|Studio album by The Beach Boys|
|Released||May 16, 1966|
|Recorded||July 12, 1965– April 13, 1966|
|Studio||United Western Recorders, Gold Star Studios, CBS Columbia Square, and Sunset Sound Recorders, Hollywood|
|The Beach Boys chronology|
|Singles from Pet Sounds|
Pet Sounds is the eleventh studio album by the American rock band the Beach Boys. Released on May 16, 1966, it initially met a lukewarm critical and commercial reception in the United States, but received immediate success abroad, where British publications declared it "the most progressive pop album ever". It charted at number two in the UK but number ten in the US, a significantly lower placement than the band's preceding albums. In later years, the album garnered enormous worldwide acclaim by critics and musicians alike, and is regarded as one of the most influential pieces in the history of popular music.
The album was produced and arranged by Brian Wilson, who also wrote and composed almost all of its music, with an unprecedented budget exceeding $70,000 (today over $510,000). Sessions were conducted several months after he had quit touring with the Beach Boys in order to focus his attention on writing and recording. Collaborating with lyricist Tony Asher, Wilson's symphonic arrangements wove elaborate layers of vocal harmonies, coupled with sound effects and unconventional instruments such as bicycle bells, buzzing organs, harpsichords, flutes, Electro-Theremin, dog whistles, trains, Hawaiian-sounding string instruments, Coca-Cola cans and barking dogs, along with the more usual keyboards and guitars. Together, they comprised Wilson's "pet sounds", incorporating elements of jazz, exotica, classical, and the avant-garde. It was led by the singles "Wouldn't It Be Nice" (b/w "God Only Knows") and "Sloop John B", while Wilson made his solo debut with "Caroline, No", issued a few months earlier. Due to its highly personal, artistic nature, Pet Sounds is sometimes considered a Brian Wilson solo album in all but name.
A heralding work in the emerging psychedelic rock style, Pet Sounds signaled an aesthetic trend within rock by transforming it from dance music into music that was made for listening to, elevating itself to the level of art rock. It was one of the first rock concept albums, and has been suggested to follow a lyrical song cycle format, although Wilson has maintained that the album's real unified theme lies within its cohesive production style. Writer Bill Martin said that within Pet Sounds, "[The Beach Boys] brought expansions in harmony, instrumentation (and therefore timbre), duration, rhythm, and the use of recording technology. Of these elements, the first and last were the most important in clearing a pathway toward the development of progressive rock." Beyond pop and rock, Pet Sounds expanded the field of music production.
In 1993, it was named the greatest album of all time by NME magazine and The Times, and in 1995 by Mojo magazine. In 2003, Rolling Stone ranked it second on its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2004, Pet Sounds was preserved in the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." In 1997, The Pet Sounds Sessions was released containing instrumental tracks, vocals-only tracks, alternate mixes, outtakes, and edited recording session highlights, as well as the album's first true stereo mix.
- 1 Background
- 2 Music and style
- 3 Concept and title
- 4 Recording and production
- 5 Promotional films
- 6 Commercial performance
- 7 Critical reception
- 8 Legacy and influence
- 9 Live performances
- 10 Release history
- 11 Track listing
- 12 Personnel
- 13 Charts
- 14 Accolades
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 Bibliography
The July 1964 release of the Beach Boys' sixth studio album All Summer Long marked an end to the group's beach-themed period. From there on, their recorded material would take a significantly different stylistic and lyrical path. While on a December 23 flight from Los Angeles to Houston, the band's songwriter and producer, Brian Wilson, suffered a panic attack only hours after performing with the group on the musical variety series Shindig!  Though the 22-year-old Wilson had already skipped several concert tours by then, the airplane episode proved devastating to his psyche. In order to focus his efforts on writing and recording, Wilson indefinitely resigned from live performances. Freed from the burden, he immediately showcased great artistic leaps in his musical development evident within Today! and Summer Days (And Summer Nights!!), released in the spring and summer of 1965. With the July 1965 single "California Girls," Wilson began experimenting with song composition while under the influence of psychedelic drugs, a factor that yielded a great effect on the group's musical conceptions.[nb 1]
The folk rocker "Sloop John B" predated the rest of Pet Sounds by several months. It was a traditional Caribbean folk song that had been suggested to Wilson by bandmate Al Jardine.[nb 2] Wilson recorded a backing track on July 12, 1965, but after laying down a rough lead vocal, he set the song aside for some time, concentrating on the recording of what became their next LP, the informal studio jam Beach Boys' Party!, in response to their record company's request for a Beach Boys album for the Christmas 1965 market. Wilson devoted the last three months of 1965 to polishing the vocals of "Sloop John B" and recording six new original compositions.[nb 3] What would become Pet Sounds could not be finished in time for Christmas 1965.
