. The arrival of the Abbasid Caliphs saw a relative revival of Iranian culture and influence, as the role of the old Arab aristocracy was partially replaced by a Muslim Iranian bureaucracy.
After two centuries of Arab rule, semi-independent and independent Iranian kingdoms—including the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids, and Buyids—began to appear on the fringes of the declining Abbasid Caliphate. By the Samanid era in the ninth and 10th centuries, the efforts of Iranians to regain their independence had been well solidified.
The blossoming literature, philosophy, mathematics, medicine, astronomy and art of Iran became major elements in the formation of a new age for the Iranian civilization, during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age. The Islamic Golden Age reached its peak by the 10th and 11th centuries, during which Iran was the main theater of scientific activities. After the 10th century, Persian, alongside Arabic, was used for scientific, medical, philosophical, arithmetical, historical, and musical works, and renowned Iranian writers—such as Tusi, Avicenna, Qotb-od-Din Shirazi, and Biruni—had major contributions in scientific writing. Among Iran's famous medieval scientists, Al-Khwarizmi (whose name was Latinized as Algoritmi) gave a significant role in the development of the Arabic numerals and algebra through his 9th-century work On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals that is globally adopted as the modern numerical system.
The cultural revival that began in the Abbasid period led to a resurfacing of the Iranian national identity; thus, the attempts of Arabization never succeeded in Iran. The Shu'ubiyya movement became a catalyst for Iranians to regain independence in their relations with the Arab invaders. The most notable effect of this movement was the continuation of the Persian language attested to the works of the epic poet Ferdowsi, now considered the most prominent figure in Iranian literature.
The 10th century saw a mass migration of Turkic tribes from Central Asia into the Iranian Plateau. Turkic tribesmen were first used in the Abbasid army as mamluks (slave-warriors), replacing Iranian and Arab elements within the army. As a result, the Mamluks gained a significant political power. In 999, large portions of Iran came briefly under the rule of the Ghaznavids, whose rulers were of mamluk Turkic origin, and longer subsequently under the Seljuk and Khwarezmian empires. These dynasties had been Persianized, and had adopted Persian models of administration and rulership. The Seljuks subsequently gave rise to the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia, while taking their thoroughly Persianized identity with them. The result of the adoption and patronage of Iranian culture by Turkish rulers was the development of a distinct Turko-Persian tradition.
From 1219 to 1221, under the Khwarazmian Empire, Iran suffered a devastating invasion by the Mongol army of Genghis Khan. According to Steven R. Ward, "Mongol violence and depredations killed up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, possibly 10 to 15 million people. Some historians have estimated that Iran's population did not again reach its pre-Mongol levels until the mid-20th century."
Following the fracture of the Mongol Empire in 1256, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, established the Ilkhanate in Iran. In 1370, yet another conqueror, Timur, followed the example of Hulagu, establishing the Timurid Empire which lasted for another 156 years. In 1387, Timur ordered the complete massacre of Isfahan, reportedly killing 70,000 citizens. The Ilkhans and the Timurids soon came to adopt the ways and customs of the Iranians, surrounding themselves with a culture that was distinctively Iranian.
Early modern period
By the 1500s, Ismail I of Ardabil established the Safavid Empire, with his capital at Tabriz. Beginning with Azerbaijan, he subsequently extended his authority over all of the Iranian territories, and established an intermittent Iranian hegemony over the vast relative regions, reasserting the Iranian identity within large parts of Greater Iran. Iran was predominantly Sunni, but Ismail instigated a forced conversion to the Shia branch of Islam, spreading throughout the Safavid territories in the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. As a result, modern-day Iran is the only official Shia nation of the world, with it holding an absolute majority in Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, having there the first and the second highest number of Shia inhabitants by population percentage in the world. Meanwhile, the centuries-long geopolitical and ideological rivalry between Safavid Iran and the neighboring Ottoman Empire led to numerous Ottoman–Iranian wars.
The Safavid era peaked in the reign of Abbas I (1587–1629), surpassing their Turkish archrivals in strength, and making Iran a leading science and art hub in western Eurasia. The Safavid era saw the start of mass integration from Caucasian populations into new layers of the society of Iran, as well as mass resettlement of them within the heartlands of Iran, playing a pivotal role in the history of Iran for centuries onwards. Following a gradual decline in the late 1600s and the early 1700s, which was caused by internal conflicts, the continuous wars with the Ottomans, and the foreign interference (most notably the Russian interference), the Safavid rule was ended by the Pashtun rebels who besieged Isfahan and defeated Sultan Husayn in 1722.
In 1729, Nader Shah, a chieftain and military genius from Khorasan, successfully drove out and conquered the Pashtun invaders. He subsequently took back the annexed Caucasian territories which were divided among the Ottoman and Russian authorities by the ongoing chaos in Iran. During the reign of Nader Shah, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sasanian Empire, reestablishing the Iranian hegemony all over the Caucasus, as well as other major parts of the west and central Asia, and briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire at the time.
Nader Shah invaded India and sacked far off Delhi by the late 1730s. His territorial expansion, as well as his military successes, went into a decline following the final campaigns in the Northern Caucasus against then revolting Lezgins. The assassination of Nader Shah sparked a brief period of civil war and turmoil, after which Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty came to power in 1750, bringing a period of relative peace and prosperity.
Compared to its preceding dynasties, the geopolitical reach of the Zand dynasty was limited. Many of the Iranian territories in the Caucasus gained de facto autonomy, and were locally ruled through various Caucasian khanates. However, despite the self-ruling, they all remained subjects and vassals to the Zand king. Another civil war ensued after the death of Karim Khan in 1779, out of which Agha Mohammad Khan emerged, founding the Qajar dynasty in 1794.
In 1795, following the disobedience of the Georgian subjects and their alliance with the Russians, the Qajars captured Tbilisi by the Battle of Krtsanisi, and drove the Russians out of the entire Caucasus, reestablishing the Iranian suzerainty over the region.
The Russo-Iranian wars of 1804–1813 and 1826–1828 resulted in large irrevocable territorial losses for Iran in the Caucasus, comprising all of Transcaucasia and Dagestan, which made part of the very concept of Iran for centuries, and thus substantial gains for the neighboring Russian Empire.
As a result of the 19th-century Russo-Iranian wars, the Russians took over the Caucasus, and Iran irrevocably lost control over its integral territories in the region (comprising modern-day Dagestan, Georgia, Armenia, and Republic of Azerbaijan), which got confirmed per the treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay. The area to the north of Aras River, among which the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Armenia are located, were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century.
As Iran shrank, many Transcaucasian and North Caucasian Muslims moved towards Iran, especially until the aftermath of the Circassian Genocide, and the decades afterwards, while Iran's Armenians were encouraged to settle in the newly incorporated Russian territories, causing significant demographic shifts.
Between 1872 and 1905, a series of protests took place in response to the sale of concessions to foreigners by Qajar monarchs Naser-ed-Din and Mozaffar-ed-Din, and led to the Constitutional Revolution in 1905. The first Iranian constitution and the first national parliament of Iran were founded in 1906, through the ongoing revolution. The Constitution included the official recognition of Iran's three religious minorities, namely Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians, which has remained a basis in the legislation of Iran since then. The struggle related to the constitutional movement was followed by the Triumph of Tehran in 1909, when Mohammad Ali Shah was defeated and forced to abdicate. On the pretext of restoring order, the Russians occupied northern Iran in 1911 and maintained a military presence in the region for years to come. But this did not put an end to the civil uprisings and was soon followed by Mirza Kuchik Khan's Jungle Movement against both the Qajar monarchy and foreign invaders.
During World War I, the British occupied much of the territory of western Iran, and fully withdrew in 1921. Meanwhile, a famine in northern Iran killed between eight and 10 million people. The Persian Campaign commenced furthermore in northwestern Iran after an Ottoman invasion, as part of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. In the course of the Assyrian Genocide of 1914–1920 and the Armenian Genocide of 1915–1917, a large number of Iranian Assyrians and Armenians were subjected to mass murders committed by the Ottoman troops that were crossing the northwestern border, notably in and around Khoy, Maku, Salmas, and Urmia.
Apart from the rule of Agha Mohammad Khan, the Qajar rule is characterized as a century of misrule. The Iranian Cossack Brigade, which was the most effective military force available to the crown, began a military coup supported by the British in February 1921. The Qajar dynasty was subsequently overthrown, and Reza Khan, the former general of the Cossack Brigade, became the new Prime Minister of Iran. Eventually, he was declared the new monarch in 1925—thence known as Reza Shah—establishing the Pahlavi dynasty.
In the midst of World War II, in 1941, Nazi Germany launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union, breaking the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. This had a major impact on Iran, which had declared neutrality in the conflicts. Later that year, following an Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Reza Shah was forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Subsequently, Iran became a major conduit for British and American aid to the Soviet Union, until the end of the ongoing war.
At the 1943 Tehran Conference, the Allied "Big Three"—Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill—issued the Tehran Declaration to guarantee the post-war independence and boundaries of Iran. However, at the end of the war, Soviet troops remained in Iran and local pro-Soviet groups established two puppet states in north-western Iran, namely the People's Government of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Mahabad. Receiving a promise of oil concessions, the Soviets withdrew from Iran proper in May 1946. The two puppet states were soon overthrown following the Iran crisis of 1946, and the oil concessions were revoked.
In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh was appointed as the Prime Minister. He became enormously popular in Iran after he nationalized Iran's petroleum industry and oil reserves. He was deposed in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, an Anglo-American covert operation that marked the first time the United States had participated in the overthrow of a foreign government during the Cold War.
After the coup, the Shah became increasingly autocratic and sultanistic, and Iran entered a phase of decades-long controversial close relations with the United States and some other foreign governments. While the Shah increasingly modernized Iran and claimed to retain it as a fully secular state, arbitrary arrests and torture by his secret police, the SAVAK, were used to crush all forms of political opposition.
Ruhollah Khomeini, a radical Muslim cleric, became an active critic of the Shah's far-reaching series of reforms known as the White Revolution. Khomeini publicly denounced the government, and was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months. After his release in 1964, he refused to apologize, and was eventually sent into exile.
Due to the 1973 spike in oil prices, the economy of Iran was flooded with foreign currency, which caused inflation. By 1974, the economy of Iran was experiencing double digit inflation, and despite the many large projects to modernize the country, corruption was rampant and caused large amounts of waste. By 1975 and 1976, an economic recession led to increased unemployment, especially among millions of youth who had migrated to the cities of Iran looking for construction jobs during the boom years of the early 1970s. By the late 1970s, many of these people opposed the Shah's regime and began to organize and join the protests against it.
The 1979 Revolution, later known as the Islamic Revolution, began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah. After a year of strikes and demonstrations paralyzing the country and its economy, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled to the United States, and Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to Tehran in February 1979, forming a new government. After holding a referendum, Iran officially became an Islamic republic in April 1979. A second referendum in December 1979 approved a theocratic constitution.
The immediate nationwide uprisings against the new government began with the 1979 Kurdish rebellion and the Khuzestan uprisings, along with the uprisings in Sistan and Baluchestan and other areas. Over the next several years, these uprisings were subdued in a violent manner by the new Islamic government. The new government began purging itself of the non-Islamist political opposition, as well as of those Islamists who were not considered radical enough. Although both nationalists and Marxists had initially joined with Islamists to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands were executed by the new regime afterwards. Many former ministers and officials in the Shah's government, including former prime minister Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, were brutally shot dead by firing squads on Khomeini's order to purge the new government of any remaining officials still loyal to the exiled Shah.
On 4 November 1979, a group of Muslim students seized the United States Embassy and took the embassy with 52 personnel and citizens hostage, after the United States refused to extradite Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Iran, where his execution was all but assured. Attempts by the Jimmy Carter administration to negotiate for the release of the hostages, and a failed rescue attempt, helped force Carter out of office and brought Ronald Reagan to power. On Jimmy Carter's final day in office, the last hostages were finally set free as a result of the Algiers Accords. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left the United States for Egypt, where he died of complications from cancer only months later, on July 27, 1980.
The Cultural Revolution began in 1980, with an initial closure of universities for three years, in order to perform an inspection and clean up in the cultural policy of the education and training system.
On 22 September 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the western Iranian province of Khuzestan, launching the Iran–Iraq War. Although the forces of Saddam Hussein made several early advances, by mid 1982, the Iranian forces successfully managed to drive the Iraqi army back into Iraq. In July 1982, with Iraq thrown on the defensive, the regime of Iran took the decision to invade Iraq and conducted countless offensives in a bid to conquer Iraqi territory and capture cities, such as Basra. The war continued until 1988 when the Iraqi army defeated the Iranian forces inside Iraq and pushed the remaining Iranian troops back across the border. Subsequently, Khomeini accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. The total Iranian casualties in the war were estimated to be 123,220–160,000 KIA, 60,711 MIA, and 11,000–16,000 civilians killed.
Following the Iran–Iraq War, in 1989, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and his administration concentrated on a pragmatic pro-business policy of rebuilding and strengthening the economy without making any dramatic break with the ideology of the revolution. In 1997, Rafsanjani was succeeded by moderate reformist Mohammad Khatami, whose government attempted, unsuccessfully, to make the country more free and democratic.
The 2005 presidential election brought conservative populist candidate, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, to power. By the time of the 2009 Iranian presidential election, the Interior Ministry announced incumbent President Ahmadinejad had won 62.63% of the vote, while Mir-Hossein Mousavi had come in second place with 33.75%. The election results were widely disputed, and resulted in widespread protests, both within Iran and in major cities outside the country, and the creation of the Iranian Green Movement.
Hassan Rouhani was elected as the president on 15 June 2013, defeating Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and four other candidates. The electoral victory of Rouhani has relatively improved the relations of Iran with other countries.
2017–18 Iranian protests were against economic situation. The scale of protests throughout the country and number of people chanting against the government and supreme leader were significant. It was formally confirmed that thousands of protesters were arrested.
Iran has an area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi). It lies between latitudes 24° and 40° N, and longitudes 44° and 64° E. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia (35 km or 22 mi), the Azeri exclave of Nakhchivan (179 km or 111 mi), and the Republic of Azerbaijan (611 km or 380 mi); to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan (992 km or 616 mi); to the east by Afghanistan (936 km or 582 mi) and Pakistan (909 km or 565 mi); to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Iraq (1,458 km or 906 mi) and Turkey (499 km or 310 mi).
Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau, with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan. It is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaux from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus, Zagros, and Alborz, the last containing Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point at 5,610 m (18,406 ft), which is also the highest mountain in Asia west of the Hindu Kush.
