Peruvian Segunda División
|Number of teams||14|
|Levels on pyramid||2|
|Promotion to||Primera División|
|Relegation to||Copa Perú|
|Current champions||Los Caimanes
The Segunda División Peruana (Second Division) of Peru is the second-highest division in the Peruvian football league system. It is a professional division and was declared a promotional division by the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF). After years of changing numbers of clubs, as of 2012 the league includes 10 clubs. It is currently organized by the Asociación Deportiva de Futbol Profesional.
The format of the Second Division has changed over the years. For decades after it was first formed in 1936, only clubs from the Department of Lima participated in the annual tournament. The winner was promoted to the Primera Division Peruana (First Division), the professional league.
- 1988-1990, the winner was promoted to the Regional Metropolitan League (Torneo Metropolitano Regional).
- 1991, there was no promotion because the First Division was undergoing major changes.
- 1992, the format changed again. This time the winner of the tournament would play against the winners of the northern, southern and central regions in order to be promoted.
- 1993-1997, the former system, in which the winner was directly promoted to the first division, was used.
- 1998, the winner of the Second Division played a game against the second-to-last placed club of the First Division, to determine which would be in the First Division.
- 1999-2003, the former system of promotion and relegation was used.
- 2004-2008, a new format was adopted, in which the winner and runner-up of the Second Division would play in the Round of 16 of the Copa Perú.
- 2009, the winner of the tournament was promoted to the First Division, while the last team was relegated from the tournament and played in the 2010 edition of the Copa Perú. Their places were taken by the two relegated clubs of the First Division, and the team that finished in third place in the 2009 Copa Perú.
- 2010, the former system, in which the winner was directly promoted to the first division, was used. Two teams left the tournament before its start which reduced the number of teams participating back to ten.
- 2011, Ten teams played a home and way tournament and split the second half into to groups, the top five teams from the previous stage decided the Champion while the bottom five fought against relegation.
- 2012, the former system, in which the winner was directly promoted to the first division, was used.Two teams left the tournament before its start which reduced the number of teams to ten and automatically relegated them to the 2013 edition of the Copa Peru.
- 2013, the leagues was expanded to 16 teams. A rigorous financial stability check was implemented which only 14 teams passed. Two teams were relegated to the 2014 edition of the Copa Peru.
Competition format and sponsorship
As of 2010, the winner of the tournament will be promoted to the First Division, while the last team will be relegated from the tournament and will play in the 2011 edition of the Copa Perú. Their places will be taken by the two relegated clubs of the First Division, and the team that finishes second place in the 2010 Copa Perú.
The Peruvian Segunda División is sponsored by Movistar TV, hence the name Torneo de Ascenso. They have had exclusive broadcasting rights.
The Segunda División has received numerous criticisms, chiefly due to the lack of stability in the process of competition and promotion, and the lack of professionalism. Most critics accuse the football federation president, Manuel Burga, as the cause of the problems and an unpopular figure recently in Peruvian football.
The Segunda División has several times changed the number of teams that operate in the league. Over the course of 74 years, the Segunda has had as few as four teams and as many as 16. The early Segunda División were played with an average number of teams ranging from 4 to 10. Prior to the current 12-club Segunda División, during the 2000s, the team count continued to fluctuate between 10, 12, 14, 16 and even a surprising 13. For example, 12 teams competed in 2009, 10 competed in 2008, 11 competed in 2007, and 12 teams competed from 2004-2006. In 2001 and 2002, the Segunda División played with a record 16 teams.
Several stadiums used in the second division have artificial grass installed for the so-called massification of sport. Most stadiums in Peru are owned by the IPD (Instituto Peruano del Deporte), which is the state group responsible for supporting the use of artificial turf. This has been severely criticized by top division teams and the media. At first, these artificial turfs were installed for the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Cup; however, more artificial turf was installed in other stadiums after the U-17 World Cup concluded. These turfs are criticized for having a negative influence on the game and for the injuries which they cause to players.
Currently, 14 clubs participate in the Segunda División, a change since the 2012 season because two teams withdrew before the start of the season. Five of the clubs are from Lima, and the remaining clubs make up the five teams from the country's interior. Prior to the current 10-club Segunda División, 12 teams competed in 2009, 10 competed in 2008, 11 competed in 2007 and 12 teams competed 2004-2006. In 2001 and 2002, the Segunda División played with a record 16 teams. In 2011, 12 teams will compete: 8 of last championship, the two relegated teams of Descentralizado and the second and third place of Copa Perú 2010.