Halfway through the Pet Sounds sessions, Wilson became enamored with the Beatles' latest album Rubber Soul (the U.S. version that was configured by Capitol Records to have a cohesive folk rock sound). Wilson found Rubber Soul to lack filler tracks, which was mostly unheard of at a time when 45 rpm singles were considered more noteworthy than full-length LPs. Many albums up until the late-1960s lacked a cohesive artistic goal and were largely used to sell singles at a higher price point. Wilson's previous habits, evident in Today! and Summer Days, were to sacrifice portions of the album with lesser, superficial material. Wilson found that Rubber Soul subverted this by having a wholly consistent thread of music. Inspired, he rushed to his wife and proclaimed, "Marilyn, I'm gonna make the greatest album! The greatest rock album ever made!"[nb 5]
In late 1965, Wilson met Tony Asher working at a recording studio in Los Angeles. Asher was at the time a young lyricist and copywriter who had been working on advertising jingles. The two exchanged ideas for songs. Soon after, Wilson heard of Asher's writing abilities from mutual friends, proceeded to contact him about a possible lyric collaboration, and within ten days, they were writing together. Wilson played him some of the music he had been recording and gave him a cassette of the backing track for a piece with the working title "In My Childhood." Although it had lyrics, Wilson refused to show them to Asher. The result of Asher's tryout was eventually retitled "You Still Believe in Me," and the success of the piece convinced Wilson that Asher was the wordsmith he had been looking for.
Pet Sounds is sometimes considered a Brian Wilson solo album in all but name. According to various reports, the group fought over the radical direction he had presented with Pet Sounds. When the other Beach Boys returned from a three-week tour of Japan and Hawaii, they were presented with a substantial portion of a new album, with music that was in many ways a jarring departure from their earlier style. Both Asher and Wilson have said that there was resistance to the project from within the group, but on this occasion, Wilson's conviction convinced the other members. Marilyn noted: "When Brian was writing Pet Sounds, it was difficult for the guys to understand what he was going through emotionally and what he wanted to create. His need. His self-need. It was difficult because they didn't feel what he was going through and what direction he was trying to go in." One of the issues was the album's complexity and how the touring Beach Boys would be able to perform its music live.
In later years rumors of group infighting were denied by Dennis Wilson  but were corroborated by Mike Love, who admitted an active refusal to sing certain lines, while Carl Wilson said: "I loved every minute of it. He [Brian] could do no wrong. He could play me anything, and I would love it." Authors Andrew Doe and John Tobler wrote that Dennis and Johnston loved the album, but that Jardine admitted, "It sure doesn't sound like the old stuff." In 2009, Jardine explained: "Mike was very confused by it. I wasn't exactly thrilled with the change, but I grew to really appreciate it as soon as we started to work on it. It wasn't like anything we'd heard before." Brian said: "I think they [the Beach Boys] thought it was for Brian Wilson only. They knew that Brian Wilson was gonna be a separate entity, something that was a force of his own, and it was generally considered that the Beach Boys were the main thing. So with Pet Sounds, there was a resistance in that I was doing most of the artistic work on it vocally, and for that reason there was a little bit of intergroup struggle. It was resolved in the fact that they figured that it was a showcase for Brian Wilson, but it's still the Beach Boys. In other words, they gave in. They let me have my little stint."
Music and style
With its Wall of Sound production, "Wouldn't It Be Nice" introduces the album with a sound described by Nick Kent as "limpid harps imitating a teenage heartstrings in a tug of love" with it followed by "growling horns … [and] harmonies so complex they seemed to have more in common with a Catholic Mass than any cocktail lounge acappella doo-wop."
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
According to music journalist Jim DeRogatis, Pet Sounds is a psychedelic rock album, while Goldmine and the Journal Sentinel called its music psychedelic pop, and writer Vernon Joyson observed flirtations with acid rock. The Associated Press said that the album is a baroque pop work, while author Domenic Priore referred to it simply as symphonic rock. Professor Kelly Fisher Lowe referred to Pet Sounds as an "experimental rock record." The New York Observer wrote that the album sculpted "Americana-rooted progressive folk rock". According to biographer Jon Stebbins, "Brian defies any notion of genre safety". The album's innovative soundscape incorporates elements of pop, jazz, classical, exotica, and avant-garde music, as Stebbins adds, "There isn't much rocking here, and even less rolling. Pet Sounds is at times futuristic, progressive, and experimental. ... there's no boogie, no woogie, and the only blues are in the themes and in Brian's voice." Brian himself thought of the album as "chapel rock ... commercial choir music. I wanted to make an album that would stand up in ten years."
The instrumentation is stylistically appropriated from a wide variety of cultures, with some relating it to exotica and associated producers Martin Denny, Les Baxter, and Esquivel. In Pet Sounds, Wilson conceived of experimental arrangements which combine conventional rock set-ups with various exotic instruments, producing new sounds with a rich texture reminiscent of symphonic works layered underneath meticulous vocal harmonics. Exemplifying the album's instrumentation are various stringed instruments, theremin, flutes, harpsichord, bicycle bells, beverage bottles, and the barking of Brian's dogs.