The northern part of Iran is covered by the lush lowland Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests, located near the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins, such as the Kavir Desert, which is the country's largest desert, and the Lut Desert, as well as some salt lakes.
The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where the country borders the mouth of the Arvand river. Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman.
Having 11 climates out of the world's 13, Iran's climate is diverse, ranging from arid and semi-arid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain), temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western part. Gary Lewis, the United Nations Resident Coordinator for Iran, has said that "Water scarcity poses the most severe human security challenge in Iran today".
To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (5.3 to 14.0 in).
The wildlife of Iran is composed of several animal species, including bears, the Eurasian lynx, foxes, gazelles, gray wolves, jackals, panthers, and wild pigs. Other domestic animals of Iran include Asian water buffaloes, camels, cattle, donkeys, goats, horses, and the sheep. Eagles, falcons, partridges, pheasants, and storks are also native to the wildlife of Iran.
One of the most famous members of the Iranian wildlife is the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah, also known as the Iranian cheetah, whose numbers were greatly reduced after the 1979 Revolution. The Persian leopard, which is the world's largest leopard subspecies living primarily in northern Iran, is also listed as an endangered species. Iran lost all its Asiatic lions and the now extinct Caspian tigers by the earlier part of the 20th century.
At least 74 species of the Iranian wildlife are on the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, a sign of serious threats against the country's biodiversity. The Iranian Parliament has been showing disregard for wildlife by passing laws and regulations such as the act that lets the Ministry of Industries and Mines exploit mines without the involvement of the Department of Environment, and by approving large national development projects without demanding comprehensive study of their impact on wildlife habitats.
Iran is divided into five regions with thirty-one provinces (ostān), each governed by an appointed governor (ostāndār). The provinces are divided into counties (šahrestān), and subdivided into districts (baxš) and sub-districts (dehestān).
The country has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world. From 1950 to 2002, the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%. The United Nations predicts that by 2030, 80% of the population will be urban.[failed verification] Most internal migrants have settled around the cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom. The listed populations are from the 2006/07 (1385 AP) census.[failed verification]
Tehran, with a population of around 8.8 million (2016 census), is the capital and largest city of Iran. It is an economical and cultural center, and is the hub of the country's communication and transport network.
The country's second most populous city, Mashhad, has a population of around 3.3 million (2016 census), and is capital of the province of Razavi Khorasan. Being the site of the Imam Reza Shrine, it is a holy city in Shia Islam. About 15 to 20 million pilgrims visit the shrine every year.
Isfahan has a population of around 2.2 million (2016 census), and is Iran's third most populous city. It is the capital of the province of Isfahan, and was also the third capital of the Safavid Empire. It is home to a wide variety of historical sites, including the famous Shah Square, Siosepol, and the churches at the Armenian district of New Julfa. It is also home to the world's seventh largest shopping mall, Isfahan City Center.
The fourth most populous city of Iran, Karaj, has a population of around 1.9 million (2016 census). It is the capital of the province of Alborz, and is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountain range. It is a major industrial city in Iran, with large factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol.
With a population of around 1.7 million (2016 census), Tabriz is the fifth most populous city of Iran, and had been the second most populous until the late 1960s. It was the first capital of the Safavid Empire, and is now the capital of the province of East Azerbaijan. It is also considered the country's second major industrial city (after Tehran).
Shiraz, with a population of around 1.8 million (2016 census), is Iran's sixth most populous city. It is the capital of the province of Fars, and was also the capital of Iran under the reign of the Zand dynasty. It is located near the ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire.
Largest cities or towns in Iran
|2||Mashhad||Razavi Khorasan||3,001,184||12||Zahedan||Sistan and Baluchestan||587,730|
Government and politics
The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader, and severely restricts the participation of candidates in popular elections as well as other forms of political activity. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Sexual activity between members of the same sex is illegal and is punishable by up to death. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium.
The Leader of the Revolution ("Supreme Leader") is responsible for delineation and supervision of the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Iranian president has limited power compared to the Supreme Leader Khamenei. The current longtime Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on the economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national plannings, and everything else in the country. Khamenei also outlines elections guidelines and urges for the transparency, and has fired and reinstated presidential cabinet appointments. Key ministers are selected with the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei's agreement and he has the ultimate say on Iran's foreign policy. The president-elect is required to gain the Leader Khamenei's official approval before being sworn in before the Parliament (Majlis). Through this process, known as Tanfiz (validation), the Leader agrees to the outcome of the presidential election. The Supreme Leader is directly involved in ministerial appointments for Defense, Intelligence and Foreign Affairs, as well as other top ministries after submission of candidates from the president. Iran's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran's ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly reports to the Supreme Leader. The budget bill for every year, as well as withdrawing money from the National Development Fund of Iran, require Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei's approval and permission. The Supreme Leader Khamenei can and did order laws to be amended. Setad, estimated at $95 billion in 2013 by the Reuters, accounts of which are secret even to the Iranian parliament, is controlled only by the Supreme Leader.
The Supreme Leader is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations, and has sole power to declare war or peace. The heads of the judiciary, the state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces, and six of the 12 members of the Guardian Council are directly appointed by the Supreme Leader.
The Assembly of Experts elects and dismisses (to date, never did) the Supreme Leader on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem. To date, the Assembly of Experts has not challenged any of the Supreme Leader's decisions. The current head of the judicial system, Sadeq Larijani, appointed by the longtime Supreme Leader, said that it is illegal for the Assembly of Experts to supervise the Supreme Leader. Due to Khamenei's very longtime unchallenged rule, many believe the Assembly of Experts has become a ceremonial body without any real power. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Khamenei publicly called then-member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts. Another instance is when Khamenei indirectly called Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani a traitor for a statement he made, resulting Rafsanjani to retract it.
Presidential candidates and parliamentary candidates must be approved by the Guardian Council (all members of which are directly or indirectly elected by the Leader) or the Leader before running, in order to ensure their allegiance to the Supreme Leader. The Leader very rarely does the vetting himself directly, but has the power to do so, in which case additional approval of the Guardian Council would not be needed. The Leader can also revert the decisions of the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council can, and has dismissed some elected members of the Iranian parliament in the past. For example, Minoo Khaleghi was disqualified by Guardian Council even after winning election, as she had been photographed in a meeting without wearing headscarf.
After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years, however, the president is still required to gain the Leader's official approval before being sworn in before the Parliament (Majlis). The Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected president anytime. The President can only be re-elected for one term.
The President is responsible for the implementation of the constitution, and for the exercise of executive powers in implementing the decrees and general policies as outlined by the Supreme Leader, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader, who has the final say in all matters. Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over anything, as these are ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates. The procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President functions as the executive of affairs such as signing treaties and other international agreements, and administering national planning, budget, and state employment affairs, all as approved by the Supreme Leader.
The President appoints the ministers, subject to the approval of the Parliament, as well as the approval of the Supreme Leader, who can dismiss or reinstate any of the ministers at any time, regardless of the decisions made by the President or the Parliament. The President supervises the Council of Ministers, coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the legislature. The current Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, has fired as well as reinstated Council of Ministers members. Eight Vice Presidents serve under the President, as well as a cabinet of twenty-two ministers, who must all be approved by the legislature.
The legislature of Iran, known as the Islamic Consultative Assembly, is a unicameral body comprising 290 members elected for four-year terms. It drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All parliamentary candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council.
The Guardian Council comprises twelve jurists, including six appointed by the Supreme Leader. Others are elected by the Parliament, from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judiciary. The Council interprets the constitution and may veto the Parliament. If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia (Islamic law), it is referred back to the Parliament for revision. The Expediency Council has the authority to mediate disputes between the Parliament and the Guardian Council, and serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country. Local city councils are elected by public vote to four-year terms in all cities and villages of Iran.
The Supreme Leader appoints the head of the country's judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor. There are several types of courts, including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and revolutionary courts which deal with certain categories of offenses, such as crimes against national security. The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed.
The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving laypeople. The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework, and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader. The Court's rulings are final and cannot be appealed. The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week annually, comprises 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by adult suffrage for eight-year terms.
The officially stated goal of the government of Iran is to establish a new world order based on world peace, global collective security, and justice. Since the time of the 1979 Revolution, Iran's foreign relations have often been portrayed as being based on two strategic principles; eliminating outside influences in the region, and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries.
Since 2005, Iran's nuclear program has become the subject of contention with the international community, mainly the United States. Many countries have expressed concern that Iran's nuclear program could divert civilian nuclear technology into a weapons program. This has led the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran which had further isolated Iran politically and economically from the rest of the global community. In 2009, the U.S. Director of National Intelligence said that Iran, if choosing to, would not be able to develop a nuclear weapon until 2013.
As of 2009[update], the government of Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations, but not with the United States, and not with Israel—a state which Iran's government has derecognized since the 1979 Revolution. Among Muslim nations, Iran has an adversarial relationship with Saudi Arabia due to different political and Islamic ideologies. While Iran is a Shia Islamic Republic, Saudi Arabia is a conservative Sunni monarchy. Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the government of Iran has recognized Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine, after Trump recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
On 14 July 2015, Tehran and the P5+1 came to a historic agreement (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action) to end economic sanctions after demonstrating a peaceful nuclear research project that would meet the International Atomic Energy Agency standards.
Iran is a member of dozens of international organizations, including the G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, OIC, OPEC, WHO, and the United Nations, and currently has observer status at the World Trade Organization.
In September 2018, Iran ambassador to the United Nations asked the UN to condemn Israeli threats against Tehran and also bring Israel's nuclear program under the International Atomic Energy Agency's supervision.
In April 2019 the U.S. threatened to sanction countries continuing to buy oil from Iran after an initial six-month waiver announced in November expired. According to the BBC, U.S. sanctions against Iran "have led to a sharp downturn in Iran's economy, pushing the value of its currency to record lows, quadrupling its annual inflation rate, driving away foreign investors, and triggering protests."
On September 1, 2019, the Iranian authorities took a step to enhance its relations with Qatar, and decided to grant Qatari passport holders tourist visas upon arrival at Iranian airports. Besides, Qatari nationals were also permitted to obtain a single or multiple-entry visa from Iran's embassy in Doha.
The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: the regular forces of the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy, and the Revolutionary Guards, totaling about 545,000 active troops. Iran also has around 350,000 Reserve Force, totaling around 900,000 trained troops.
The government of Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, called the Basij, which includes about 90,000 full-time, active-duty uniformed members. Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service. GlobalSecurity.org estimates Iran could mobilize "up to one million men", which would be among the largest troop mobilizations in the world. In 2007, Iran's military spending represented 2.6% of the GDP or $102 per capita, the lowest figure of the Persian Gulf nations. Iran's military doctrine is based on deterrence. In 2014, the country spent $15 billion on arms, while the states of the Gulf Cooperation Council spent eight times more. The United States under President Donald Trump officially labeled the Revolutionary Guard as a foreign terrorist organization. It is the first time that an element of a foreign state was designated as a terrorist organization.
The government of Iran supports the military activities of its allies in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon (Hezbollah) with military and financial aid. Iran and Syria are close strategic allies, and Iran has provided significant support for the Syrian Government in the Syrian Civil War. According to some estimates, Iran controlled over 80,000 pro-Assad Shi'ite fighters in Syria.
Since the 1979 Revolution, to overcome foreign embargoes, the government of Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks, armored personnel carriers, missiles, submarines, military vessels, missile destroyer, radar systems, helicopters, and fighter planes. In recent years, official announcements have highlighted the development of weapons such as the Hoot, Kowsar, Zelzal, Fateh-110, Shahab-3, Sejjil, and a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Iran has the largest and most diverse ballistic missile arsenal in the Middle East. The Fajr-3, a liquid fuel missile with an undisclosed range which was developed and produced domestically, is currently the most advanced ballistic missile of the country.
Mandatory military service
In June 1925, Reza Shah introduced conscription law at National Consultative Majlis. At that time every male person who had reached 21 years old must serve for military for 2 years. The conscription exempted women from military service after 1979 revolution. Iranian constitution obliges all men of 18 years old and higher to serve in military or police bases. They cannot leave the country or be employed without completion of the service period. The period varies from 18 to 24 months. Inappropriate situation of Iranian soldiers has caused violent incidents in recent years. Most of Iranian soldiers suffer from depression. In addition, some researches have reported high rate of suicide among Iranian conscripts.
|Share of world GDP (PPP)|
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. In 2017, GDP was $427.7 billion ($1.631 trillion at PPP), or $20,000 at PPP per capita. Iran is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank. In the early 21st century, the service sector contributed the largest percentage of the GDP, followed by industry (mining and manufacturing) and agriculture.
The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for developing and maintaining the Iranian rial, which serves as the country's currency. The government does not recognize trade unions other than the Islamic labour councils, which are subject to the approval of employers and the security services. The minimum wage in June 2013 was 487 million rials a month ($134). Unemployment has remained above 10% since 1997, and the unemployment rate for women is almost double that of the men.
In 2006, about 45% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 31% came from taxes and fees. As of 2007[update], Iran had earned $70 billion in foreign-exchange reserves, mostly (80%) from crude oil exports. Iranian budget deficits have been a chronic problem, mostly due to large-scale state subsidies, that include foodstuffs and especially gasoline, totaling more than $84 billion in 2008 for the energy sector alone. In 2010, the economic reform plan was approved by parliament to cut subsidies gradually and replace them with targeted social assistance. The objective is to move towards free market prices in a five-year period and increase productivity and social justice.
The administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one, and indicates that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran has also developed a biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmaceutical industry. However, nationalized industries such as the bonyads have often been managed badly, making them ineffective and uncompetitive with years. Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries, and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness. In 2010, Iran was ranked 69, out of 139 nations, in the Global Competitiveness Report.
Iran has leading manufacturing industries in the fields of automobile manufacture, transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, and petrochemicals in the Middle East. According to the 2012 data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, Iran has been among the world's top five producers of apricots, cherries, sour cherries, cucumbers and gherkins, dates, eggplants, figs, pistachios, quinces, walnuts, and watermelons.
Economic sanctions against Iran, such as the embargo against Iranian crude oil, have affected the economy. Sanctions have led to a steep fall in the value of the rial, and as of April 2013[update], one US dollar is worth 36,000 rial, compared with 16,000 in early 2012. In 2018, after the withdrawal of the US from the JCPOA, the price of dollar hit an all-time high at just over 190,000 rials, which halted the market from trades and stores from selling goods, particularly in the consumer electronics sector until the prices were stable. In 2015, Iran and the P5+1 reached a deal on the nuclear program that removed the main sanctions pertaining to Iran's nuclear program by 2016.
Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has been subsequently recovered. About 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004, and 2.3 million in 2009, mostly from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while about 10% came from the European Union and North America. Since the removal of some sanctions against Iran in 2015, tourism has re-surged in the country. Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of 2014–2015, four percent more than the previous year.
Alongside the capital, the most popular tourist destinations are Isfahan, Mashhad, and Shiraz. In the early 2000s, the industry faced serious limitations in infrastructure, communications, industry standards, and personnel training. The majority of the 300,000 travel visas granted in 2003 were obtained by Asian Muslims, who presumably intended to visit pilgrimage sites in Mashhad and Qom. Several organized tours from Germany, France, and other European countries come to Iran annually to visit archaeological sites and monuments. In 2003, Iran ranked 68th in tourism revenues worldwide. According to the UNESCO and the deputy head of research for Iran's Tourism Organization, Iran is rated fourth among the top 10 destinations in the Middle East. Domestic tourism in Iran is one of the largest in the world. Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poor public image in some parts of the world, and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.
Iran has the world's second largest proved gas reserves after Russia, with 33.6 trillion cubic metres, and the third largest natural gas production after Indonesia and Russia. It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is OPEC's second largest oil exporter, and is an energy superpower. In 2005, Iran spent US$4 billion on fuel imports, because of contraband and inefficient domestic use. Oil industry output averaged 4 million barrels per day (640,000 m3/d) in 2005, compared with the peak of six million barrels per day reached in 1974. In the early 2000s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags. Few exploratory wells were drilled in 2005.
In 2004, a large share of Iran's natural gas reserves were untapped. The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts. Of that amount, about 75% was based on natural gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power. In 2004, Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant was to come online in 2009. Iran is the world's third country to have developed GTL technology.
Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8% per year. The government's goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants, and adding hydropower and nuclear power generation capacity. Iran's first nuclear power plant at Bushire went online in 2011. It is the second nuclear power plant ever built in the Middle East after the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant in Armenia.
Education, science and technology
Education in Iran is highly centralized. K–12 is supervised by the Ministry of Education, and higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The adult literacy rated 93.0% in September 2015, while it had rated 85.0% in 2008, up from 36.5% in 1976.
The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a high school diploma and pass the Iranian University Entrance Exam (officially known as konkur (کنکور)), which is the equivalent of the SAT and ACT exams of the United States. Many students do a 1–2 year course of pre-university (piš-dānešgāh), which is the equivalent of the GCE A-levels and the International Baccalaureate. The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate.
Iran's higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas, including an associate degree (kārdāni; also known as fowq e diplom) delivered in two years, a bachelor's degree (kāršenāsi; also known as lisāns) delivered in four years, and a master's degree (kāršenāsi e aršad) delivered in two years, after which another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD; known as doktorā).
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (as of January 2017[update]), Iran's top five universities include Tehran University of Medical Sciences (478th worldwide), the University of Tehran (514th worldwide), Sharif University of Technology (605th worldwide), Amirkabir University of Technology (726th worldwide), and the Tarbiat Modares University (789th worldwide).
Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China. According to a study by SCImago in 2012, Iran would rank fourth in the world in terms of research output by 2018, if the current trend persists.
In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores, and now runs 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS. The Iranian humanoid robot Sorena 2, which was designed by engineers at the University of Tehran, was unveiled in 2010. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has placed the name of Surena among the five prominent robots of the world after analyzing its performance.
In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics has a UNESCO chair in biology. In late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Royan Research Center in Tehran.
According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khadem Hosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world. Iran ranks 15th in the world in nanotechnologies.
Iran placed its domestically built satellite Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the 1979 Revolution, on 2 February 2009, through its first expendable launch vehicle Safir, becoming the ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launcher.
Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser, and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi A. Zadeh. Iranian cardiologist Tofigh Mussivand invented and developed the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart. Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, the HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory, with many papers being published in Iran. Iranian American string theorist Kamran Vafa proposed the Vafa–Witten theorem together with Edward Witten. In August 2014, Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman, as well as the first Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal, the highest prize in mathematics.
|Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook|
Iran is a diverse country, consisting of numerous ethnic and linguistic groups that are unified through a shared Iranian nationality. Iran's population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 19 million in 1956 to around 75 million by 2009. However, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly in recent years, leading to a population growth rate—recorded from July 2012—of about 1.29%. Studies project that the growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 105 million by 2050.
Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation. According to estimates, about five million Iranian citizens have emigrated to other countries, mostly since the 1979 Revolution.
According to the Iranian Constitution, the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security, covering retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services. This is covered by tax revenues and income derived from public contributions.
Source: UN World Population Prospects
The majority of the population speak Persian, which is also the official language of the country. Others include speakers of a number of other Iranian languages within the greater Indo-European family, and languages belonging to some other ethnicities living in Iran.
In northern Iran, mostly confined to Gilan and Mazenderan, the Gilaki and Mazenderani languages are widely spoken, both having affinities to the neighboring Caucasian languages. In parts of Gilan, the Talysh language is also widely spoken, which stretches up to the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan. Varieties of Kurdish are widely spoken in the province of Kurdistan and nearby areas. In Khuzestan, several distinct varieties of Persian are spoken. Luri and Lari are also spoken in southern Iran.
Azerbaijani Turkish, which is by far the most spoken language in the country after Persian, as well as a number of other Turkic languages and dialects, is spoken in various regions of Iran, especially in the region of Azerbaijan.
Notable minority languages in Iran include Armenian, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic, and Arabic. Khuzi Arabic is spoken by the Arabs in Khuzestan, as well as the wider group of Iranian Arabs. Circassian was also once widely spoken by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore.
Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis. Percentages given by the CIA's World Factbook include 53% Persian, 16% Azerbaijani Turkish, 10% Kurdish, 7% Mazenderani and Gilaki, 7% Luri, 2% Turkmen, 2% Balochi, 2% Arabic, and 2% the remainder Armenian, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic, and Circassian.
As with the spoken languages, the ethnic group composition also remains a point of debate, mainly regarding the largest and second largest ethnic groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to the lack of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity. The CIA's World Factbook has estimated that around 79% of the population of Iran are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages, with Persians (incl. Mazenderanis and Gilaks) constituting 61% of the population, Kurds 10%, Lurs 6%, and Balochs 2%. Peoples of other ethno-linguistic groups make up the remaining 21%, with Azerbaijanis constituting 16%, Arabs 2%, Turkmens and other Turkic tribes 2%, and others (such as Armenians, Talysh, Georgians, Circassians, Assyrians) 1%.
The Library of Congress issued slightly different estimates: 65% Persians (incl. Mazenderanis, Gilaks, and the Talysh), 16% Azerbaijanis, 7% Kurds, 6% Lurs, 2% Baloch, 1% Turkic tribal groups (incl. Qashqai and Turkmens), and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups (incl. Armenians, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, and Arabs) less than 3%. It determined that Persian is the first language of at least 65% of the country's population, and is the second language for most of the remaining 35%.
Other non-governmental estimations regarding the groups other than the Persians and Azerbaijanis roughly congruate with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress. However, many scholarly and organisational estimations regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census. According to many of them, the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran comprises between 21.6–30% of the total population, with the majority holding it on 25%.cd In any case, the largest population of Azerbaijanis in the world live in Iran.
|Number of |
Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras. This changed after the fall of the Sasanian Empire by the centuries-long Islamization that followed the Muslim Conquest of Iran. Iran was predominantly Sunni until the conversion of the country (as well as the people of what is today the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan) to Shia Islam by the order of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century.
Today, Twelver Shia Islam is the official state religion, to which about 90% to 95% of the population adhere. About 4% to 8% of the population are Sunni Muslims, mainly Kurds and Baloches. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Christians, Jews, Bahais, Mandeans, Yezidis, Yarsanis, and Zoroastrians.
There are about 3,000,000 adherents of Yarsanism, a Kurdish indigenous religion related to Zoroastrianism: making it the largest (unrecognized) minority religion in Iran. Its followers are mainly Gorani Kurds and certain groups of Lurs. They are based in Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province and Lorestan mainly.
Judaism has a long history in Iran, dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1979 Revolution, about 8,756 to 25,000 Jewish people live in Iran. Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel.
Around 250,000 to 370,000 Christians reside in Iran, and Christianity is the country's largest recognized minority religion. Most are of Armenian background, as well as a sizable minority of Assyrians.
Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament. But the Bahá'í Faith, which is said to be the largest non-Muslim religious minority in Iran is not officially recognized, and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran since the 19th century, while according to statistics center of Iran, Bahais constitute only about 0.37% of Iran, namely about 25.000 to 40.000 people, and it is also said that there does seem to be a kind of exaggeration in declaration of their population by the order of Bahais heads. Since the 1979 Revolution, the persecution of Bahais has increased with executions and denial of civil rights, especially the denial of access to higher education and employment.
The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and south and east Asia to the east.
The art of Iran encompasses many disciplines, including architecture, stonemasonry, metalworking, weaving, pottery, painting, and calligraphy. Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. The art of the Medes remains obscure, but has been theoretically attributed to the Scythian style. The Achaemenids borrowed heavily from the art of their neighboring civilizations, but produced a synthesis of a unique style, with an eclectic architecture remaining at sites such as Persepolis and Pasargadae. Greek iconography was imported by the Seleucids, followed by the recombination of Hellenistic and earlier Near Eastern elements in the art of the Parthians, with remains such as the Temple of Anahita and the Statue of the Parthian Nobleman. By the time of the Sasanians, Iranian art came across a general renaissance. Although of unclear development, Sasanian art was highly influential, and spread into far regions. Taq-e-Bostan, Taq-e-Kasra, Naqsh-e-Rostam, and the Shapur-Khwast Castle are among the surviving monuments from the Sasanian period.
During the Middle Ages, Sasanian art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, which carried forward to the Islamic world, and much of what later became known as Islamic learning—including medicine, architecture, philosophy, philology, and literature—were of Sasanian basis.
The Safavid era is known as the Golden Age of Iranian art, and Safavid works of art show a far more unitary development than in any other period, as part of a political evolution that reunified Iran as a cultural entity. Safavid art exerted noticeable influences upon the neighboring Ottomans, the Mughals, and the Deccans, and was also influential through its fashion and garden architecture on 11th–17th-century Europe.
Iran's contemporary art traces its origins back to the time of Kamal-ol-Molk, a prominent realist painter at the court of the Qajar dynasty who affected the norms of painting and adopted a naturalistic style that would compete with photographic works. A new Iranian school of fine art was established by Kamal-ol-Molk in 1928, and was followed by the so-called "coffeehouse" style of painting.
Iran's avant-garde modernists emerged by the arrival of new western influences during World War II. The vibrant contemporary art scene originates in the late 1940s, and Tehran's first modern art gallery, Apadana, was opened in September 1949 by painters Mahmud Javadipur, Hosein Kazemi, and Hushang Ajudani. The new movements received official encouragement by mid-1950s, which led to the emergence of artists such as Marcos Grigorian, signaling a commitment to the creation of a form of modern art grounded in Iran.
The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC. Iranians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry and astronomy in architecture. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience. The guiding motif of Iranian architecture is its cosmic symbolism, "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".
Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven". This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional character as well.
According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods.
Iran's carpet-weaving has its origins in the Bronze Age, and is one of the most distinguished manifestations of Iranian art. Iran is the world's largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three quarters of the world's total output and having a share of 30% of world's export markets.
Iran's oldest literary tradition is that of Avestan, the Old Iranian sacred language of the Avesta, which consists of the legendary and religious texts of Zoroastrianism and the ancient Iranian religion, with its earliest records dating back to the pre-Achaemenid times.
Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian, various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, has the most influential literature. Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature. In spite of originating from the region of Persis (better known as Persia) in southwestern Iran, the Persian language was used and developed further through Persianate societies in Asia Minor, Central Asia, and South Asia, leaving massive influences on Ottoman and Mughal literatures, among others.
Iran has a number of famous medieval poets, most notably Rumi, Ferdowsi, Hafez, Saadi Shirazi, Omar Khayyam, and Nezami Ganjavi. Iranian literature also inspired writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
According to The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC. The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism."
While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences, especially in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe.
The Cyrus Cylinder, which is known as "the first charter of human rights", is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era. The earliest tenets of Zoroastrian schools are part of the extant scriptures of the Zoroastrian religion in Avestan. Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shkand-gumanik Vizar, and Denkard, as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas.
Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.
Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in Iranian history. The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of Iranian mythology.
Tenth-century Persian poet Ferdowsi's long epic poem Šāhnāme ("Book of Kings"), which is for the most part based on Xwadāynāmag, a Middle Persian compilation of the history of Iranian kings and heroes from mythical times down to the reign of Chosroes II, is considered the national epic of Iran. It draws heavily on the stories and characters of the Zoroastrian tradition, from the texts of the Avesta, the Denkard, and the Bundahishn.
Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, dating back to the third millennium BC. The use of both vertical and horizontal angular harps have been documented at the sites Madaktu and Kul-e Farah, with the largest collection of Elamite instruments documented at Kul-e Farah. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between 865 and 650 BC.
Xenophon's Cyropaedia mentions a great number of singing women at the court of the Achaemenid Empire. Athenaeus of Naucratis, in his Deipnosophistae, points out to the capture of Achaemenid singing girls at the court of the last Achaemenid king Darius III (336–330 BC) by Macedonian general Parmenion. Under the Parthian Empire, the gōsān (Parthian for "minstrel") had a prominent role in the society. According to Plutarch's Life of Crassus (32.3), they praised their national heroes and ridiculed their Roman rivals. Likewise, Strabo's Geographica reports that the Parthian youth were taught songs about "the deeds both of the gods and of the noblest men".
The history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident in Avestan texts. By the time of Chosroes II, the Sasanian royal court hosted a number of prominent musicians, namely Azad, Bamshad, Barbad, Nagisa, Ramtin, and Sarkash.
Iranian traditional musical instruments include string instruments such as chang (harp), qanun, santur, rud (oud, barbat), tar, dotar, setar, tanbur, and kamanche, wind instruments such as sorna (zurna, karna) and ney, and percussion instruments such as tompak, kus, daf (dayere), and naqare.
