Persian lime

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Persian lime
Starr 061105-1380 Citrus aurantiifolia.jpg
Limes on the tree
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. × latifolia
Binomial name
Citrus × latifolia
Synonyms[1][2]

Persian lime (Citrus × latifolia), also known by other common names such as seedless lime,[2] Bearss lime[3][3] and Tahiti lime,[3] is a citrus fruit species of hybrid origin, known only in cultivation.[2] The Persian lime is a triploid cross between key lime (Citrus × aurantiifolia) and lemon (Citrus limon).[4][5]

Although there are other citrus species that are referred to as "limes", the Persian lime is the most widely cultivated lime species commercially,[6] and accounts for the largest share of the fruits sold as limes. The fruit turns yellow as it ripens, but it is often sold while still green.

Description[edit]

Sliced lime

The tree is nearly thornless. The fruit is about 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in diameter, often with slightly nippled ends, and is usually sold while green, although it yellows as it reaches full ripeness. It is also widely available dried, as it is often used this way in Persian cuisine. It is larger, thicker-skinned, with less intense citrus aromatics than the key lime (Citrus aurantifolia). The advantages of the Persian lime in commercial agriculture compared to the key lime are the larger size, absence of seeds, hardiness, absence of thorns on the bushes, and longer fruit shelf life. They are less acidic than key limes and do not have the bitterness that lends to the key lime's unique flavor.

Cultivation[edit]

Limes originate from Western Asia, and were first grown on a large scale in Persia (now Iran) and southern Iraq.[7][8]

The trees are propagated clonally, by grafting or air layering.[9] Persian limes are commercialized primarily in six sizes, known as 110's, 150's, 175's, 200's, 230's and 250's. Large numbers of Persian limes are grown, processed, and exported every year primarily from Mexico[6] to the American, European and Asian markets. In 2014, Brazil was major exporter of fresh limes to Europe (about 70%) with Mexico supplying most of the remainder.[10]

U.S. Persian lime imports from Mexico are handled mostly through McAllen, Texas.[11]

Cultivars[edit]

Cultivars include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Porcher, Michel H.; et al. (1995), Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (M.M.P.N.D): Sorting Citrus Names, The University of Melbourne
  2. ^ a b c Dianxiang Zhang and David J. Mabberley, "21. Citrus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 782. 1753", Flora of China Online, retrieved 30 June 2016
  3. ^ a b c USDA GRIN Taxonomy, retrieved 30 June 2016
  4. ^ Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (2016). "Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers". Annals of Botany. 11: 565–583. doi:10.1093/aob/mcw005. PMC 4817432.
  5. ^ Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Nawaz, Muhammad Azher (2017), "Advances in Lime Breeding and Genetics", in Khan, M. Mumtaz; Al-Yahyai, Rashid; Al-Said, Fahad, The lime: botany, production and uses, CAB International, pp. 37–53
  6. ^ a b Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook /FTS-333/ July 30, 2008, page 16, by Agnes Perez and Susan Pollack, Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture
  7. ^ Raichlen, Steven (August 2, 1992). "Small citruses yield tart juice, aromatic oils, big, fresh taste". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  8. ^ https://books.google.fr/books?id=c4KuB3iGmbwC&pg=PA662&lpg=PA662&dq=source=bl&ots=SBMYVRQh6A&sig=t42XO4bwUOqyW6vfja1Fu5dpDDg&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjH0fT687XZAhWB_qQKHbS5DqoQ6AEwEnoECAEQAQ#v=onepage&q=persian%20lime%20originated%20in%20persia&f=false
  9. ^ Jonathan H. Crane and Jason L. Osborne (2015), Growing 'Tahiti' Limes in the Home Landscape, University of Florida, IFAS Extension
  10. ^ CBI Product Factsheet: Fresh Limes in Europe
  11. ^ Mexican lemons, limes attract U.S. importers, 6/9/2008, by Don Schrack[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ Bearss lime at Citrus Variety Collection Website
  13. ^ Page lime
  14. ^ Persian lime SPB-7
  15. ^ Pond's lime
  16. ^ Tahiti lime

External links[edit]