As author James Perone writes, Wilson's compositions include tempo changes, metrical ambiguity, and unusual tone colors that, culturally speaking, remove the music from "just about anything else that was going on in 1966 pop music." He specifically touches upon the album's closer "Caroline, No" and its use of wide tessitura changes, wide melodic intervals, and instrumentation which contribute to his belief; also Brian's compositions and orchestral arrangements which experiment with form and tone colors. Referring to the opening track "Wouldn't It Be Nice", Perone recalls that the track sounds "significantly less like a rock band supplemented with auxiliary instrumentation ... than a rock band integrated into an eclectic mix of studio instrumentation." On the second track "You Still Believe in Me", "One of the high points of the composition and Brian's vocal performance," he writes, "is the snaky, though generally descending melodic line on the line 'I want to cry,' his response to the realization that his girlfriend still believes in him despite his past failures." He describes the "stepwise falloff of the interval of a third at the end of each verse" to be a typically "Wilsonian" feature. The feature recurs alongside a "madrigal sigh motif" in "That's Not Me", where the motif concludes each line of the verses. This sighing motif then appears in the next track, "Don't Talk (Put Your Head on My Shoulder)", a piece inspired by classical music, and once again in "Caroline, No".
The album included two sophisticated instrumental tracks composed solely by Brian. One of them: the wistful "Let's Go Away for Awhile", with a working parenthetical title of "And Then We'll Have World Peace"; the other: the title track, "Pet Sounds". The provisional subtitle of "Let's Go Away for Awhile" was a catchphrase from one of Brian's favorite comedy recordings, John Brent and Del Close's How To Speak Hip (1959). Both titles had been recorded as backing tracks for existing songs, but by the time the album neared completion Brian had decided that the tracks worked better without vocals. Of "Let's Go Away for Awhile", Perone observes, "There are melodic features but no tune to speak of. As an instrumental composition, this gives the piece an atmospheric feel; however, the exact mood is difficult to define." Of "Pet Sounds", the piece represents the Beach Boys' surf heritage more than any other track on the album with its emphasis on lead guitar, although Perone maintains that it is not really a surf composition, citing its elaborate arrangement involving countless auxiliary percussion parts, abruptly changing textures, and de-emphasis of a traditional rock band drum set.
In addition to busy orchestrations layered underneath close harmony vocals, Pet Sounds contains numerous instrumental breaks directly inspired by the works of classical composers such as J.S. Bach. "Here Today" has been described by AllMusic as one of Brian's most ambitious arrangements, featuring "swooping harmonies [that] duel and soar in and around a Wall of Sound backing track full of blaring saxophones and percolating keyboards" along with "jazzy drumming" that blends the "complexity of an orchestral piece with the immediacy of a good pop tune".
|Problems playing these files? See media help.|
Marshall Heiser expressed for The Journal on the Art of Record Production: "Pet Sounds diverges from previous Beach Boys’ efforts in several ways: its sound field has a greater sense of depth and 'warmth;' the songs employ even more inventive use of harmony and chord voicings; the prominent use of percussion is a key feature (as opposed to driving drum backbeats); whilst the orchestrations, at times, echo the quirkiness of 'exotica' bandleader Les Baxter, or the 'cool' of Burt Bacharach, moreso than [Phil] Spector's teen fanfares."
Musicologist Daniel Harrison has written, however, "In terms of the structure of the songs themselves, there is comparatively little advance from what Brian had already accomplished or shown himself capable of accomplishing. Most of the songs use unusual harmonic progressions and unexpected disruptions of hypermeter, both features that were met in 'Warmth of the Sun' and 'Don't Back Down.'" Journalist Nick Kent felt similarly for lyrics of Pet Sounds, considering "Wouldn't It Be Nice" to be "teen angst dialogue" that Brian had already achieved with "We'll Run Away" the year before. However: "This time Brian Wilson was out to eclipse these previous sonic soap operas, to transform the subject's sappy sentiments with a God-like grace so that the song would become a veritable pocket symphony." Fussili observed that Brian's nuance to "wander far from the logic of his composition only to return triumphantly to confirm the emotional intent of his work" is repeated numerous times in Pet Sounds, but never to "evoke a sense of unbridled joy" as Brian recently had with the November 1965 single "The Little Girl I Once Knew".[page needed] Such occurs within "God Only Knows", which contains an ambivalent key and non-diatonic chords. Critics Richard Goldstein and Nik Cohn both noted incongruity between the music and lyrics, where the latter suggested the album to be composed of sad songs about happiness while also celebrating loneliness and heartache.