Iran's first symphony orchestra, the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, was founded by Qolam-Hoseyn Minbashian in 1933. It was reformed by Parviz Mahmoud in 1946, and is currently Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra. Later, by the late 1940s, Ruhollah Khaleqi founded the country's first national music society, and established the School of National Music in 1949.
Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era. It was significantly developed since the 1950s, using indigenous instruments and forms accompanied by electric guitar and other imported characteristics. The emergence of genres such as rock in the 1960s and hip hop in the 2000s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.
The earliest recorded representations of dancing figures within Iran were found in prehistoric sites such as Tepe Sialk and Tepe Mūsīān. The oldest Iranian initiation of theater and the phenomena of acting can be traced in the ancient epic ceremonial theaters such as Sug-e Siāvuš ("mourning of Siāvaš"), as well as dances and theater narrations of Iranian mythological tales reported by Herodotus and Xenophon.
Iran's traditional theatrical genres include Baqqāl-bāzi ("grocer play", a form of slapstick comedy), Ruhowzi (or Taxt-howzi, comedy performed over a courtyard pool covered with boards), Siāh-bāzi (in which the central comedian appears in blackface), Sāye-bāzi (shadow play), Xeyme-šab-bāzi (marionette), and Arusak-bāzi (puppetry), and Ta'zie (religious tragedy plays).
Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. Opened on 26 October 1967, the hall is home to the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company, and was officially renamed Vahdat Hall after the 1979 Revolution.
Loris Tjeknavorian's Rostam and Sohrab, based on the tragedy of Rostam and Sohrab from Ferdowsi's epic poem Šāhnāme, is an example of opera with Persian libretto. Tjeknavorian, a celebrated Iranian Armenian composer and conductor, composed it in 25 years, and it was finally performed for the first time at Tehran's Roudaki Hall, with Darya Dadvar in the role of Tahmina.
Cinema and animation
A third-millennium BC earthen goblet discovered at the Burnt City, a Bronze Age urban settlement in southeastern Iran, depicts what could possibly be the world's oldest example of animation. The artifact, associated with Jiroft, bears five sequential images depicting a wild goat jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree. The earliest attested Iranian examples of visual representations, however, are traced back to the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, the ritual center of the Achaemenid Empire. The figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language. The Iranian visual arts reached a pinnacle by the Sasanian era, and several works from this period have been found to articulate movements and actions in a highly sophisticated manner. It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinematic close-up shot in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.
By the early 20th century, the five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. The first Iranian filmmaker was probably Mirza Ebrahim (Akkas Bashi), the court photographer of Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty. Mirza Ebrahim obtained a camera and filmed the Qajar ruler's visit to Europe. Later in 1904, Mirza Ebrahim (Sahhaf Bashi), a businessman, opened the first public movie theater in Tehran. After him, several others like Russi Khan, Ardeshir Khan, and Ali Vakili tried to establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Until the early 1930s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces. The first Iranian feature film, Abi and Rabi, was a silent comedy directed by Ovanes Ohanian in 1930. The first sounded one, Lor Girl, was produced by Ardeshir Irani and Abd-ol-Hosein Sepanta in 1932.
Iran's animation industry began by the 1950s, and was followed by the establishment of the influential Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in January 1965. The 1960s was a significant decade for Iranian cinema, with 25 commercial films produced annually on average throughout the early 60s, increasing to 65 by the end of the decade. The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers. With the screening of the films Qeysar and The Cow, directed by Masoud Kimiai and Dariush Mehrjui respectively in 1969, alternative films set out to establish their status in the film industry and Bahram Beyzai's Downpour and Nasser Taghvai's Tranquility in the Presence of Others followed soon. Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in 1954 within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in 1969. The endeavors also resulted in the formation of the Tehran's World Film Festival in 1973.
After the Revolution of 1979, and following the Cultural Revolution, a new age emerged in Iranian cinema, starting with Long Live! by Khosrow Sinai and followed by many other directors, such as Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi. Kiarostami, an acclaimed Iranian director, planted Iran firmly on the map of world cinema when he won the Palme d'Or for Taste of Cherry in 1997. The continuous presence of Iranian films in prestigious international festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival, attracted world attention to Iranian masterpieces. In 2006, six Iranian films, of six different styles, represented Iranian cinema at the Berlin International Film Festival. Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema.
Asghar Farhadi, a well-known Iranian director, has received a Golden Globe Award and two Academy Awards, representing Iran for Best Foreign Language Film in 2012 and 2017. In 2012, he was named as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the world by the American news magazine Time.
Iran's official New Year begins with Nowruz, an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated annually on the vernal equinox. It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. It was registered on the UNESCO's list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2009, described as the Persian New Year, shared with a number of other countries in which it has historically been celebrated.
On the eve of the last Wednesday of the preceding year, as a prelude to Nowruz, the ancient festival of Čāršanbe Suri celebrates Ātar ("fire") by performing rituals such as jumping over bonfires and lighting off firecrackers and fireworks. The Nowruz celebrations last by the end of the 13th day of the Iranian year (Farvardin 13, usually coincided with 1 or 2 April), celebrating the festival of Sizdebedar, during which the people traditionally go outdoors to picnic.
Yaldā, another nationally celebrated ancient tradition, commemorates the ancient goddess Mithra and marks the longest night of the year on the eve of the winter solstice (čelle ye zemestān; usually falling on 20 or 21 December), during which families gather together to recite poetry and eat fruits—particularly the red fruits watermelon and pomegranate, as well as mixed nuts. In some regions of the provinces of Mazanderan and Markazi, there is also the midsummer festival of Tirgān, which is observed on Tir 13 (2 or 3 July) as a celebration of water.
Alongside the ancient Iranian celebrations, Islamic annual events such as Ramezān, Eid e Fetr, and Ruz e Āšurā are marked by the country's large Muslim population, Christian traditions such as Noel, Čelle ye Ruze, and Eid e Pāk are observed by the Christian communities, Jewish traditions such as Purim, Hanukā, and Eid e Fatir (Pesah) are observed by the Jewish communities, and Zoroastrian traditions such as Sade and Mehrgān are observed by the Zoroastrians.
Iran's official calendar is the Solar Hejri calendar, beginning at the vernal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere, which was first enacted by the Iranian Parliament on 31 March 1925. Each of the 12 months of the Solar Hejri calendar correspond with a zodiac sign, and the length of each year is absolutely solar. The months are named after the ancient Iranian months, namely Farvardin (Fravaši), Ordibehešt (Aša Vahišta), Xordād (Haurvatāt), Tir (Tištrya), Amordād (Amərətāt), Šahrivar (Xšaθra Vairya), Mehr (Miθra), Ābān (Āpō), Āzar (Ātar), Dey (Daθuš), Bahman (Vohu Manah), and Esfand (Spəntā Ārmaiti).
Legal public holidays based on the Iranian solar calendar include the cultural celebrations of Nowruz (Farvardin 1–4; 21–24 March) and Sizdebedar (Farvardin 13; 2 April), and the political events of Islamic Republic Day (Farvardin 12; 1 April), the death of Ruhollah Khomeini (Khordad 14; 4 June), the Khordad 15 event (Khordad 15; 5 June), the anniversary of the 1979 Revolution (Bahman 22; 10 February), and Oil Nationalization Day (Esfand 29; 19 March).
Lunar Islamic public holidays include Tasua (Muharram 9; 30 September), Ashura (Muharram 10; 1 October), Arba'een (Safar 20; 10 November), the death of Muhammad (Safar 28; 17 November), the death of Ali al-Ridha (Safar 29 or 30; 18 November), the birthday of Muhammad (Rabi-al-Awwal 17; 6 December), the death of Fatimah (Jumada-al-Thani 3; 2 March), the birthday of Ali (Rajab 13; 10 April), Muhammad's first revelation (Rajab 27; 24 April), the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi (Sha'ban 15; 12 May), the death of Ali (Ramadan 21; 16 June), Eid al-Fitr (Shawwal 1–2; 26–27 June), the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq (Shawwal 25; 20 July), Eid al-Qurban (Zulhijja 10; 1 September), and Eid al-Qadir (Zulhijja 18; 9 September).
Due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influences from the neighboring cultures, the cuisine of Iran is diverse. Herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.
Iranian cuisine includes a wide range of main dishes, including various types of kebab, pilaf, stew (khoresh), soup and āsh, and omelette. Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or mast-o-khiar, sabzi, salad Shirazi, and torshi, and might follow dishes such as borani, Mirza Qasemi, or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer.
In Iranian culture, tea (čāy) is widely consumed. Iran is the world's seventh major tea producer, and a cup of tea is typically the first thing offered to a guest. One of Iran's most popular desserts is the falude, consisting of vermicelli in a rose water syrup, which has its roots in the fourth century BC. There is also the popular saffron ice cream, known as bastani sonnati ("traditional ice cream"), which is sometimes accompanied with carrot juice. Iran is also famous for its caviar.
With two thirds of the population under the age of 25, many sports are played in Iran.
Iran is most likely the birthplace of polo, locally known as čowgān, with its earliest records attributed to the ancient Medes. Freestyle wrestling is traditionally considered the national sport of Iran, and the national wrestlers have been world champions on many occasions. Iran's traditional wrestling, called košti e pahlevāni ("heroic wrestling"), is registered on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage list.
Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing, snowboarding, hiking, rock climbing, and mountain climbing. It is home to several ski resorts, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours traveling from the capital city Tehran. The resort of Tochal, located in the Alborz mountain rage, is the world's fifth-highest ski resort (3,730 m or 12,238 ft at its highest station).
Iran's National Olympic Committee was founded in 1947. Wrestlers and weightlifters have achieved the country's highest records at the Olympics. In September 1974, Iran became the first country in West Asia to host the Asian Games. The Azadi Sport Complex, which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion.
Soccer has been regarded as the most popular sport in Iran, with men's national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions. Men's national team has maintained its position as the best Asian squad, as it ranks first in Asia and 37th in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings (as of June 2018[update]).
Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. Having won the 2011 and 2013 Asian Men's Volleyball Championships, men's national team is currently the strongest team in Asia, and ranks eighth in the FIVB World Rankings (as of July 2017[update]).
In 2016, Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess (U.S. Woman Grandmaster Nazí Paikidze) and in shooting (Indian world champion Heena Sidhu), as they refused to enter a country where they would be forced to wear a hijab.
Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking 164th out of 180 countries on the Press Freedom Index (as of 2018). The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance is Iran's main government department responsible for the cultural policy, including activities regarding communications and information.
Iran's first newspapers were published during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in the mid-19th century. Most of the newspapers published in Iran are in Persian, the country's official language. The country's most widely circulated periodicals are based in Tehran, among which are Etemad, Ettela'at, Kayhan, Hamshahri, Resalat, and Shargh. Tehran Times, Iran Daily, and Financial Tribune are among English-language newspapers based in Iran.
Television was introduced in Iran in 1958. Although the 1974 Asian Games were broadcast in color, full color programming began in 1978. Since the 1979 Revolution, Iran's largest media corporation is the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB). Despite the restrictions on non-domestic television, about 65% of the residents of the capital city and about 30 to 40% of the residents outside the capital city access worldwide television channels through satellite dishes, although observers state that the figures are likely to be higher.
Iran received access to the Internet in 1993. According to Internet World Stats, as of 2017[update], around 69.1% of the population of Iran are Internet users. Iran ranks 17th among countries by number of Internet users. According to the statistics provided by the web information company of Alexa, Google Search is Iran's most widely used search engine and Instagram is the most popular online social networking service. Direct access to many worldwide mainstream websites has been blocked in Iran, including Facebook, which has been blocked since 2009 due to the organization of anti-governmental protests on the website. However, as of 2017[update], Facebook has around 40 million subscribers based in Iran (48.8% of the population) who use virtual private networks and proxy servers to access the website. Some of the officials themselves have verified accounts on the social networking websites that are blocked by the authorities, including Facebook and Twitter. About 90% of Iran's e-commerce takes place on the Iranian online store of Digikala, which has around 750,000 visitors per day and more than 2.3 million subscribers and is the most visited online store in the Middle East.
- Persian: ایران Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] (listen)
- Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān (listen) [dʒomhuːˌɾije eslɒːˌmije ʔiːˈɾɒn]
- Including Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the de facto independent, but unrecognized Republic of Artsakh.
- In the Avesta, the airiia- are members of the ethnic group of the Avesta-reciters themselves, in contradistinction to the anairiia- (the "non-Arya"). The word also appears four times in Old Persian: One is in the Behistun inscription, where ariya- is the name of a language (DB 4.89). The other three instances occur in Darius I's inscription at Naqsh-e Rustam (DNa 14–15), in Darius I's inscription at Susa (DSe 13–14), and in the inscription of Xerxes I at Persepolis (XPh 12–13). In these, the two Achaemenid dynasties describe themselves as pārsa pārsahyā puça ariya ariyaciça "a Persian, son of a Persian, an Ariya, of Ariya origin." — The phrase with ciça ("origin, descendance") assures that ariya is an ethnic name wider in meaning than pārsa and not a simple adjectival epithet.
- Jeroen Temperman (2010). State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. Brill. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-90-04-18148-9.
- "The World Factbook – Iran". Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Vatanka, Alex (30 April 2015). "The Authoritarian Resurgence: Iran Abroad". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Fisher, Max. "How Iran Became an Undemocratic Democracy". The New York Times (May 17, 2017). Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "The Big Five Countries – Iran". www.resurgentdictatorship.org. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Buchta, Wilfried. "Taking Stock of a Quarter Century of the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). Harvard Law School. Harvard Law School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
[...] the Islamic Republic's political system, a theocratic-republican hybrid [...]
- نقد-روزنامه-شرق-بر-سخنان-هاشمی-شاهرودی-مجمع-تشخیص-معادل-مجلس (in Persian). 10 February 2018.
- Sarkhosh Curtis, Vesta; Stewart, Sarah (2005), Birth of the Persian Empire: The Idea of Iran, London: I.B. Tauris, p. 108, ISBN 9781845110628,
Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.
- Andrew J. Newman (2006). Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-667-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "دادهها و اطلاعات آماری". www.amar.org.ir.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
- "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". Data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Human Development Index Update 2018". United Nations. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- A. Fishman, Joshua (2010). Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: Disciplinary and Regional Perspectives (Volume 1). Oxford University Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-19-537492-6.
