Persian and Urdu
The Persian language historically influenced many of the modern languages of all Asia, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asian regions, including Urdu, a standard register of the Hindustani language.
Following the Turko-Persian Ghaznavid conquest of South Asia, the speech based in Delhi's Khariboli and other dialects of the South Asia received a large influx of Persian, Chagatai and Arabic vocabulary. The subsequent Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate gave way for a further continuation of this. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. This lexically hybrid language, Hindustani, emerged in the northern subcontinent, was commonly called Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla ('language of the exalted (army) camp') and eventually replaced Persian, the court language, and was later shortened to just "Urdu". It grew from the interaction of Persian and Turkic speaking Muslim soldiers and the native peoples. Under Persian influence from the state, the Persian script and Nasta'liq form of cursive writing was adopted, with additional figures added to accommodate the Indo-Aryan phonetic system.
Unlike Persian, which is an Iranian language, Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language, written in the Perso-Arabic script, and contains literary conventions and specialized vocabulary largely from Persian. Some grammatical elements peculiar to Persian, such as the enclitic ezāfe, and the use of the takhallus, were readily absorbed into Urdu literature both in the religious and secular spheres.
Persian also has up to three well known major variants: Farsi (the literal Persian word for itself and spoken as a first language by the Persian people of Iran), Dari (spoken as a lingua franca by the majority of the Afghan people) and Tajik (spoken by the Tajik people of northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan). These variants are almost entirely mutually intelligible with one another.
Likewise, Urdu is a major variant of the Hindustani language, the other major variant being Hindi. Both Hindi and Urdu are almost entirely mutually intelligible with one another, but have somewhat distinct vocabulary and minor terminological differences. Another major difference is their writing systems are entirely different, with Hindi using the Devanagari script and Urdu using the Perso-Arabic script. A minor variant of Hindustani is Caribbean Hindustani spoken in the Caribbean.
Hindustani gained distinction in literary and cultural spheres in South Asia because of its role as a lingua franca in the subcontinent as a result of the large number of speakers the language has, both as a first and second language. A famous cross-over writer was Amir Khusro, whose Persian and Urdu couplets are to this day read in South Asia. Allama Iqbal was also a prominent South Asian writer who wrote in Persian and Urdu.
Urdu scholars in Persian literature
Urdu Persian scholars include:
- Amir Khusro
- Allama Iqbal
- Mirza Ghalib
- Dr. Rais Numani
- Allama Jamil mazhari
- Dr. Shamim Hashimi
- Ataur Rahman Ata Kakwi
- Persian language in South Asia
- National anthem of Pakistan
- Indo-Persian culture
- History of Hindustani
- Sigfried J. de Laet. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century UNESCO, 1994. ISBN 9231028138 p 734
- Hindi by Yamuna Kachru http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ooH5VfLTQEQC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=urdu+heavy+persian&source=bl&ots=dG3qgmaV95&sig=WivP7AW9eRlTcp4oscBoHCBFEE0&hl=en&ei=9sp8SqzpLI6y-AaM5vxG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#v=onepage&q=urdu%20heavy%20persian&f=false
- Hindi By Yamuna Kachru http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ooH5VfLTQEQC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=urdu+heavy+persian&source=bl&ots=dG3qgmaV95&sig=WivP7AW9eRlTcp4oscBoHCBFEE0&hl=en&ei=9sp8SqzpLI6y-AaM5vxG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#v=onepage&q=urdu%20heavy%20persian&f=false
- Hakimi, Abdolazim. "Comparative phonetic study of frequently used words in Iranian Farsi versus Tajik Farsi." Journal of American Science 8.4 (2012): 6-16.
- Malik, Muhammad G., Christian Boitet, and Pushpak Bhattacharyya. "Hindi Urdu machine transliteration using finite-state transducers." Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics-Volume 1. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2008.
- Bradby, Hannah. "Translating culture and language: a research note on multilingual settings." Sociology of Health & Illness 24.6 (2002): 842-855.
- "A COMPARATIVE APPRAISAL OF IQBAL’S PERSIAN POETRY".
- "Kulliat-e Mirza Ghalib - Nazme Farsi". Scribd.
- "::: Welcome To Patna U N I V E R S I T Y :::".
- Zaheer Ghazipuri.2009. "http://connemara.tnopac.gov.in", Jhārkhanḍ aur Bihār ke aham ahl-i qalam, New Delhi. Nirali Dunya Publishers.184-192.
- "ciillibrary.org", Jamal ghazal Ataur Rahman Ata Kakwi.