According to Brian, his writing process at the time involved going to the piano and finding "feels," which he described as "brief note sequences, fragments of ideas," and that "once they're out of my head and into the open air, I can see them and touch them firmly. They're not 'feels' anymore." Asher maintains that his contribution to the music itself was minimal, serving mainly as a source of second opinion for Brian as he worked out possible melodies and chord progressions, although the two did trade ideas as the songs evolved.[nb 6] On his role as co-lyricist, Asher clarified, "The general tenor of the lyrics was always his … and the actual choice of words was usually mine. I was really just his interpreter." On Brian's creative process, Asher remembers that "one of the things that I really enjoyed, was that first time I'd hear him hunting for a chord change and I'd think 'Man, he's just gone right off the edge because he's not ever gonna get close. He's way out there in some area that's just—he'll never get back. And if he's successful, gets out of there, people are going to say, I've lost my tone center, don't know where the hell I am and stuff. And then, eventually, he'd figure out what it was he wanted to do. A lot of it was just hunting and pecking, the way some of us type."
While most songs were composed with Tony Asher, "I Know There's an Answer" was co-written by another new associate, the Beach Boys' road manager Terry Sachen. Mike Love is co-credited on the album's opening track, "Wouldn't It Be Nice", and on "I Know There's an Answer" but with the exception of his co-credit on "I'm Waiting for the Day", a song which had been written some two years earlier, his songwriting contributions are thought to have been minimal. The exact degree of Love's contribution to "Wouldn't It Be Nice" was never fully determined, but under oath in a court of law, Asher stated it consisted of the tag "Good night my baby/Sleep tight, my baby" and possible minor vocal arrangement.
Mike Love's influence on "I Know There's an Answer" is reputed to have stemmed from his opposition to the song's original title, "Hang On to Your Ego", and his desire that it be partially rewritten and retitled. The original lyrics created a stir within the group. "I was aware that Brian was beginning to experiment with LSD and other psychedelics," explained Love. "The prevailing drug jargon at the time had it that doses of LSD would shatter your ego, as if that were a positive thing... I wasn't interested in taking acid or getting rid of my ego." Jardine recalled that the decision to change the lyrics was ultimately Brian's. "Brian was very concerned. He wanted to know what we thought about it. To be honest, I don't think we even knew what an ego was... Finally Brian decided, 'Forget it. I'm changing the lyrics. There's too much controversy.'"
Brian's response when asked about LSD and "Hang On to Your Ego" was that "Yeah. I had taken a few drugs, and I had gotten into that kind of thing. I guess it just came up naturally."[nb 7] Despite the change from "Hang On to Your Ego" to "I Know There's An Answer", the psychedelic lyrics "they trip through their day and waste all their thoughts at night" were kept in the song. Similarly for "Sloop John B", Brian's lyric change from "this is the worst trip since I've been born" to "this is the worst trip I've ever been on" has been suggested by some to be another subtle nod to acid culture.
Bret Marcus of Goldmine noted that while he believes the album is psychedelic pop, most people hesitate to name the Beach Boys in discussions of psychedelic music. Stebbins writes that the album is "slighty psychedelic – or at least impressionistic." According to academics Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Pet Sounds has a "personal intimacy" that sets it apart from the Beach Boys' contemporaries in psychedelic culture and the San Francisco Sound, but still retains a "trippy feel" that resulted from Brian's experimental use of LSD. They attribute this to Brian's "eclectic mixture of instruments, echo, reverb, and innovative mixing techniques learnt from Phil Spector to create a complex soundscape in which voice and music interweave tightly". Elsewhere within Pet Sounds lyrical content, Brian turned inward and probed his deep-seated self-doubts and emotional longings; Pet Sounds did not address the problems in the world around them, unlike other groups. On the subject of psychedelic records in the 1960s, Sean Lennon stated that "psychedelic music is a term that pretty much refers to these sort of epic, ambitious long-form records ... the reason Pet Sounds is considered a psychedelic journey or whatever is because it's like opening a door and stepping through and entering another world and you're in that other world for a period of time and then you come back."
Concept and title
The concept album form received a resurgence of popularity in the late 1960s among pop artists, when many rock releases including Pet Sounds presented a set of thematically-linked songs. Other rock music artists, such as Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention, the Beatles and The Who subsequently released concept albums. Pet Sounds was a musical portrayal of Brian Wilson's private/public state of mind at the time. Even though Pet Sounds has a somewhat unified theme in its emotional content, Wilson and Asher said repeatedly that it was not necessarily intended to be a narrative. Asher explained that they had "truly spontaneously generated a lot of those songs" from lengthy, intimate discussions centered around their "experiences and feelings about women and the various stages of relationships and so forth". Wilson stated: "If you take the Pet Sounds album as a collection of art pieces, each designed to stand alone, yet which belong together, you'll see what I was aiming at." He considered Pet Sounds to be an "interpretation" of Phil Spector's Wall of Sound method, something Wilson further clarified by saying: "It wasn't really a song concept album, or lyrically a concept album; it was really a production concept album." Marilyn believed that her relationship with Brian was a central reference within the album's lyrics; namely on "You Still Believe in Me" and "Caroline, No". "You Still Believe in Me" features the first expression of introspective themes which would pervade the rest of the album.