""Iran" and "Persia" are synonymous" The former has always been used by the Iranian speaking peoples themselves, while the latter has served as the international name of the country in various languages
- ""CESWW" – Definition of Central Eurasia". Cesww.fas.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran Guide". National Geographic. 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "National Census Preliminary Results Released: Iran's Urban Population Up". Financial Tribune. 13 March 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "Iran's Strategy in the Strait of Hormuz". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Annamoradnejad, Rahimberdi; Annamoradnejad, Issa; Safarrad, Taher; Habibi, Jafar (2019). "Using Web Mining in the Analysis of Housing Prices: A Case study of Tehran". 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). Tehran, Iran: IEEE: 55–60. doi:10.1109/ICWR.2019.8765250. ISBN 9781728114316.
- Whatley, Christopher (2001). Bought and Sold for English Gold: The Union of 1707. Tuckwell Press.
- Lowell Barrington (2012). Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices, 2nd ed.tr: Structures and Choices. Cengage Learning. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-111-34193-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. "Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopedia Article: Media ancient region, Iran". Britannica.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- David Sacks; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody (2005). Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing. pp. 256 (at the right portion of the page). ISBN 978-0-8160-5722-1. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- Stillman, Norman A. (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands. Jewish Publication Society. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8276-1155-9.
- Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Haarer, Fiona K. (2006). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21–26 August, 2006, Volume 1. Ashgate Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7546-5740-8.
- Savory, R. M. "Safavids". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.).
- Axworthy, Door Michael (2006). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. ISBN 978-0-85772-193-8. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Fisher et al. 1991, pp. 329–330.
- Dowling, Timothy C. (2014). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. pp. 728–730. ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6.
- Cordesman, Anthony H. (1999). Iran's Military Forces in Transition: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-275-96529-7.
- Graham, Robert (1980). Iran: The Illusion of Power. London: St. Martin's Press. pp. 19, 96. ISBN 978-0-312-43588-2.
- "Iran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران (in Persian). Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- "2018 will go down in history as a year of shame for Iran". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Nasrin Sotoudeh sentenced to 33 years and 148 lashes in Iran". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Avenue, Human Rights Watch | 350 Fifth; York, 34th Floor | New; t 1.212.290.4700, NY 10118-3299 USA | (28 October 2015). "Women's Rights in Iran". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Iran". freedomhouse.org. 30 January 2019.
- The Committee Office, House of Commons. "Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, Eighth Report, Iran". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran @ 2000 and Beyond lecture series, opening address, W. Herbert Hunt, 18 May 2000". Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "UPDATE 3-BP cuts global gas reserves estimate, mostly for Russia". Reuters.com. 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- CIA World Factbook. "Iran". Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- "World Heritage List". UNESCO.
- "Middle East :: Iran — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- MacKenzie, David Niel (1998). "Ērān, Ērānšahr". Encyclopedia Iranica. 8. Costa Mesa: Mazda. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017.
- Schmitt, Rüdiger (1987), "Aryans", Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. 2, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 684–687
- Laroche. 1957. Proto-Iranian *arya- descends from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *ar-yo-, a yo-adjective to a root *ar "to assemble skillfully", present in Greek harma "chariot", Greek aristos, (as in "aristocracy"), Latin ars "art", etc.
- Bailey, Harold Walter (1987). "Arya". Encyclopedia Iranica. 2. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 681–683. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- Shapour Shahbazi, Alireza. "IRAJ". Iranica website. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Persia, Encyclopædia Britannica, "The term Persia was used for centuries ... [because] use of the name was gradually extended by the ancient Greeks and other peoples to apply to the whole Iranian plateau."
- Wilson, Arnold (2012). "The Middle Ages: Fars". The Persian Gulf (RLE Iran A). Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-136-84105-7.
- "Persia Changes Its Name; To Be 'Iran' From Mar. 22". The New York Times. 1 January 1935. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Renaming Persia". persiansarenotarabs.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Persia or Iran, a brief history". Art-arena.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Richard N. Frye (20 October 2007). interview by Asieh Namdar. CNN. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
I spent all my life working in Iran, and as you know I don't mean Iran of today, I mean Greater Iran, the Iran which in the past, extended all the way from China to borders of Hungary and from other Mongolia to Mesopotamia
- Christoph Marcinkowski (2010). Shi'ite Identities: Community and Culture in Changing Social Contexts. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 83. ISBN 978-3-643-80049-7. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
The 'historical lands of Iran' – 'Greater Iran' – were always known in the Persian language as Irānshahr or Irānzamīn.
- Frye, Richard Nelson (October 1962). "Reitzenstein and Qumrân Revisited by an Iranian". The Harvard Theological Review. 55 (4): 261–268. doi:10.1017/S0017816000007926. JSTOR 1508723.
I use the term Iran in an historical context [...] Persia would be used for the modern state, more or less equivalent to "western Iran". I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia – that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.
- Richard Frye (2012). Persia (RLE Iran A). Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-136-84154-5. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
This 'greater Iran' included and still includes part of the Caucasus Mountains, Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Iraq; for Kurds, Baluchis, Afghans, Tajiks, Ossetes, and other smaller groups are Iranians
- Farrokh, Kaveh. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. ISBN 1-84603-108-7
- "Iran". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "Iran". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "How do you say Iran?". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "A guide to 26 foreign countries and names that Americans mispronounce". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "American English Pronunciations of Iran and Iraq". The American Heritage Dictionary. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- M, Dattatreya; al (14 March 2016). "Researchers Discover 7,000-Year Old Cemetery In Khuzestan, Iran". Realm of History. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
- Biglari, Fereidoun; Saman Heydari; Sonia Shidrang. "Ganj Par: The first evidence for Lower Paleolithic occupation in the Southern Caspian Basin, Iran". Antiquity. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "National Museum of Iran". Pbase.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- J. D. Vigne; J. Peters; D. Helmer (2002). First Steps of Animal Domestication, Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology. Oxbow Books, Limited. ISBN 978-1-84217-121-9.
- Nidhi Subbaraman. "Early humans in Iran were growing wheat 12,000 years ago". NBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "Emergence of Agriculture in the Foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran", by Simone Riehl, Mohsen Zeidi, Nicholas J. Conard – University of Tübingen, publication 10 May 2013
- "Excavations at Chogha Bonut: The earliest village in Susiana". Oi.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Hole, Frank (20 July 2004). "NEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN". Encyclopedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- K. Kris Hirst. "Chogha Mish (Iran)". Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Collon, Dominique (1995). Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20307-5. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "New evidence: modern civilization began in Iran". News.xinhuanet.com. 10 August 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- D. T. Potts (1999). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-521-56496-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Panorama – 03/03/07". Iran Daily. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Iranian.ws, "Archaeologists: Modern civilization began in Iran based on new evidence", 12 August 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007. Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Ancient Scripts:Elamite". 1996. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Basu, Dipak. "Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory". iVarta.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Cory Panshin. "The Palaeolithic Indo-Europeans". Panshin.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Afary, Janet; Peter William Avery; Khosrow Mostofi. "Iran (Ethnic Groups)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Roux, Georges (1992). Ancient Iraq. Penguin Adult. ISBN 978-0-14-193825-7.
- "Median Empire". Iran Chamber Society. 2001. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- A. G. Sagona (2006). The Heritage of Eastern Turkey: From Earliest Settlements to Islam. Macmillan Education AU. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-876832-05-6.
- "Urartu civilization". allaboutturkey.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Ehsan Yarshater (1996). Encyclopaedia Iranica. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-56859-028-8.
- While estimates for the Achaemenid Empire range from 10–80+ million, most prefer 50 million. Prevas (2009, p. 14) estimates 10 million. Strauss (2004, p. 37) estimates about 20 million. Ward (2009, p. 16) estimates at 20 million. Scheidel (2009, p. 99) estimates 35 million. Daniel (2001, p. 41) estimates at 50 million. Meyer and Andreades (2004, p. 58) estimates to 50 million. Jones (2004, p. 8) estimates over 50 million. Richard (2008, p. 34) estimates nearly 70 million. Hanson (2001, p. 32) estimates almost 75 million. Cowley (1999 and 2001, p. 17) estimates possibly 80 million.
- "Largest empire by percentage of world population". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- "Cyrus the Great". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
In the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1–4), Cyrus is famous for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland.
- Schmitt, Rüdiger. "Achaemenid dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 3. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Archived from the original on 3 December 2015.
- Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty)
- Roisman & Worthington 2011, pp. 135–138, 342–345.
- Jakobsson, Jens (2004). "Seleucid Empire". Iran Chamber Society. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Bury, J.B. (1958). History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian, Part 1. Courier Corporation. pp. 90–92.
- Durant, Will (2011). The Age of Faith: The Story of Civilization. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-4761-7.
Repaying its debt, Sasanian art exported its forms and motives eastward into India, Turkestan, and China, westward into Syria, Asia Minor, Constantinople, the Balkans, Egypt, and Spain.
- "Transoxiana 04: Sasanians in Africa". Transoxiana.com.ar. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Dutt, Romesh Chunder, Smith, Vincent Arthur; Lane-Poole, Stanley; Elliot, Henry Miers; Hunter, William Wilson; Lyall, Alfred Comyn (1906). History of India. 2. Grolier Society. p. 243.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Iransaga: The art of Sassanians". Artarena.force9.co.uk. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- George Liska (1998). Expanding Realism: The Historical Dimension of World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Incorporated. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8476-8680-3.
- "The Rise and Spread of Islam, The Arab Empire of the Umayyads – Weakness of the Adversary Empires". Occawlonline.pearsoned.com. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Stepaniants, Marietta (2002). "The Encounter of Zoroastrianism with Islam". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. 52 (2): 159–172. doi:10.1353/pew.2002.0030. ISSN 0031-8221. JSTOR 1399963.
- Boyce, Mary (2001). Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (2 ed.). New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-415-23902-8.
- Meri, Josef W.; Bacharach, Jere L. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: L-Z, index. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. II (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 878. ISBN 978-0-415-96692-4.
- "Under Persian rule". BBC. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- Khanbaghi, Aptin (2006). The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran (reprint ed.). I.B. Tauris. p. 268. ISBN 978-1-84511-056-7.
- Kamran Hashemi (2008). Religious Legal Traditions, International Human Rights Law and Muslim States. Brill. p. 142. ISBN 978-90-04-16555-7.
- Suha Rassam (2005). Iraq: Its Origins and Development to the Present Day. Gracewing Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-85244-633-1.
- Zarrinkub,'Abd Al-Husain (1975). "The Arab Conquest of Iran and Its Aftermath". In Frye, Richard N. (ed.). Cambridge History of Iran. 4. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
- Spuler, Bertold (1994). A History of the Muslim World: The age of the caliphs (Illustrated ed.). Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-55876-095-0.
- "Islamic History: The Abbasid Dynasty". Religion Facts. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Hooker, Richard (1996). "The Abbasid Dynasty". Washington State University. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Joel Carmichael (1967). The Shaping of the Arabs. p. 235. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
Abu Muslim, the Persian general and popular leader
- Frye, Richard Nelson (1960). Iran (2, revised ed.). G. Allen & Unwin. p. 47. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
A Persian Muslim called Abu Muslim.
- Sayyid Fayyaz Mahmud (1988). A Short History of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-19-577384-2.
- Richard Nelson Frye (1975). The Cambridge History of Iran. 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Paul Kane (2009). "Emerson and Hafiz: The Figure of the Religious Poet". Religion & Literature. 41 (1): 111–139. JSTOR 25676860.
- Shafiq Shamel. Goethe and Hafiz: Poetry and History in the West-östlicher Diwan.
- Adineh Khojasteh Pour; Behnam Mirza Baba Zadeh (28 March 2014). Socrates: Vol 2, No 1 (2014): Issue – March – Section 07. The Reception of Classical Persian Poetry in Anglophone World: Problems and Solutions. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Richard G. Hovannisian; Georges Sabagh (1998). The Persian Presence in the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-521-59185-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
The Golden age of Islam [...] attributable, in no small measure, to the vital participation of Persian men of letters, philosophers, theologians, grammarians, mathematicians, musicians, astronomers, geographers, and physicians
- Bernard Lewis (2004). From Babel to Dragomans : Interpreting the Middle East: Interpreting the Middle East. Oxford University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-803863-4. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
...the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance.
- Richard Nelson Frye (1975). The Cambridge History of Iran. 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Bosworth, C. E. "ʿAjam". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Gene R. Garthwaite (2008). The Persians. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-4051-4400-1.
- Sigfried J. de Laet. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century UNESCO, 1994. ISBN 92-3-102813-8 p. 734
- Ga ́bor A ́goston, Bruce Alan Masters. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing, 2009 ISBN 1-4381-1025-1 p. 322
- Steven R. Ward (2009). Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-58901-587-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Isfahan: Iran's Hidden Jewel". Smithsonianmag.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Spuler, Bertold (1960). The Muslim World. Vol. I The Age of the Caliphs. E.J. Brill. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-685-23328-3.
- Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties? RM Savory, Iran under the Safavids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), p. 3.
- Thabit Abdullah (12 May 2014). A Short History of Iraq. Taylor & Francis. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-317-86419-6.
- "Safavid Empire (1501–1722)". BBC Religion. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, p.625
- Shirin Akiner (2004). The Caspian: Politics, Energy and Security. Taylor & Francis. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-203-64167-5.
- Hala Mundhir Fattah; Frank Caso (2009). A Brief History of Iraq. Infobase Publishing. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-0-8160-5767-2.
- Encyclopedia of Soviet law By Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons, Page 457
- Farrokh, Kaveh. Iran at War: 1500–1988. ISBN 1-78096-221-5
- Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1995). Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press. pp. 69, 133. ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3.
- L. Batalden, Sandra (1997). The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4.
- E. Ebel; Robert; Menon, Rajan (2000). Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7425-0063-1.
- Andreeva, Elena (2010). Russia and Iran in the great game: travelogues and orientalism (reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-78153-4.
- Çiçek, Kemal; Kuran, Ercüment (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. University of Michigan. ISBN 978-975-6782-18-7.
- Ernest Meyer, Karl; Blair Brysac; Shareen (2006). Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia. Basic Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-465-04576-1.
- Mansoori, Firooz (2008). "17". Studies in History, Language and Culture of Azerbaijan (in Persian). Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. p. 245. ISBN 978-600-90271-1-8.
- А. Г. Булатова. Лакцы (XIX — нач. XX вв.). Историко-этнографические очерки. — Махачкала, 2000.
