Peruvian general election, 2016
|Ballotage results by region.|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
General elections took place in Peru on 10 April 2016 to determine the president, vice-presidents, composition of the Congress of the Republic of Peru and the Peruvian representatives of the Andean Parliament.
In Congress, Popular Force won in a landslide, taking more than a third of the vote and an absolute majority of 73 out of 130 seats. Behind them in opposition, Peruvians for Change with 18 seats and Broad Front with 20 seats.
In the race for the presidency, incumbent President Ollanta Humala was ineligible to run due to constitutional term limits. Popular Force candidate Keiko Fujimori, daughter of former President Alberto Fujimori, won the first round with almost 40 per cent of the vote but fell short of the 50 per cent majority required to avoid a second round. Peruvians for Change candidate Pedro Pablo Kuczynski narrowly beat Broad Front candidate Verónika Mendoza to compete in the second round, which took place on 5 June 2016. With support from those opposing Fujimori, Kuczynski overturned the first round result and won by a narrow margin of less than half a percentage point. He was sworn in as President on 28 July.
The President of Peru is elected using the two-round system. The first round was held on 10 April and the second on 5 June. The 130 members of the Congress of the Republic are elected in 25 multi-member constituencies using closed list proportional representation.
On 13 November 2015, incumbent President Ollanta Humala called for a general election to be held on 10 April 2016. He said that he would respect the constitutional term limit restrictions and would not seek to run again for the presidency in this election.
President Ollanta Humala officially inaugurated the campaign in November 2015. The presidential tickets were to be inscribed by late January 10, 2016. The congressional candidacies were to be inscribed by late February 10, 2016.
In March 2016, presidential candidates Julio Guzmán from All for Peru and César Acuña Peralta from Alliance for Progress were barred from the election. The first candidate was barred due to the violation of party rules in the internal election. The second candidate was barred for giving money during a campaign trail, which is a violation of the electoral law enacted by Congress in November 2015.
Keiko Fujimori was a highly polarizing figure during the election. She is the daughter of the controversial former president Alberto Fujimori, who was sentenced to prison. She is popular among the poor people, and the loyalists who credit Fujimori with the defeat of Shining Path. This popularity allowed her to win in the first round of the presidential elections. She is resisted by the people who reject Fujimori for human rights abuses and corrupt practices, and fear that her victory would mark a return of Fujimorismo. Mendoza, who placed third and could not stand in the runoff election, gave her full support to Kuczynski, in order to prevent the victory of Keiko.
Main presidential candidates
|Candidates included in this section have received more than 5% in approval ratings in recent national polls.|
|Alfredo Barnechea||Keiko Fujimori||Alan García||Pedro Pablo Kuczynski||Verónika Mendoza|
|Member of Congress
|Member of Congress
|President of Peru
(1985–1990 / 2006–2011)
|Prime Minister of Peru
|Member of Congress
|Popular Action||Popular Force||Popular Alliance (APRA-PPC)||Peruvians for Change||Broad Front|
|4th Place (6.97%)||To run off, 39.85%||5th Place (5.82%)||To run off, 21.00%||3rd Place (18.82%)|
- Alfredo Barnechea, candidate of the Popular Action party, Master in Public Administration from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. A journalist in the 1980s, he was elected Member of Congress for the Peruvian Aprista Party representing Lima. Following President Alan García's announcement of his intent to nationalize the banks, Barnechea resigned from APRA and was independent until his affiliation to Fernando Belaúnde's Popular Action. His running mates are Member of Congress Víctor Andrés García Belaúnde and former Member of Congress Edmundo del Águila.
- Keiko Fujimori, candidate of the Popular Force party. She is the daughter of former President Alberto Fujimori who is in jail for crimes against humanity. Most recently, accusations have surfaced of connections between drug trafficking and Congressman Joaquín Ramírez, Secretary General of Fuerza Popular, the political party under which Keiko Fujimori is running for president. On Sunday May 15, 2016, Peruvian news program Cuarto Poder broadcast a report conducted with Univisión that revealed Ramírez is being investigated by the DEA. The Congressman is being investigated for money laundering, a crime for which he is also under investigation in Peru. She served in Congress from 2006 to 2011, and made it to the run-off with Ollanta Humala in the 2011 election, losing by a small margin. Her running mates are former Minister of Agriculture José Chlimper, and former leader of Social Force, Vladimiro Huaroc.
- Alan García, candidate of the APRA-PPC coalition known as Popular Alliance. He was President of Peru from 1985 to 1990 and then from 2006 to 2011. He placed second in the 2001 presidential election, losing in the runoff against Alejandro Toledo. He ran for a third time in the 2006 general election, making it to the run-off where he defeated Union for Peru candidate Ollanta Humala (who is the incumbent President in 2016). His running mates are leader of the Christian People's Party Lourdes Flores, and former Governor of the Apurímac Region David Salazar.
- Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, candidate of the Peruvians for Change party. He previously served in Alejandro Toledo's administration as Prime Minister (2005–2006) and Minister of Economy and Finance (2001–2002). He also served as Minister of Energy and Mines (1980–1982) in the second administration of Fernando Belaúnde. His running mates are former Governor of the Moquegua Region Martín Vizcarra, and former Minister of Economy and Finance Mercedes Aráoz.