Keeping the songwriter's intentions in mind, Kent observed: "[The] album documents the male participant's attempts at coming to terms with himself and the world about him. Each song pinpoints a crisis of faith in love and life: confusion ('That's Not Me'), disorientation (the staggeringly beautiful 'I Just Wasn't Made for These Times'), recognition of love's capricious impermanence ('Here Today') and finally, the grand betrayal of innocence featured in 'Caroline, No'. Then again, bearing in mind this conceptual bent, there are certain incongruous factors about the album's construction. The main one is the inclusion of the hit single 'Sloop John B', as well as of two instrumental pieces." James Perone argues, "To the extent that the listener hears 'Let's Go Away for Awhile' as an incomplete piece, it is possible to understand it as a reflection of the alienation – the sense of not quite fitting in – of the bulk of Tony Asher's lyrics in the songs on Pet Sounds." Noting that a sense of self-doubt, concern for the future of a relationship, and melancholy pervades Pet Sounds, Perone claims in reference to "Sloop John B" that the song successfully portrays a sailor who feels "completely out of place in his situation [which] is fully in keeping with the general feeling of disorientation that runs through so many of the songs."
In Perone's interpretation, he also suggests a visceral continuity, writing that the high-pitched electric bass guitar part in "Here Today" bring to mind similar parts in "God Only Knows", culminating in what sounds like the vocal protagonist of "Here Today" warning the protagonist of "God Only Knows" that what he sings stands no chance at longevity. The protagonist's relationship then concludes shortly after "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times", while "Caroline, No" is a rumination in broken love. From another viewpoint, author Scott Schinder has written that Wilson and Asher crafted an "emotion-charge song cycle that surveyed the emotional challenges accompanying the transition from youth to adulthood." In his interpretation,
Lyrically, Pet Sounds encompassed the loss of innocent idealism ("Caroline, No"), the transient nature of love ("Here Today"), faith in the face of heartbreak ("I'm Waiting for the Day"), the demands and disappointments of independence ("That's Not Me"), the feeling of being out of step with the modern world ("I Just Wasn't Made for These Times"), and the longing for a happy, loving future ("Wouldn't It Be Nice"). The album also featured a series of intimate, hymnlike love songs, "You Still Believe in Me", "Don't Talk (Put Your Head on My Shoulder)", and "God Only Knows".
On February 15, the group traveled to the San Diego Zoo to shoot the photographs for the cover, which had already received its title. George Jerman was credited for taking the cover photo.[better source needed] Both the origin and meaning of the album title Pet Sounds are uncertain. Brian has variously claimed that the title was "a tribute" to Spector by matching his initials or that it was named "after the dogs ... That was the whole idea." At another time, he credited the album title to Carl. Carl added with uncertainty that the title may have came from Brian, and said: "The idea he had was that everybody has these sounds that they love, and this was a collection of his 'pet sounds.' It was hard to think of a name for the album, because you sure couldn't call it Shut Down Vol. 3 ... It was just so much more than a record; it had such a spiritual quality. It wasn't going in and doing another top ten. It had so much more meaning than that." Love laid claim to the title: "We were standing in the hallway in one of the recording studios, either Western or Columbia, and we didn't have a title," he recounted. "We had taken pictures at the zoo and…there were animal sounds on the record, and we were thinking, well, it's our favorite music of that time, so I said, 'Why don't we call it Pet Sounds?'" According to historians Andrew Doe and Brad Elliot, the cover photo was taken after the album had already received its title.
Recording and production
Brian had developed his production methods over several years, reaching a peak with Pet Sounds during late 1965 and early 1966. Wilson idolized Phil Spector, and his production techniques were greatly inspired by Spector's famous Wall of Sound productions, but Brian arguably[by whom?] developed a far more complex and refined application of them. Thanks to the freedom offered by the recent development of multitrack tape recorders, both producers adopted the practice of taping their backing tracks first, and adding vocals later, and like Spector, Brian was a pioneer of the studio-as-an-instrument concept, exploiting novel combinations of sounds that sprang from the use of multiple electric instruments and voices in an ensemble and combining them with tape delay and reverberation. He often doubled the bass (typically using an acoustic upright bass and an electric bass), guitars and keyboard parts, blending them with reverberation and adding other unusual instruments.[not in citation given]
While the Beach Boys were occupied with concert touring, and with writing well under way, Brian produced several backing tracks.[nb 8] The backing tracks for Pet Sounds were recorded over a period lasting several months, using major Los Angeles studios and an ensemble that included the highly regarded session musicians later known as the Wrecking Crew. Surviving tapes of his recording sessions show that he was open to his musicians, often taking advice and suggestions from them and even incorporating apparent mistakes if they provided a useful or interesting alternative. Brian said that he "was sort of a square" with the Wrecking Crew, starting his creative process with how each instrument sounded one-by-one, moving from keyboards, drums, then violins if they were not overdubbed. Although the self-taught Wilson often had entire arrangements worked out in his head, they were usually written in a shorthand form for the other players by one of his session musicians.[nb 9] On notation and arranging, Brian clarified: "Sometimes I'd just write out a chord sheet and that would be for piano, organ, or harpsichord or anything. … I wrote out all the horn charts separate from the keyboards. I wrote one basic keyboard chart, violins, horns, and basses, and percussion."