- "Griboedov not only extended protection to those Caucasian captives who sought to go home but actively promoted the return of even those who did not volunteer. Large numbers of Georgian and Armenian captives had lived in Iran since 1804 or as far back as 1795." Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, Peter; Gershevitch, Ilya; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles. The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press – 1991. p. 339
- (in Russian) A. S. Griboyedov. "Записка о переселеніи армянъ изъ Персіи въ наши области" Archived 13 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Фундаментальная Электронная Библиотека
- Bournoutian. Armenian People, p. 105
- Yeroushalmi, David (2009). The Jews of Iran in the Nineteenth Century: Aspects of History, Community. Brill. p. 327. ISBN 978-90-04-15288-5.
- Colin Brock, Lila Zia Levers. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and Africa Symposium Books Ltd., 7 mei 2007 ISBN 1-873927-21-5 p. 99
- Gingeras, Ryan (2016). Fall of the Sultanate: The Great War and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1908–1922. Oxford University Press, Oxford. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-166358-1. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
By January, Ottoman regulars and cavalry detachments associated with the old Hamidiye had seized the towns of Urmia, Khoy, and Salmas. Demonstrations of resistance by local Christians, comprising Armenians, Nestorians, Syriacs, and Assyrians, led Ottoman forces to massacre civilians and torch villages throughout the border region of Iran.
- Kevorkian, Raymond (2011). The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History. I.B. Tauris. p. 710. ISBN 978-0-85773-020-6. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
'In retaliation, we killed the Armenians of Khoy, and I gave the order to massacre the Armenians of Maku.' ... Without distorting the facts, one can affirm that the centuries-old Armenian presence in the regions of Urmia, Salmast, Qaradagh, and Maku had been dealt a blow from which it would never recover.
- Yeghiayan, Vartkes, ed. (1991). "British Foreign Office Dossiers on Turkish War Criminals". American Armenian International College.
... Assyrians who were killed in Khoy, some 700 Armenian residents of Khoy were also massacred at the same time, June 1918.Cite journal requires
- Hovannisian, Richard G. (2011). The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. Transaction Publishers. pp. 270–271. ISBN 978-1-4128-3592-3.
- Hinton, Alexander Laban; La Pointe, Thomas; Irvin-Erickson, Douglas (2013). Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. Rutgers University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-8135-6164-6.
- Glenn E. Curtis, Eric Hooglund; US Government Printing Office (2008). Iran: A Country Study. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8444-1187-3.
- David S. Sorenson (2013). An Introduction to the Modern Middle East: History, Religion, Political Economy, Politics. Westview Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-8133-4922-0.
- Iran: Foreign Policy & Government Guide. International Business Publications. 2009. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7397-9354-1.
- T.H. Vail Motter; United States Army Center of Military History (1952). United States Army in World War II the Middle East Theater the Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia. CMH.
- Louise Fawcett, "Revisiting the Iranian Crisis of 1946: How Much More Do We Know?." Iranian Studies 47#3 (2014): 379–399.
- Gary R. Hess, "the Iranian Crisis of 1945–46 and the Cold War." Political Science Quarterly 89#1 (1974): 117–146. online
- Stephen Kinzer (2011). All the Shah's Men. John Wiley & Sons. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-118-14440-4. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Nikki R. Keddie, Rudolph P Matthee. Iran and the Surrounding World: Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics University of Washington Press, 2002 p. 366
- Baraheni, Reza (28 October 1976). "Terror in Iran". The New York Review of Books.
- Elizabeth Shakman Hurd (2009). The Politics of Secularism in International Relations. Princeton University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-4008-2801-2. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- "Islamic Revolution of 1979". Iranchamber.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Islamic Revolution of Iran". Encarta. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Fereydoun Hoveyda, The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution ISBN 0-275-97858-3, Praeger Publishers
- "The Iranian Revolution". Fsmitha.com. 22 March 1963. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "BBC On this Day Feb 1 1979". BBC. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Lori A. Johnson; Kathleen Uradnik; Sara Beth Hower (2011). Battleground: Government and Politics [2 volumes]: Government and Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-313-34314-8.
- Jahangir Amuzegar (1991). The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: The Pahlavis' Triumph and Tragedy. SUNY Press. pp. 4, 9–12. ISBN 978-0-7914-9483-7. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Cheryl Benard (1984). "The Government of God": Iran's Islamic Republic. Columbia University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-231-05376-1. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "American Experience, Jimmy Carter, "444 Days: America Reacts"". Pbs.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Supreme Cultural Revolution Council GlobalSecurity.org
- Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-415-90406-3. OCLC 22347651.
- Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–175, 212. ISBN 978-0-521-52891-7. OCLC 171111098.
- Dan De Luce in Tehran (4 May 2004). "Khatami blames clerics for failure". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Iran hardliner becomes president". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 6 December 2006.
- نتایج نهایی دهمین دورهٔ انتخابات ریاست جمهوری (in Persian). Ministry of Interior of Iran. 13 June 2009. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- Ian Black. "Ahmadinejad wins surprise Iran landslide victory". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Iran clerics defy election ruling". BBC News. 5 July 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Is this government legitimate?". BBC. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Landry, Carole (25 June 2009). "G8 calls on Iran to halt election violence". Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Tait, Robert; Black, Ian; Tran, Mark (17 June 2009). "Iran protests: Fifth day of unrest as regime cracks down on critics". The Guardian. London.
- "Hassan Rouhani wins Iran presidential election". BBC News. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Fassihi, Farnaz (15 June 2013). "Moderate Candidate Wins Iran's Presidential Vote". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- Denmark, Abraham M.; Tanner, Travis (2013). Strategic Asia 2013–14: Asia in the Second Nuclear Age. p. 229.
-  Protests Pop Up Across Iran, Fueled by Daily Dissatisfaction
-  More Chants, More Protests: The Dey Iranian Anti-Regime Protests
-  Iran arrested 7,000 in crackdown on dissent during 2018 - Amnesty
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "Geographical Data". Scientific Information Database. 2014.
- Kiyanoosh Kiyani Haftlang; Kiyānūsh Kiyānī Haft Lang (2003). The Book of Iran: A Survey of the Geography of Iran. Alhoda UK. p. 17. ISBN 978-964-94491-3-5.
- R. Nagarajan (2010). Drought Assessment. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 383. ISBN 978-90-481-2500-5.
- "Weather and Climate: Iran, average monthly Rainfall, Sunshine, Temperature, Humidity, Wind Speed". World Weather and Climate Information. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Moghtader, Michelle (3 August 2014). "Farming reforms offer hope for Iran's water crisis". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- Sharon E. Nicholson (2011). Dryland Climatology. Cambridge University Press. p. 367. ISBN 978-1-139-50024-1.
- April Fast (2005). Iran: The Land. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7787-9315-1.
- Eskandar Firouz (2005). The Complete Fauna of Iran. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-946-2.
- Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend; M. Taghi Farvar; Yves Renard; Michel P Pimbert; Ashish Kothari (2013). Sharing Power: A Global Guide to Collaborative Management of Natural Resources. Routledge. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-136-55742-2.
- Khorozyan, I. (2008). "Panthera pardus ssp. saxicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- Guggisberg, C.A.W. (1961). Simba: The Life of the Lion. Howard Timmins, Cape Town.
- "74 Iranian wildlife species red-listed by Environment Department". payvand.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "همشهری آنلاین-استانهای کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)". Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
- Payvand. "Iran: Focus on reverse migration". Archived from the original on 26 March 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
- "Islamic Azad University". Retrieved 28 January 2008". 10 November 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iranian National Portal of Statistics". 10 November 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Religious Tourism Potentials Rich". Iran Daily. Archived from the original on 9 March 2005.
- "Mashhad, Iran". Sacredsites.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Constitution of Iran". Switzerland: University of Bern.
- "Democracy Index 2017 : Free Speech Under Attack" (PDF). www.eiu.com. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Totten, Michael J. (16 February 2016). "No, Iran is Not a Democracy". Dispatches. World Affairs Institute. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Schmidt, Patrick. "Iran's Election Procedures". The Washington Institute. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Bezhan, Frud. "Explainer: Iran's Process For Vetting Presidential Candidates". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- "Iran: Stop Prosecuting Women Over Dress Code". Human Rights Watch. 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- "Iran: Three Child Offenders Executed". Human Rights Watch. 2018.
- Freedom House (2017). "Iran". Freedom in the World 2017. Freedom House. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
The Islamic Republic of Iran holds elections regularly, but they fall short of democratic standards due to the role of the hard-line Guardian Council, which disqualifies all candidates deemed insufficiently loyal to the clerical establishment. Ultimate power rests in the hands of the country's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, and the unelected institutions under his control. Human rights abuses continued unabated in 2016, with the authorities carrying out Iran's largest mass execution in years and launching a renewed crackdown on women's rights activists. The regime maintained restrictions on freedom of expression, both offline and online, and made further arrests of journalists, bloggers, labor union activists, and dual nationals visiting the country, with some facing heavy prison sentences. Hard-liners in control of powerful institutions, including the judiciary and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), were behind many of the year's abuses. There were no indications that President Hassan Rouhani, a self-proclaimed moderate seeking reelection in 2017, was willing or able to push back against repressive forces and deliver the greater social freedoms he had promised. Opposition leaders Mir Hossein Mousavi, his wife Zahra Rahnavard, and reformist cleric Mehdi Karroubi remained under house arrest for a sixth year without being formally charged or put on trial. As in 2015, the media were barred from quoting or reporting on former president Mohammad Khatami, another important reformist figure.
- Avery, Daniel (4 April 2019). "71 Countries Where Homosexuality is Illegal". Newsweek.
- "Iran defends execution of gay people". Deutsche Welle. 12 June 2019.
- "China, Iran lift ties to comprehensive strategic partnership". Xinhua News Agency. 23 January 2016.
- "Iran, China discuss $600b economic deals as Xi Jinping visits". The Times of Israel. 23 January 2016. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016.
- "Leadership in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran". Leader.ir. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "In jab at rivals, Rouhani says Iran protests about more than economy". 8 January 2018 – via Reuters.
- Al-awsat, Asharq (25 September 2017). "Khamenei Orders New Supervisory Body to Curtail Government – ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English Archive".
- "Iran's Khamenei hits out at Rafsanjani in rare public rebuke". Middle East Eye.
- "Khamenei says Iran must go green – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.
- Louis Charbonneau and Parisa Hafezi (16 May 2014). "Exclusive: Iran pursues ballistic missile work, complicating nuclear talks". Reuters.
- "Asking for a Miracle: Khamenei's Economic Plan". IranWire | خانه.
- "Economic issues Iran's foremost problem: Leader". Press TV. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Khamenei outlines 14-point plan to increase population". Al-Monitor. 22 May 2014. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Iran: Executive, legislative branch officials endorse privatization plan". www.payvand.com. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- The Baghdad Post (8 May 2017). "Khamenei slams Rouhani as Iran's regime adopted UN education agenda".
- "Leader outlines elections guidelines, calls for transparency". Tehran Times. 15 October 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Iranian lawmakers warn Ahmadinejad to accept intelligence chief as political feud deepens". CP. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "BBC NEWS – Middle East – Iranian vice-president 'sacked'". BBC.
- "PressTV-Leader endorses Rouhani as Iran's president". www.presstv.com.
- Paolo Magri; Annalisa Perteghella (2017). Post-Vote Iran: Giving engagement a chance. Ledizioni. pp. 58–61. ISBN 978-88-6705-653-8.
- "PressTV-'Leader OK's $150mn to fight air pollution in SW Iran'". www.presstv.com.
- "Khamenei orders controversial retirement law amended". Al-Monitor. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- "Reuters Investigates – Assets of the Ayatollah". Reuters. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Stephens, Bret (6 January 2018). "Opinion – Finding the Way Forward on Iran". Archived from the original on 6 January 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
- Panah, Hamid Yazdan. "Listen to what Iran protesters are really saying".
- Steve Stecklow, Babak Dehghanpisheh (22 January 2014). "Exclusive: Khamenei's business empire gains from Iran sanctions relief". Reuters. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. "Iran – The Constitution". Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2006.
- "Iran Chamber Society: The Structure of Power in Iran". Iranchamber.com. 24 June 2005. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Al-awsat, Asharq (15 December 2015). "Controversy in Iran Surrounding the Supervision of the Supreme Leader's Performance – ASHARQ AL-AWSAT". Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Myths and Realities of Iran's Parliamentary Elections". The Atlantic. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Anomalies in Iran's Assembly of Experts Election – The Washington Institute for Near East Policy". Washingtoninstitute.org. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "The Islamic Republic Before and After the 2009 Elections". Payvand.com. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Arash Karami (31 March 2016). "Rafsanjani missile tweet draws fire from Khamenei". Al-monitor.com. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Chibli Mallat (2004). The Renewal of Islamic Law: Muhammad Baqer As-Sadr, Najaf and the Shi'i International. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53122-1. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Staff and agencies (24 May 2005). "Iran reverses ban on reformist candidates". the Guardian.
- Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (15 April 2016). "Iran bars female MP for 'shaking hands with unrelated man'". the Guardian.
- "Minoo Khaleghi summoned to court". 15 May 2016.
- Fatih Özbay & Bulent Aras (March 2008). "The limits of the Russian-Iranian strategic alliance: its history andgeopolitics, and the nuclear issue". Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Ali A. Jalali; Voice of America; Washington, DC (2001). "The Strategic Partnership of Russia and Iran". Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Russia and Iran: Strategic Partners or Competing Regional Hegemons? A Critical Analysis of Russian-Iranian Relations in the Post-Soviet Space". 2012. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Iran The Presidency". Photius.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "PressTV-Leader endorses Rouhani as Iran's president".
- "Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- Ali Vafadar (1995). The constitution and political change. p. 559.
- Amir Saeed Vakil, Pouryya Askary (2004). constitution in now law like order. p. 362.
- "Iran – The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers". Countrystudies.us. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Ali Akbar Dareini. "Iranian lawmakers warn Ahmadinejad to accept intelligence chief as political feud deepens". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013.
- "BBC NEWS – Middle East – Iranian vice-president 'sacked'". BBC.
- "The Structure of Power in Iran". Iranchamber.com. 24 June 2005. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "IFES Election Guide". Electionguide.org. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran – The Council of Guardians". Countrystudies.us. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran The Council of Guardians". Photius.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Manou & Associates Inc. "Iranian Government Constitution, English Text". Iranonline.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Expediency council". BBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2008.
- "Iran urges NAM to make collective bids to establish global peace". PressTV. 26 August 2012. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Iran Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments. IBP. 3 March 2012. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4387-7462-6.