- Verónika Mendoza, the candidate of the Broad Front coalition. She has served in Congress since 2011. Her running mates are former bishop Marco Arana, and the Dean of the School of Social Sciences of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru Alan Fairlie.
The following have gained less than 5% in the last approval ratings, below the Election threshold or valla electoral.
- Alejandro Toledo, former President of Peru (2001–2006) – Possible Peru
- Gregorio Santos, Governor of Cajamarca Region (2011–present) – Direct Democracy, with 4% of the popular votes.
- Antero Flores Aráoz, former Minister of Defense (2007–2009) – Order Party
- Miguel Hilario – Progressing Peru
- Fernando Olivera, former Minister of Justice (2001–2002) – Hope Front
- Julio Guzmán, Secretary General of the Office of the Prime Minister of Peru (2012–2013) – All for Peru, disqualified for irregularities in the nomination process
- César Acuña Peralta, Governor of the La Libertad Region (2015) – Alliance for Progress (APP-RN-SP), disqualified for attempted vote buying
- Felipe Castillo, former District Mayor of Los Olivos (1996–2014) – Always Together
- Renzo Reggiardo, Member of Congress (2006–2016) – Peru Secure Nation
- Daniel Urresti, former Minister of the Interior (2014–2015) – Peruvian Nationalist Party
- Vladimir Cerrón, former Governor of the Junín Region (2011–2014) – Liberating Peru
- Yehude Simon, former Prime Minister of Peru (2008–2009) – Peruvian Humanist Party
- Francisco Diez Canseco, former Member of Congress (1985–1990) – Peru Nation
- Hernando Guerra García, former candidate for Congress, National Solidarity Party
The first round was held on 10 April. Exit polls indicated that Keiko Fujimori placed first in the first round of voting with approximately 40% of the vote, with Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and Veronika Mendoza each receiving approximately 20%.
The second round was held on 5 June. Exit polls indicated that Pedro Pablo Kuczynski held a slight lead over Keiko Fujimori. As counting continued, the gap narrowed significantly. Preliminary results gave Kuczynski a 0.25 per cent advantage over Fujimori, with less than 50,000 votes between them. Approximately 50,000 votes were challenged during the count. Fujimori conceded the election to Kuczynski on 10 June.
|Party||Candidate||First round||Second round|
|Peruvians for Change
Peruanos Por el Kambio
|Pedro Pablo Kuczynski||3,228,661||21.05||8,596,937||50.12|
Partido Político Orden
|Antero Flores Aráoz||65,673||0.43|
|Totals and voter turnout||18,734,130||81.80||18,335,385||80.06|
Popular Force won in a landslide, taking more than a third of the vote and an absolute majority of 73 out of 130 seats. Behind them in opposition, Peruvians for Change with 18 seats and Broad Front with 20 seats. Other parties which gained representation in Congress include Alliance for the Progress of Peru (9 seats), Popular Alliance (5 seats) and Popular Action (5 seats).
|Peruvians for Change||2,007,710||16.47%||18|
|Broad Front for Justice, Life, and Liberty||1,700,052||13.94%||20|
|Alliance for the Progress of Peru||1,125,682||9.23%||9|
- Excluded from campaign
- Apurímac, Arequipa, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Huancavelica, Lima, Loreto, Pasco, Puno, Moquegua, Tacna, Voters abroad electoral district
- Amazonas, Ancash, Ayacucho, Callao Region, Ica, Junín, Huánuco, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima Region, Madre de Dios, Piura, Tumbes, San Martín, Ucayali
- Elecciones Generales 2016 Segunda Elección Presidencial. resultadoselecciones2016.onpe.gob.pe. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- Electoral system IPU
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- "Peru presidential candidates Guzman and Acuna banned from election". BBC. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
- Dan Collyns (June 7, 2016). "Kuczynski ahead in Peru election, but will he be able to govern?". The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Redacción. "Encuesta Datum: Keiko, PPK, Barnechea y Mendoza lideran intención de voto". rpp.pe. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- "Partido Nacionalista retira candidatura de Daniel Urresti". El Comercio (in Spanish). 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
- "Vladimir Cerrón abandonó las Elecciones Generales del 2016". El Comercio (in Spanish). 24 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Yehude Simon anuncia retiro de su candidatura presidencial". La República (in Spanish). 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "Francisco Diez-Canseco renunció a su candidatura presidencial". El Comercio (in Spanish). 29 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Solidaridad Nacional retira candidatura de Nano Guerra García". El Comercio (in Spanish). 29 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Peru election: Keiko Fujimori wins first round, say exit polls – BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- "Peru election: Kuczynski wins, but Fujimori has yet to concede". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Peru elections: Keiko Fujimori concedes to Kuczynski". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "ONPE – ELECCIONES GENERALES 2016: RESULTADOS PRESIDENCIALES". Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- "ONPE – SEGUNDA ELECCIÓN PRESIDENCIAL 2016: RESULTADOS PRESIDENCIALES". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "ELECTION FOR CONGRESO DE LA REPÚBLICA 2016". Retrieved 1 June 2016.