Most of March and early April 1966 was devoted to recording the remaining backing tracks and to the crucial recording of vocals. According to Jardine, each member was taught their individual vocal lines by Brian at a piano. He explains, "Every night we’d come in for a playback. We’d sit around and listen to what we did the night before. Someone might say, well, that’s pretty good but we can do that better … We had somewhat photographic memory as far as the vocal parts were concerned so that never a problem for us." This process proved to be the most exacting work the group had hitherto undertaken. During recording, Mike Love often called Brian "dog ears", a nickname referencing the fact that dogs can detect sounds far beyond the limits of human hearing. Love later summarized:
We worked and worked on the harmonies and, if there was the slightest little hint of a sharp or a flat, it wouldn't go on. We would do it over again until it was right. [Brian] was going for every subtle nuance that you could conceivably think of. Every voice had to be right, every voice and its resonance and tonality had to be right. The timing had to be right. The timbre of the voices just had to be correct, according to how he felt. And then he might, the next day, completely throw that out and we might have to do it over again.
Mixing and engineering
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Although Spector's trademark sound was aurally complex, many of the best-known Wall of Sound recordings were recorded on Ampex 3-track recorders. Spector's backing tracks were recorded live, and usually in a single take. These backing tracks were mixed live, in mono, and taped directly onto one track of the 3-track recorder; instrumental overdubs only rarely added. The lead vocal was then taped, usually (though not always) as an uninterrupted live performance, recorded direct to the second track of the recorder. The master was completed with the addition of backing vocals on the third track before the three tracks were mixed down to create the mono master tape.
By comparison, Brian produced tracks that were of greater technical complexity by using state-of-the-art 4-track and 8-track recorders. Most backing tracks were recorded onto a 4-track recorder before being later dubbed down (in mono) onto one track of an 8-track machine.[nb 11] Brian typically divided instruments by three tracks: drums–percussion–keyboard, horns, and bass–additional percussion–guitar. The fourth track usually contained a rough reference mix used during playback at the session,[clarification needed] later to be erased for overdubs such as a string section. After mixing down the 4-track to mono for overdubbing via an 8-track recorder, six of the remaining seven tracks were usually dedicated to each of the Beach Boys' vocals.[nb 12] The last track was usually reserved for additional elements such as extra vocals or instrumentation.[nb 13] Vocals were recorded using two Neumann U-47s, which Dennis, Carl and Jardine would sing on, and a 5-35 used by Brian for his leads. Brian recounted a cupping-the-microphone technique he taught his brother Dennis for recording vocals, elaborating: "Well, he had a lot of trouble singing on mike. He just didn't really know how to stay on mike. He was a very nervous boy. Very nervous person. So I taught him a trick, how to record and he said, 'Hey Brian. That works great. Thank you!' And I said, 'It's okay, Dennis: He was really happy. I showed him—not how to sing, but I showed him a way to get the best out of himself—just 'cup' singing." Love sang most of the album's bass vocals, but necessitated an extra microphone due to his low volume range.
Over the period leading up to Pet Sounds, Brian pioneered and perfected the now-common studio technique known as "looping" – creating master recordings that consisted of heavily edited assemblages of pre-taped segments. Most of the Pet Sounds vocal tracks were recorded piece-by-piece, rather than in a single continuous take. Typically, each small phrase or section of a song was recorded separately - sometimes dozens of times over, until Brian was satisfied that he had the best possible performance - and then each of these segments would be physically spliced together to assemble a composite master vocal track, comprising the best possible performances of each segment of the vocal. Brian also frequently used this editing approach to duplicate certain renditions of song sections, and the choruses of many Beach Boys songs from this period (e.g. "California Girls") are in fact duplicated edits of the same single rendition (which was itself often an edited composite). Additionally, by the time of Pet Sounds, Brian was using up to six of the eight tracks on the multitrack master so that he could record the voice of each member separately, allowing him greater control over the vocal balance in the final mix.