- Charbonneau, Louis (26 October 2009). "RPT-EXCLUSIVE-Iran would need 18 months for atom bomb-diplomats". Reuters. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamic Republic of Iran". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- Seyed Hossein Mousavian; Shahir Shahidsaless (2014). Iran and the United States: An Insider's View on the Failed Past and the Road to Peace. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-62892-870-9.
- Guffey, Robert A. (2009). Saudi-Iranian Relations Since the Fall of Saddam: Rivalry, Cooperation and Implication for US Policy. RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-4657-4.
- "Iran assembly recognizes Jerusalem as Palestine capital". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
- "Iran says Jerusalem 'unchangeable' capital of Palestine". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "Iran Recognizes Jerusalem as Palestinian Capital City in Response to Trump Declaration". Newsweek. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Kutsch, Tom (14 July 2015). "Iran, world powers strike historic nuclear deal". Aljazeera America. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- Rubin, Barry (1980). Paved with Good Intentions (PDF). New York: Penguin Books. p. 83. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013.
- "Iran asks U.N. to condemn Israeli threats: state TV". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- Wroughton, Lesley (22 April 2019). "U.S. to end all waivers on imports of Iranian oil, crude price jumps". Reuters.
- "Iran oil: US to end sanctions exemptions for major importers". BBC News. 22 April 2019.
- "Iran decides to grant Qatari visas upon arrival at its airports". MbS News. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p.187
- John Pike. "Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij Mobilisation Resistance Force". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran's defense spending 'a fraction of Persian Gulf neighbors'". Payvand.com. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran's doctrine based on deterrence". IRNA. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Parsi, Trita and Cullis, Tyler. (10 July 2015) "The Myth of the Iranian Military Giant" Foreign Policy. Retrieved 11 July 2015.Foreign Policy website
- Gordon, Michael R.; Strobel, Warren P.; Youssef, Nancy A. (5 April 2019). "U.S. to Designate Iranian Guard Corps a Foreign Terror Group". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- "US 'to label Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps a terrorist group'". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Karam, Joyce & Gutman, Roy, presenters. (5 August 2015) Middle East Institute: "Iran Nuclear Agreement and Middle East Relations". Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. Retrieved 5 August 2015. C-Span website Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Iran's 80,000 militia men in Syria prime powder keg". The Times. 5 May 2018.
- "How Iran enlists Afghans to fight for Assad in Syria". The Washington Post. 29 July 2018.
- Hossein Askari; Amin Mohseni; Shahrzad Daneshvar (2010). The Militarization of the Persian Gulf: An Economic Analysis. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-84980-186-7.
- "Iran tests new long-range missile". BBC. 12 November 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- "Are the Iran nuclear talks heading for a deal?". BBC News Online. Retrieved: 4 August 2016.
-  Iran - Military Conscription
-  Iranian soldier opens fire on fellow soldiers, killing four: army
-  Rising Suicide Rate Among Iranian Soldiers and Military Personnel
-  Depression and stress in Iranian soldiers - in Persian
-  Why Iranian soldiers commit suicide? in Persian
-  Suicide in Iranian conscripts - in Persian
-  The Factors Associated with Suicide Ideation in Iranian Soldiers
-  VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF BECK SUICIDE SCALE IDEATION AMONG SOLDIERS
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "Iran economy". Traveldocs.com. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran, Islamic Rep". World Bank. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Iran Investment Monthly. Turquoise Partners (April 2012). Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Iran's banned trade unions: Aya-toiling". The Economist. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Iran in numbers: How cost of living has soared under sanctions". BBC News. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Anthony H. Cordesman (23 September 2008). "The US, Israel, the Arab States and a Nuclear Iran. Part One: Iranian Nuclear Programs" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2010.
- "IRNA: Crude price pegged at dlrs 39.6 a barrel under next year's budget". Payvand.com. 22 November 2006. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran Daily Forex Reserves Put at $70b". Archived from the original on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Ahmadinejad's Achilles Heel: The Iranian Economy". Payvand.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Energy subsidies reach $84b". Iran-Daily. 8 January 2007. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Iran – Country Brief". Go.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
- "List of Iranian Nanotechnology companies". Archived from the original on 14 November 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "World Economic Forum: Iran ranks 69th out of 139 in global competitiveness". Payvand.com. 13 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "UK Trade & Investment". 13 February 2006. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "FAOSTAT". faostat3.fao.org. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- "Iran and sanctions: When will it ever end?". The Economist. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Useless Rial Is U.S. Goal in New Iran Sanctions, Treasury Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "بازار ارز؛ دلار از مرز ۱۹ هزار تومان و یورو از ۲۲ هزار تومان گذشت" [Iranian Economy Crisis: Dollar Passed 19 Thousand and Euro Passed 22 Thousand Tomans]. euronews (in Persian). 26 September 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- Bijan Khajehpour: Preventing Iran's post-sanctions job crisis Archived 11 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Al-Monitor, 17 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Kish Journal; A Little Leg, a Little Booze, but Hardly Gomorrah". The New York Times. 15 April 2002.
- Butler, Richard; O'Gorman, Kevin D.; Prentice, Richard (1 July 2012). "Destination Appraisal for European Cultural Tourism to Iran". International Journal of Tourism Research. 14 (4): 323–338. doi:10.1002/jtr.862. ISSN 1522-1970.
- "Iran's entry". Microsoft Encarta. 2008. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- "Iran Travel And Tourism Forecast". Economist Intelligence Unit. 2008.
- Iran hosted 2.3 million tourists this year. PressTV, 19 March 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- "Nearly one million Azerbaijani tourists visit Iran annually". 13 November 2015. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015.
- AzerNews (13 November 2015). "Nearly one million Azerbaijani tourists visit Iran annually". AzerNews. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015.
- Sightseeing and excursions in Iran Archived 18 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Tehran Times, 28 September 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- Curtis, Glenn; Hooglund, Eric (2008). Iran, a country study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-8444-1187-3.
- Iran ranks 68th in tourism revenues worldwide Archived 2 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Payvand/IRNA, 7 September 2003. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
- "Iran-daily.com". Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- Ayse, Valentine; Nash, Jason John; Leland, Rice (2013). The Business Year 2013: Iran. London: The Business Year. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-908180-11-7.
- Brian Boniface, MA; Chris Cooper; Robyn Cooper (2012). Worldwide Destinations: The geography of travel and tourism. Routledge. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-136-00113-0.
- "World's top oil producers". CNNMoney.
- "BP Cuts Russia, Turkmenistan Natural Gas Reserves Estimates". WSJ.com. 12 June 2013. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "CIA.gov". CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "Iran – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Eia.doe.gov. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "American Journal of Scientific Research" (PDF). 2012. pp. 76–84. ISSN 2301-2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "The EU should be playing Iran and Russia off against each other, by Julian Evans". Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Kim Murphy – Los Angeles Times (7 January 2007). "U.S. targets Iran's vulnerable oil". Heraldextra.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran, Besieged by Gasoline Sanctions, Develops GTL to Extract Gasoline from Natural Gas". Oilprice.com. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "Iran" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Daniel Müller; Professor Harald Müller (2015). WMD Arms Control in the Middle East: Prospects, Obstacles and Options. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 140. ISBN 978-1-4724-3593-4.
- معاون آموزشی سازمان نهضت سوادآموزی. farsnews.com. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Peter Krol. "Study in Iran :: Iran Educational System". arabiancampus.com. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "WEP-Iran". Wes.org. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "Iran (Islamic Republic of)". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Expert:VSR.Subramaniam (18 October 2006). "Economics: economic, medical uses of alcohol, uses of alcohol". Experts.about.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Forecasting Exercise" (PDF). SCImago. 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Patrick Thibodeau (22 June 2009). "AMD Chips Used in Iranian HPC for Rocket Research". Computerworld.com. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "No. 3817 | Front page | Page 1". Irandaily. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics". Ibb.ut.ac.ir. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "The first successfully cloned animal in Iran". Middle-east-online.com. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Iranian Studies Group at MIT" (PDF). Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "INIC – News – 73% of Tehran's Students Acquainted with Nanotechnology". En.nano.ir. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran Ranks 15th In Nanotech Articles". Bernama. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran daily: Iranian Technology From Foreign Perspective". Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Brian Harvey; Henk H. F. Smid; Theo Pirard (2011). Emerging Space Powers: The New Space Programs of Asia, the Middle East and South-America. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-4419-0874-2.
- "The 6th International Conference on Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning" (PDF). Hvac-conference.ir. 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Iran, 7th in UF6 production – IAEO official". Payvand.com. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Iran says it controls entire nuclear fuel cycle". USA Today. 11 April 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Project Retired – EECS at UC Berkeley" (PDF). berkeley.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2007.
- Vali Nasr (2007). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future. W.W. Norton. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-393-06640-1.
- Ben Mathis-Lilley (12 August 2014). "A Woman Has Won the Fields Medal, Math's Highest Prize, for the First Time". Slate. Graham Holdings Company. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". un.org. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Encyclopaedia Iranica. R. N. Frye. Peoples of Iran". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Asia-Pacific Population Journal, United Nations. "A New Direction in Population Policy and Family Planning in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2006.
- "Iran – population". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- کاهش غیرمنتظره نرخ رشد جمعیت در ایران. DW Persian. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005. Unpublished work tables for estimating Iran's mortality. Washington, D.C.: Population Division, International Programs Center
- Iran News, Payvand.com. "Iran's population growth rate falls to 1.5 percent: UNFP". Retrieved 18 October 2006.
- "Afghanistan-Iran: Iran says it will deport over one million Afghans". Irinnews.org. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- United Nations, UNHCR. "Tripartite meeting on returns to Afghanistan". Retrieved 14 April 2006.
- Manouchehr Ganji (2002). Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-275-97187-8.
- "Migration Information Institute: Characteristics of the Iranian Diaspora". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran Social Security System" (PDF). World Bank. 2003. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Aurelio Mejía (2013). "Is tax funding of health care more likely to be regressive than systems based on social insurance in low and middle-income countries?". Universidad de Antioquia. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- Annika Rabo, Bo Utas. The Role of the State in West Asia Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 2005 ISBN 91-86884-13-1
- Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East Facts On File, Incorporated ISBN 1-4381-2676-X p. 141
- Oberling, Pierre (7 February 2012). "Georgia viii: Georgian communities in Persia". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Circassian". Official Circassian Association. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Chardin, Sir John (June 1997). "Persians: Kind, hospitable, tolerant flattering cheats?". The Iranian. Archived from the original on 20 June 1997. Retrieved 9 June 2014. Excerpted from:
- "The World Factbook: Iran". CIA. 2012. People and Society. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- J. Harmatta in "History of Civilizations of Central Asia", Chapter 14, The Emergence of Indo-Iranians: The Indo-Iranian Languages, ed. by A. H. Dani & V.N. Masson, 1999, p. 357
- "Country Profile: Iran" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. May 2008. p. xxvi. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Results a new nationwide public opinion survey of Iran" (PDF). New America Foundation. 12 June 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Azeris". Minority Rights Group International. 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
- Shaffer, Brenda (2003). Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity. MIT Press. pp. 221–225. ISBN 0-262-19477-5 "There is considerable lack of consensus regarding the number of Azerbaijanis in Iran ... Most conventional estimates of the Azerbaijani population range between one-fifth to one-third of the general population of Iran, the majority claiming one-fourth." – "Azerbaijani student groups in Iran claim that there are 27 million Azerbaijanis residing in Iran."
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1765. ISBN 978-0-313-32384-3 "Approximately (2002e) 18,500,000 Southern Azeris in Iran, concentrated in the northwestern provinces of East and West Azerbaijan. It is difficult to determine the exact number of Southern Azeris in Iran, as official statistics are not published detailing Iran's ethnic structure. Estimates of the Southern Azeri population range from as low as 12 million up to 40% of the population of Iran – that is, nearly 27 million..."
- Rasmus Christian Elling, Minorities in Iran: Nationalism and Ethnicity after Khomeini, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Excerpt: "The number of Azeris in Iran is heavily disputed. In 2005, Amanolahi estimated all Turkic-speaking communities in Iran to number no more than 9 million. CIA and Library of congress estimates range from 16 percent to 24 percent – that is, 12–18 million people if we employ the latest total figure for Iran's population (77.8 million). Azeri ethnicsts, on the other hand, argue that overall number is much higher, even as much as 50 percent or more of the total population. Such inflated estimates may have influenced some Western scholars who suggest that up to 30 percent (that is, some 23 million today) Iranians are Azeris." 
- Ali Gheissari. Contemporary Iran: Economy, Society – Politics: Economy, Society, Politics. p. 300. "Azeri ethnonationalist activist, however, claim that number to be 24 million, hence as high as 35 percent of the Iranian population." Oxford University Press. 2 April 2009.
- "Iran" (PDF). New America Foundation. 12 June 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- 2011 General Census Selected Results (PDF), Statistical Center of Iran, 2012, p. 26, ISBN 978-964-365-827-4
- Walter Martin (2003). Kingdom of the Cults, The. Baker Books. p. 421. ISBN 978-0-7642-2821-6. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
Ninety-five percent of Iran's Muslims are Shi'ites.
- Bhabani Sen Gupta (1987). The Persian Gulf and South Asia: prospects and problems of inter-regional cooperation. South Asian Publishers. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-7003-077-5.
Shias constitute seventy-five percent of the population of the Gulf. Of this, ninety-five percent of Iranians and sixty of Iraqis are Shias.
- Contrera, Russell. "Saving the people, killing the faith". The Holland Sentinel. Holland, MI. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- "Jewish woman brutally murdered in Iran over property dispute". The Times of Israel. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
A government census published earlier this year indicated there were a mere 8,756 Jews left in Iran
- Sarshar, Houman (30 November 2012). "JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES i. INTRODUCTION". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "In Iran, Mideast's largest Jewish population outside Israel finds new acceptance by officials". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- "Iran Population 2015". World Population Review. 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Country Information and Guidance "Christians and Christian converts, Iran" December 2014. p.9
- U.S. State Department (26 October 2009). "Iran – International Religious Freedom Report 2009". The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affair. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009.
- International Federation for Human Rights (1 August 2003). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. p. 6. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- The numbers of minorities in Iran ... Retrieved 23 December 2017
- The numerical data of Baha'is, Christians, Jews and Sunni people in Iran,... Retrieved 23 December 2017
- International Federation for Human Rights (1 August 2003). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. Retrieved 19 March 2007.
- Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). "A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran" (PDF). Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2007.
- Kamali, Saeed (27 February 2013). "Bahá'í student expelled from Iranian university 'on grounds of religion'". Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Hole, F.; Flannery, K. V. (1968). Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society.