Ciclista Lima and Unión Huaral, currently in the Copa Perú promotion tournament, have four titles won over the other clubs in Peru. Guardia Republicana, Mariscal Sucre, Unión Callao, Telmo Carbajo and Carlos Concha trail behind with 3 titles. Universidad César Vallejo, Total Clean, Cobresol, and José Gálvez are the only clubs outside the metropolitan area of Lima to have won a Segunda Division championship. In addition, Alianza Lima, Atlético Chalaco, Centro Iqueño, Defensor Lima, Deportivo Municipal, Mariscal Sucre, San Agustín, Sport Boys, and Unión Huaral are the only teams that have been champions of First and Second Division.
Deportivo Coopsol (Deportivo Aviación) is the club with the longest spell in the Segunda División, playing since 1999 when they debuted in the Segunda División.
Since the Second Division began at the national level in 2006, only 18 of the 25 regions have had representative teams in the Second Division. These are Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Huánuco, Ica, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Moquegua, Piura, Puno, and Ucayali.
|Alfonso Ugarte||Puno||Enrique Torres Belón||20,000|
|Alianza Universidad||Huánuco||Heraclio Tapia||15,000|
|Alipio Ponce||Mazamari||Municipal de Mazamari||5,000|
|Atlético Minero||Matucana||Municipal de Matucana||5,000|
|Carlos A. Mannucci||Trujillo||Mansiche||25,000|
|Defensor San Alejandro||Aguaytía||Aliardo Soria Pérez||15,000|
|Deportivo Municipal||Lima||Municipal de Chorrillos||10,000|
|Deportivo Coopsol||Chancay||Rómulo Shaw Cisneros||13,000|
|José Gálvez||Chimbote||Manuel Rivera Sánchez||25,000|
|Sport Boys||Callao||Miguel Grau||15,000|
|Sport Victoria||Ica||José Picasso Peratta||8,000|
|Unión Huaral||Huaral||Julio Lores Colan||10,000|
|Walter Ormeño||Cañete||Oscar Ramos Cabieses||8,000|
|Willy Serrato||Chiclayo||Elías Aguirre||24,500|
Amateur era (1936–1987)
Peruvian Segunda División had amateur status since its foundation until 1987. In the course of this era, Telmo Carbajo, Ciclista Lima, Unión Callao, Carlos Concha and Mariscal Sucre shared the most titles. The first run from 1936 to 1987 featured clubs only from Lima and Callao.
Profesional era (1988–present)
In 1988 the league obtained professional status and in 2006 expanded the league to the entire nation, beginning the Segunda Divisón Nacional.
Titles by club
Titles by region
|Region||Nº of titles||Clubs|
|Lima||45||Ciclista Lima (4), Unión Huaral (4), Guardia Republicana (3), Mariscal Sucre (3), Unión Gonzales Prada (3), Alcides Vigo (2), Defensor Lima (2), Deportivo Municipal (2), Olímpico Aurora (2), Porvenir Miraflores (2), Alianza Lima (1), América Cochahuayco (1), AELU (1), Association Chorrillos (1), Centro Iqueño (1), Compañía Peruana de Teléfonos (1), Defensor Arica (1), Deportivo Aviación (1), Enrique Lau Chun (1), Juventud La Palma (1), Lawn Tennis (1), Mariscal Castilla (1), Pacífico (1), San Agustín (1), Santiago Barranco (1), Sport Coopsol (1), Internazionale (1), Unión América (1)|
|Callao||21||Carlos Concha (3), Telmo Carbajo (3), Unión Callao (3), Hijos de Yurimaguas (2), Jorge Chávez (C) (2), KDT Nacional (2), SIMA (2), Sport Boys (2), Atlético Chalaco (1), Atlético Deportivo Olímpico (1)|
|Ancash||1||José Gálvez (1)|
|Arequipa||1||Total Clean (1)|
|La Libertad||1||Universidad César Vallejo (1)|
|Lambayeque||1||Los Caimanes (1)|
- Becker, Wolfy (6 March 2007). "The dreadful situation of Peruvian football". Wolfy Becker. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Woodman: "No habrá cambio de césped en el Elías Aguirre"" [There will not be changes to the field in the Elías Aguirre] (in Spanish). Peru.com. Retrieved 26 April 2010. "Agregó que de ninguna manera se cambiara el césped sintético a los demás estadios del país que tienen este tipo de gramado. 'Nosotros estamos para masificar el deporte y el pasto sintético es un tema apoyado por la FIFA.... Además sí se puede jugar al fútbol, como se juega en todos lados' subrayó Woodman."
- "Three Companies re-sign agreement". FIFA. Retrieved 26 May 2010. "Polytan Sportstättenbau GmbH, the German-based company, won the tender for installing 4 fields in Peru, all of which were used for the FIFA U-17 World Championship Peru 2005. This was the first time a FIFA Final tournament was played entirely on artificial turf."
- Most stadiums are owned by the Instituto Peruano del Deporte (IPD).
- "Peru". fussballtempel.net. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- FPF Official Federation Website