A true stereophonic mix of Pet Sounds was not considered in 1966 largely because of mixing logistics. Notwithstanding the possibility of a true stereo mix, Brian intentionally mixed the final version of his recordings in mono (as did Spector). He did this because he felt that mono mastering provided more sonic control over the final result, irrespective of the vagaries of speaker placement and sound system quality. In that era radio and TV were broadcast in mono and most domestic and automotive radios and record players were monophonic. Another and more personal reason for Brian's preference for mono was his almost total deafness in his right ear.[nb 14]
On October 15, 1965, Brian went to the studio to record an instrumental piece entitled "Three Blind Mice," which bore no musical connection to the nursery rhyme of the same name.[nb 15] By mid-February 1966, Brian was in the studio with his session band laying down the first takes for a new composition, "Good Vibrations." On February 23, Brian gave Capitol a provisional track listing for the new LP, which included both "Sloop John B" and "Good Vibrations." This contradicts the long held misconception that "Sloop John B" was a forced inclusion as the hit single at Capitol's insistence: in late February, the song was weeks away from release.[verification needed] Brian worked through February and into March fine-tuning the backing tracks. To the group's surprise he also dropped "Good Vibrations" from the running order, telling them that he wanted to spend more time on it. Al Jardine remembered: "At the time, we all had assumed that "Good Vibrations" was going to be on the album, but Brian decided to hold it out. It was a judgment call on his part; we felt otherwise but left the ultimate decision up to him." A third instrumental, called "Trombone Dixie," had been fully recorded, but it remained in the vaults until its inclusion on the album's 1990 remastered CD release. According to Brian, "I was just foolin' around one day, fuckin' around with the musicians, and I took that arrangement out of my briefcase and we did it in 20 minutes. It was nothing, there was really nothing in it."
Brian devoted some Pet Sounds sessions to avant-garde indulgences such as an extended a cappella run-through of the children's song "Row, Row, Row Your Boat" that exploited the song's use of rounds via tape delay and overdubbing. At least half an hour of tape reels exist which involve Brian and friends attempting to create a psychedelic comedy album, foreshadowing much of his work on Smile, which was set to have followed Pet Sounds. The only product of these sessions present in Pet Sounds was an excerpt of Brian's dogs barking accompanied by a recording of passing trains, which may have been sampled from the 1963 sound effects LP Mister D's Machine. Brian may also have briefly considered recording other animal sounds for inclusion, as evidenced by a snippet of surviving studio chatter from the "Dog Barking Session" (included on The Pet Sounds Sessions box set). This features Brian asking studio engineer Chuck Britz: "Hey, Chuck, is it possible we can bring a horse in here without ... if we don't screw everything up?", to which a clearly startled Britz responds, "I beg your pardon?", with Brian then pleading, "Honest to God, now, the horse is tame and everything!" About a year later Brian had moved on to burning wood in the studio.
Two music videos were filmed set to "Sloop John B" and "God Only Knows" for the UK's Top of the Pops, both directed by newly employed band publicist Derek Taylor. The first was filmed at Brian's Laurel Way home with Dennis acting as cameraman, the second near Lake Arrowhead. While the second film, containing footage of the group minus Bruce flailing around in grotesque horror masks and playing Old Maid, was intended to be accompanied by excerpts from "Wouldn't It Be Nice," "Here Today," and "God Only Knows," slight edits were made by the BBC to reduce the film's length.
"Caroline, No" was released as a single; it was credited to Brian alone, leading to speculation that he was considering leaving the band. The single reached number 32 in the US. It was followed by "Sloop John B," which was extremely successful, credited to the Beach Boys, and reached number three in the US and number two in Great Britain. "Wouldn't It Be Nice" reached number eight in the US, where it was treated as the A-side. Its flip side, "God Only Knows," was featured as the A-side in Europe, peaking at number two in Britain; as a B-side in the US, it reached number 39.
By mid-April 1966, Pet Sounds was fully assembled. Brian brought a complete acetate to Marilyn, who remembers, "It was so beautiful, one of the most spiritual times of my whole life. We both cried. Right after we listened to it, he said he was scared that nobody was going to like it. That it was too intricate." Released on May 16, the LP debuted on the Billboard charts at 106. Compared to their previous albums in the US, Pet Sounds found dramatically less commercial success, but eventually broke into top 10 record charts. Its initial release in the US disappointed Brian, with sales numbering approximately 500,000 units, a significant drop-off from the chain of million-selling albums which immediately preceded it. Pet Sounds' initial release was not awarded gold certification by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) despite eligibility beginning in mid–1967. Eventually, Pet Sounds was presented with gold and platinum awards in 2000.
Some of the blame has been placed with Capitol Records, which did not promote the album as heavily as previous releases. Carl stated that Capitol did not feel a need to promote the Beach Boys since they were getting so much airplay, and that they had a "set image" for the group which even Pet Sounds could not alter. Others assumed that the label considered the album a risk, appealing more to an older demographic than the younger, female audience the Beach Boys built their commercial standing on. To Brian's dismay, within two months, Capitol assembled the group's first greatest hits compilation, Best of The Beach Boys, which was quickly certified gold by the RIAA. Capitol executive Karl Engemann later speculated: "This is just conjecture on my part because it was so long ago ... because the marketing people didn't believe that Pet Sounds was going to do that well, they were probably looking for some additional volume in that quarter. There's a good possibility that's what happened. Anyway, my real forte was dealing with artists and producers and making them feel comfortable so they could achieve their ends. And sometimes, particularly when the label wanted something that the artist didn't, it wasn't easy.