- "Art in Iran" [ii. Median Art and Architecture]. Encyclopædia Iranica. II. pp. 565–569. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- Ivanchik, Askolʹd Igorevich; Ličʻeli, Vaxtang (2007). Achaemenid Culture and Local Traditions in Anatolia, Southern Caucasus and Iran: New Discoveries. BRILL. p. 117. ISBN 978-90-04-16328-7.
- Lipiński, Edward; Van Lerberghe, Karel; Schoors, Antoon (1995). Immigration and emigration within the ancient Near East. Peeters Publishers. p. 119. ISBN 978-90-6831-727-5.
- "ART IN IRAN" [iv. Parthian Art]. Encyclopædia Iranica. II. pp. 580–585.
- "Sāsānian dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 July 2017.
Under the Sāsānians Iranian art experienced a general renaissance.
- "ART IN IRAN" [v. Sasanian Art]. Encyclopædia Iranica. II. pp. 585–594. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "Iran – A country study". Parstimes.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "History of Islamic Science 5". Levity.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Afary, Janet (2006). "Iran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- "Art in Iran" [xii. Iranian Pre-Islamic Elements in Islamic Art]. Encyclopædia Iranica. II. pp. 549–646. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Canby, Sheila R. (2002). The Golden Age of Persian Art: 1501–1722. British Museum Press. ISBN 978-0-7141-2404-9.
- "ART IN IRAN" [ix. Safavid To Qajar Periods]. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "Kamāl-al-Molk, Moḥammad Ḡaffāri". Encyclopædia Iranica. XV. pp. 417–433. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- "Art in Iran" [xi. Post-Qajar (Painting)]. Encyclopædia Iranica. II. pp. 640–646. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Meng, Jl (2013). Translation, History and Arts [New Horizons in Asian Interdisciplinary Humanities Research]. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-4438-5117-6.
- Gumpert, Lynn; Balaghi, Shiva (2002). Picturing Iran [Art, Society and Revolution]. I.B. Tauris. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-86064-883-0.
- "Art in America: Modernity and revolution: a recent show of Iranian art focused on the turbulent time from 1960 to 1980, juxtaposing formally inventive works of art with politically charged photographs and posters – Art & Politics – Between Word and Image: Modern Iranian Visual Culture". 25 November 2004. Archived from the original on 25 November 2004.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Pope, Arthur Upham (1971). Introducing Persian Architecture. London: Oxford University Press.
- Pope, Arthur Upham (1965). Persian Architecture. New York: George Braziller. p. 266.
- Ardalan, Nader; Bakhtiar, Laleh. (2000). The Sense of Unity: The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture. ISBN 978-1-871031-78-2.
- "Virtual Conference". American.edu. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Nader Ardalan and Laleh Bakhtiar. Sense of Unity; The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture. 2000. ISBN 1-871031-78-8
- Arthur Pope, Introducing Persian Architecture. Oxford University Press. London. 1971.
- K K Goswami (2009). Advances in Carpet Manufacture. Elsevier. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-84569-585-9.
- Khalaj, Mehrnosh (10 February 2010). "Iran's oldest craft left behind". FT.com. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Malandra, W.W. (1973). "A Glossary of Terms for Weapons and Armor in Old Iranian". Indo-Iranian Journal. Philadelphia: Brill. 15 (4): 264–289. doi:10.1007/BF00161055. JSTOR 24651454.
- Arthur John Arberry, The Legacy of Persia, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953, ISBN 0-19-821905-9, p. 200.
- Von David Levinson; Karen Christensen, Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, Charles Scribner's Sons. 2002 p. 48
- David Levinson; Karen Christensen (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia: Iaido to Malay. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-684-80617-4.
- François de Blois (April 2004). Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical Survey. 5. Routledge. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-947593-47-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
Nizami Ganja'i, whose personal name was Ilyas, is the most celebrated native poet of the Persians after Firdausi.
- Carr, Brian; Mahalingam, Indira (2009). "Morals and Society in Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy". In Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (ed.). Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. Routledge.
- Carr, Brian; Mahalingam, Indira (2009). "The Origins of Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy". In Boyce, Mary (ed.). Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. Routledge.
- Nasr, S.H.; Aminrazavi, M. (2008). An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. From Zoroaster to Omar Khayyam. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-541-8..
- Boyle, John Andrew. "Ferdowsī". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "Music History" [i. Third Millenium B.C.E.]. Encyclopædia Iranica.
- "GŌSĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Xi. pp. 167–170. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Strabo (1983). Geography. 7. London: Harvard University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-674-99266-5.
- (Lawergren 2009) iv. First millennium C.E. (1) Sasanian music, 224–651.
- "BBCPersian.com". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Iran Chamber Society: Music of Iran: Pop Music in Iran". iranchamber.com. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Iran's underground hip hop dance scene | The FRANCE 24 Observers". Observers.france24.com. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- 'اسکورپیو' در آپارات. BBC Persian.
- "Rebels of rap reign in Iran". SFGate. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Anuj Chopra in Tehran (28 January 2008). "Iran's 'illegal' rappers want cultural revolution". The Independent. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Dance". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "DRAMA". Encyclopædia Iranica. VII. pp. 529–535. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Kiann, Nima (2015). The History of Ballet in Iran. Wiesbaden: Reichert Publishing.
- "World's oldest animation?". The Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Oldest Animation Discovered In Iran". Animation Magazine.
- Honour, Hugh and John Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History. New Jersey, Prentice Hall Inc., 1992. Page: 96.
- "Iranian Cinema: Before the Revolution". horschamp.qc.ca.
- "Massoud Mehrabi – Articles". massoudmehrabi.com. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Tehran International Animation Festival (1st Festival 1999 )". tehran-animafest.ir.
- "Tehran International Animation Festival (TIAF)". animation-festivals.com. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Shahab Esfandiary (2012). Iranian Cinema and Globalization: National, Transnational, and Islamic Dimensions. Intellect Books. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-84150-470-4.
- Hamid Dabashi (2007). Masters & Masterpieces of Iranian Cinema. Mage Publishers. p. intro. ISBN 978-0-934211-85-7.
- Peter Decherney; Blake Atwood (2014). Iranian Cinema in a Global Context: Policy, Politics, and Form. Routledge. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-317-67520-4.
- "Iran's strong presence in 2006 Berlin International Film Festival". bbc.co.uk.
- "BBC NEWS – Entertainment – Iran films return to Berlin festival". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Proclamation of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity (2001–2005) – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO". Unesco.org. 2000. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Norouz Persian New Year". British Museum. 25 March 2010. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- "General Assembly Fifty-fifth session 94th plenary meeting Friday, 9 March 2001, 10 a.m. New York" (PDF). United Nations General Assembly. 9 March 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- "Nowrooz, a Persian New Year Celebration, Erupts in Iran – Yahoo!News". News.yahoo.com. 16 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- "US mulls Persian New Year outreach". Washington Times. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- Lezgee, Hoda (20 March 2015). "The Celebration of Spring in Iran".
Nevertheless, the most important curtain-raiser to Norouz is Chaharshanbe Soori which is a fire festival held on the eve of the last Wednesday of the calendar year. This festival is full of special customs and rituals, especially jumping over fire.
- "Call for Safe Yearend Celebration". Financial Tribune. 12 March 2017.
The ancient tradition has transformed over time from a simple bonfire to the use of firecrackers...
- "Light It Up! Iranians Celebrate Festival of Fire". NBC News. 19 March 2014.
- "Iranians mark Sizdah Bedar in nature". Press TV. 1 April 2016.
- Rezaian, Lachin (20 December 2015). "Yalda: Iranian celebration of winter solstice". Mehr News Agency.
- Roessing, Lesley (2012). No More "us" and "them": Classroom Lessons and Activities to Promote Peer Respect. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-61048-812-9.
- Hamedy, Saba (20 December 2013). "In ancient tradition, Iranians celebrate winter solstice". Los Angeles Times.
- Foltz, Richard (2013). Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present. Oneworld Publications. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-78074-307-3.
- Alavi, Nasrin (8 November 2015). We Are Iran: The Persian Blogs. Soft Skull Press. p. 135.
- "Historical ceremonies of Iran". IRIB English Radio. 29 April 2013. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
...people in Mazandaran province celebrate Tirgan.
- Ahmadzadeh, Fatemeh; Mohandespour, Farhad (February 2017). "Examining the Social Function of Dramatic Rituals of Mazandaran with Emphasis on Three Rituals of tir mā sizeŝu, bisto šeše aydimā, and čake se mā". Journal of History Culture and Art Research: 839.
...Tirgan called tir mā sizeŝu (thirteen night of Tir) is still held in Mazandaran.
- Mehraby, Rahman (22 March 2010). "Ceremonies in Iran". DestinationIran.com.
...people in Mazandaran province celebrate Tirgan.
- "Tirgan Festival in Markazi Province" (PDF). Iran Daily. 22 June 2011.
- Leviton, Richard (16 July 2014). The Mertowney Mountain Interviews. iUniverse. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-4917-4129-0.
...the summer solstice festival, called Tiregan, ...
- Hobson, Sarah; Lubchenco, Jane (5 August 1997). Revelation and the Environment, AD 95-1995. World Scientific. p. 151. ISBN 978-981-4545-69-3.
Tirgan, is a joyous celebration of water in the height of summer, ...
- Leahy, Robert L. (2015). Emotional Schema Therapy. Guilford Publications. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-4625-2054-1.
..., Tirgan (thanksgiving for water), ...
- "In Iran, Muslim youth are 'even more excited about Christmas than Christians'". France 24. 23 December 2013.
- "Christians enjoy peace, security in Iran: Archbishop". Press TV. 1 January 2017.
- "Iranian Christians cCelebrate Easter". Tasnim News Agency. 17 April 2017.
- Secunda, Shai (13 March 2014). "Reading Megillah in Tehran: How Iranian Jews Celebrate Purim". Tablet.
- "Iranian Jews observe Hanukkah". Al-Monitor. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "Iran Jews Celebrate Passover, Persian-style". Haaretz. 25 April 2011.
- Holzel, David (24 May 2013). "Persian Passover". Washington Jewish Week.
- Dareini, Ali Akbar (31 January 2010). "Iranians celebrate ancient Persian fire fest". NBC News.
- "Calendars" [The solar Hejrī (Š. = Šamsī) and Šāhanšāhī calendars]. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Iran Public Holidays 2017". Mystery of Iran. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "Dindin Kitchen – restaurant review". London Evening Standard. 1 May 2014.
- "Restaurant review: Apadana, Huddersfield". Huddersfield Daily Examiner. 21 June 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017.
- "A Maple Syrup Mecca for Iran's Gays". The Daily Beast. 10 August 2014.
- Williams, Stuart. "DRINKING". Iran – Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture.
Iranians are obsessive tea drinkers
- Maslin, Jamie. (2009). Iranian Rappers and Persian Porn: A Hitchhiker's Adventures in the New Iran. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-60239-791-0.
Iran is a nation of obsessive tea drinkers
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations—Production FAOSTAT. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Burke, Andrew; Elliott, Mark; Mohammadi, Kamin & Yale, Pat (2004). Iran. Lonely Planet. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-1-74059-425-7.
- Foodspotting (18 March 2014). "24 / Dessert: Faloodeh". The Foodspotting Field Guide. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-1-4521-3008-8.
- Gantz, Carroll (24 January 2015). Refrigeration: A History. McFarland. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4766-1969-9.
- Belton, Howard (13 March 2015). "Ice cream". A History of The World in Five Menus. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4817-9195-3.
- Henninger, Danya (7 February 2017). "Franklin Fountain has an ImPeach sundae with 'nuts from the cabinet'". BillyPenn.com.
- Duguid, Naomi (6 September 2016). Taste of Persia: A Cook's Travels Through Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, and Kurdistan. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-57965-727-7.
...havij bastani, a kind of ice cream float, made with Persian ice cream and carrot juice
- "Sturgeon Stocks Slump". Iran-daily.com. Archived from the original on 16 July 2005. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "The History of Polo". Polomuseum.com. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Ben Johnson. "The origins and history of Polo". Historic-uk.com. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Singh, Jaisal (2007). Polo in India. London: New Holland. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-84537-913-1.
- "Rock Climbing Routes, Gear, Photos, Videos & Articles". Rockclimbing.com. 27 October 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran Mountain Zone (IMZ)". Mountainzone.ir. 11 June 1966. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Mountaineering in Iran". Abc-of-mountaineering.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Iran – Guide to Skiing and Snowboarding". Snowseasoncentral.com. 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Iran: FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking". FIFA.com. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- "AIPS Web Site – USA Volleyball president tips Iran to qualify for Rio". aipsmedia.com. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "WorldofVolley :: Volleyball pioneer Ahmad Masajedi says Iran's rise to the top won't stop". worldofvolley.com. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Alipour, Sam (21 April 2012). "Mission Improbable". ESPN. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "The 22-year-old chess star boycotting Iran World Championships over hijab". BBC. 5 October 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "'I will NOT wear a hijab': U.S. chess star refuses to attend world championships in Iran". Washington Post. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "Shooter Heena Sidhu withdraws from tournament in Iran, says won't wear hijab". thenewsminute. 29 October 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "Iranian court imposes total ban on Telegram". Reporters Without Borders. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "Iran's Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance calls for expansion of ties with UNESCO". UNESCO. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- Milani, Abbas (2008). Eminent Persians. Syracuse University Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-8156-0907-0.
- William Bayne Fisher; P. Avery; G. R. G. Hambly; C. Melville (10 October 1991). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press. pp. 810–811. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
- "Nothing Comes Between Iranians And Their Satellite Dishes – Not Even The Police". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 13 March 2012.
- "Iran's war on satellite dishes: "We just buy new ones the next day"". France 24. 20 December 2012.
- "Iran Internet usage, broadband and telecommunications reports". Internet World Stats. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "Top Sites in Iran". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "Facebook Faces Censorship in Iran". American Islamic Congress. 29 August 2007. Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2008.
- "How Iranian authorities break their own censorship laws". France 24. 23 March 2016.
- Kamali Dehghan, Saeed (13 May 2015). "From Digikala to Hamijoo: the Iranian startup revolution, phase two". The Guardian.
- Axworthy, Michael (2008). A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-09876-7.
- Foltz, Richard (2016). Iran in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-933550-3.
- Iran: A Country Study. 2008, Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 354 pp.
- Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. 1. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-336-1.
- Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G.R.G; Melville, C. (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
- Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-5163-7.