Pescetarianism (//; also spelled pescatarianism) is the practice of following a diet that includes fish and other seafood, but not the flesh of other animals. Those on pescetarian or pollotarian diets may define "meat" only as mammalian flesh and may identify as vegetarians. Most pescetarians are lacto-ovo vegetarians with the addition of fish and shellfish, described as "fish but no other meat". The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these foods are not vegetarian.
"Pescetarian" is a neologism formed as a portmanteau of the Italian word pesce ("fish") and the English word "vegetarian". The English pronunciation of both "pescetarian" and its variant pescatarian is //, with the same // sound present in pescato (Italian: [peˈskaːto], derived from piscatus, the perfect passive participle of the Latin verb piscor (meaning "to fish"), though not in the word pesce (Italian: [ˈpeʃʃe]). Pesce in turn derives from the Latin piscis, which has the form pisci- when it serves as a prefix, as it often does in scholarly terms (e.g. "pisciculture", "piscivore"). A piscivore, a type of carnivore, subsists on a diet primarily of fish, whereas a pescetarian eats plant derivatives as well as fish. The Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the origin of the term "pescetarian" to 1991 and defines it as "one whose diet includes fish but no other meat".
Some pescetarians adopt their diet because of the inefficiency of other meat sources. For example, most cows, chickens, and pigs in the United States are not free-range and are fed with grains specifically grown for their food.[better source needed] Therefore, the environmental impact and the amount of energy needed to feed these animals greatly exceeds its nutritional value.[better source needed] Such pescetarians might prefer to eat wild-caught fish, as opposed to farmed carnivorous fish that require food input of other fish. They might use guides such as the Seafood Watch to determine the sustainability of their seafood source.[better source needed] Other pescetarians might regard their diet as a transition to vegetarianism, an ethical compromise (ethical pescetarianism), or a practical necessity to obtain nutrients absent or not easily found in plants.
Furthermore, pescetarianism may be perceived as more ethical because fish, along with certain other animals such as insects, may not associate pain and fear as more complex animals like mammals do. Researchers have found that, unlike mammals, fish do not have the neuro-physiological capacity for a conscious awareness of pain. Fish do not possess a neocortex, which is the first indicator of doubt regarding whether they have pain-awareness. That is, certain nerve fibres in mammals (known as c-nociceptors) involved in the sensation of intense experiences of pain are not present in primitive cartilaginous fish. Some cartilagenous fish, such as sharks and rays do contain traces, yet there is an incomplete development of these fibres. To further test this, researchers administered powerful painkillers (such as morphine, which are highly effective in humans and mammals) to fish. They were found to be either totally ineffective or were only partially effective in doses so high that they would result in death from overdose. In this respect, although fish do show instinctive reactions to injuries and other interventions, the physiological prerequisites for the conscious experience of pain is not present. This, in combination with the pharmacological data, has supported the notion that fish do not feel pain in human, mammalian or biological terms. However, this theory is disputed.
One commonly cited reason for the adoption of pescetarianism is health, based on the proven findings that red meat is detrimental to health in many cases due to non-lean red meats containing high amounts of saturated fats, choline, and carnitine. Eating certain kinds of fish raises HDL levels, and some fish are a convenient source of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as possessing numerous health benefits in one food variety. A 1999 meta-analysis of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in Western countries found that, when compared to regular meat-eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat-eaters, 26% lower in vegans, and 34% lower in pescetarians and ovo-lacto vegetarians. In 2013, an Adventist Health study found that pescetarians have a lower mortality rate than any other vegetarian diets. Concerns have been raised about consuming some fish varieties containing toxins such as mercury and PCBs, though it is possible to select fish that contain little or no mercury and moderate the consumption of mercury-containing fish.
Abstinence in religion
Pescetarianism (provided the fish is ruled kosher) conforms to Jewish dietary laws, as kosher fish is "pareve"—neither "milk" nor "meat". In some Sephardic Jewish homes, fish is never served alongside milk products. All non-fish seafood is non-kosher. Mammalian "fish" such as dolphins and whales, as well as other types of fish such as sharks and rays, are not kosher because they have dermal denticles and not bony-fish scales. The definition of a fish in Judaism is broader (sea-life) than the common usage of the term "fish" (non-mammals). In 2015, a member of the Liberal Judaism synagogue in Manchester founded The Pescetarian Society.
By tradition, most Hindu Brahmin communities follow a strict lacto-vegetarian diet. However, there are a number of Brahmin sub-groups that allow the consumption of fish. These include the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community from coastal south-western India. This community regards seafood in general as vegetables from the sea, and refrain from eating any land-based animals. Other Hindu communities who consume seafood in great quantity are the Maithili Brahmin and the Bengali Brahmin. The latter also eat meat on special occasions. Among the northeast Indian Hindus of Assam, Manipur, and Tripura, it is common for pescetarians to include poultry in their diets.
Eating of fish is permitted in Islam without need for the usual slaughter procedure required for meat.
Comparisons to other diets
Pescetarianism is similar to many traditional diets emphasizing fish as well as fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, legumes, bread, etc. Many coastal populations tend to eat this way. In common with some vegetarians, pescetarians often consume eggs, dairy, and packaged foods in addition to fruits, vegetables, and grains. Pescetarians are sometimes described as vegetarian or pesco-vegetarian, but vegetarians commonly do not consider the pescetarian diet to be vegetarian. The Vegetarian Society, whose members historically did not object to the consumption of eggs, milk, or fish, now does not consider pescetarianism to be a vegetarian diet. Despite this, definitions of "vegetarian" in mainstream dictionaries sometimes include fish in the diet. The Pescetarian Society evolved separately from The Vegetarian Society to better represent the lifestyle and interests of pescetarians.
List of notable pescetarians
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- Pedro Aznar
- Brigitte Bardot
- Rowan Blanchard
- Liona Boyd
- Kari Byron
- Montserrat Caballé
- Tracy Chapman
- Parvesh Cheena
- Misty Copeland
- Jeremy Corbyn
- Billy Corgan
- Fearne Cotton
- Chuck D
- Ted Danson
- Alan Davies
- Sierra Deaton
- Ellen DeGeneres
- Lizzie Deignan
- Nate Diaz
- Nick Diaz
- Novak Djokovic
- David Duchovny
- Susie Essman
- Claire L. Evans
- Jon Fitch
- Martin Freeman
- Robert Fripp
- Johnny Galecki
- Ben Gibbard
- Dave Gorman
- Vanessa Hudgens
- Lee Hyori
- Billy Idol
- Samantha James
- Steve Jobs
- Alejandro Jodorowsky
- Daniel Johns
- Mark Kermode
- Daniel Kessler
- Anthony Kiedis
- Alex Kinsey
- Felix Kjellberg (PewDiePie)
- Karlie Kloss
- Kristin Kreuk
- Don LePan
- Harvey Levin
- Caroline Lucas
- Wendie Malick
- Melanie Lynskey
- Eva Mendes
- Alyssa Milano
- Dannii Minogue
- Mary Tyler Moore
- Cam Newton
- Conor Oberst
- Amanda Palmer
- Fiann Paul
- Grigori Rasputin
- Alice Roberts
- Lluvia Rojo
- Olesya Rulin
- Brytni Sarpy
- Tom Scharpling
- Andy Serkis
- Queen Sofía of Spain
- Hal Sparks
- Howard Stern
- Ben Stiller
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- Serj Tankian
- Lousewies van der Laan
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- Wendy van Dijk
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He will cheat slightly, he says, because he plans to eat small amounts of salmon two days per week to increase iron absorption
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