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In the modern era, a series of Islamic dynasties ruled Persia independently of the universal caliphate. Since 1979 Persia (Iran) has been an Islamic republic.
List of dynasties in Persia (now called Iran)
- Median Empire (728-549 BC)
- Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)
- Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD, also called the "Arsacid Empire"
- Sasanian Empire (224–651), also called the "Neo-Persian Empire"
- Samanid Empire (819–999)
- Safavid dynasty (1501–1736)
- Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796)
- Zand dynasty (1750–1794)
- Qajar dynasty (1785–1925)
- Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)
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