Its greatest success was in the UK, where it reached number two. Its success was aided by support from the British music industry, who embraced the record; Paul McCartney spoke often about the album's influence on the Beatles. Bruce Johnston stated that while he flew to London in May 1966, a number of musicians and other guests gathered in his hotel suite to listen to repeated playbacks of the album. This included McCartney, John Lennon, and Keith Moon. Moon himself involved Johnston by helping him gain coverage in British television circuits, and connecting him with Lennon and McCartney. Johnston claimed that Pet Sounds got so much publicity, "it forced EMI to put the album out sooner." Although it has been claimed that the Rolling Stones manager Andrew Oldham helped Derek Taylor publicize unsolicited advertisements lauding the album in British music papers, a search of the UK pop press for 1966 fails to uncover any such advertisement.
In Australia, the album was released under the title The Fabulous Beach Boys on the Music for Pleasure label.
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
Early reviews for the album in the US ranged from negative to tentatively positive. Upon release, a review in Billboard called it an "exciting, well-produced LP [with] strong single potential". Elsewhere, it was named by many British publications as the most progressive pop album of all time. UK newspaper Melody Maker ran a feature which questioned the hype in its headline, but affirmed within: "The record's impact on artists and the men behind the artists has been considerable." Andrew Oldham stated "I think that Pet Sounds is the most progressive album of the year in as much as Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade was. It's the pop equivalent of that, a complete exercise in pop music." Spencer Davis of the Spencer Davis Group praised the album saying "Brian Wilson is a great record producer. I haven't spent much time listening to the Beach Boys before, but I'm a fan now and I just want to listen to this LP again and again."
Pete Townshend was apprehensive of the album, believing "the Beach Boys new material is too remote and way out. It's written for a feminine audience." Similarly, journalist and television presenter Barry Fantoni commented at the time that he preferred the group's Beach Boys Today!, and that Pet Sounds "[is] probably revolutionary, but I'm not sure that everything that's revolutionary is necessarily good." In Gene Sculatti's 1968 editorial "In Defense of the Beach Boys", he commented that Wilson was "one of the all-time great composers of melody in rock" along with Lennon–McCartney, John Phillips, and Smokey Robinson, yet, "Pet Sounds was by no means a revolutionary work in that it inspired or influenced the rock scene in a big way. It was revolutionary only within the confines of the Beach Boys' music." However, later in the piece he affirmed: "Pet Sounds was a final statement of an era and a prophecy that sweeping changes lay ahead."
Retrospectively, in Stephen Davis's 1972 Rolling Stone review, Davis called it "by far" Brian Wilson's best album and said that its "trenchant cycle of love songs has the emotional impact of a shatteringly evocative novel". Yahoo! Music's Bill Holdship called it "a beautiful reflection of romanticism in the modern world". In Music USA: The Rough Guide, Richie Unterberger and Samb Hicks wrote the album to be a "quantum leap" from the Beach Boys earlier material, and "the most gorgeous arrangements ever to grace a rock record." In 2006, Dominique Leone wrote a 9.4 review of its 40th Anniversary edition for Pitchfork Media stating: "Certainly, regardless of what I write here, the impact and 'influence' of the record will have been in turn hardly influenced at all. I can't even get my dad to talk about Pet Sounds anymore. ... The hymnal aspect of many of these songs seems no less pronounced, and the general air of deeply heartfelt love, graciousness and the uncertainty that any of it will be returned are still affecting to the point of distraction." Author Luis Sanchez views the album as "the score to a film about what rock music doesn’t have to be. For all of its inward-looking sentimentalism, it lays out in a masterful way the kind of glow and sui generis vision that Brian aimed to [later] expand." Music journalist Robert Christgau felt that Pet Sounds was a good record, but believed it had become looked upon as a totem.
The A.V. Club theorized that the later success of "Good Vibrations" was what helped turn around the perception of Pet Sounds; that the "un-hip orchestrations and pervasive sadness baffled some longtime fans, who didn't immediately get what Wilson was trying to do." By the 1990s, three British critics' polls would feature Pet Sounds at or near the top of their lists.
Legacy and influence
Pet Sounds expanded the field of music production. In 1971, publication Beat Instrumental & International Recording wrote: "Pet Sounds took everyone by surprise. In terms of musical conception, lyric content, production and performance, it stood as a landmark in a music genre whose development was about to begin snowballing." The album's historical distinctions include being the first rock record to incorporate the Electro-Theremin, an easier-to-play version of the theremin. Its inventor Paul Tanner performs the instrument on the song "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times". "God Only Knows" unusually referred to "God" in its title, a decision Brian feared would be seen as blasphemous. Professor of American history John Robert Greene stated that "God Only Knows" remade the ideal of the popular love song, while "Sloop John B" and "Pet Sounds" broke new ground and took rock music away from its casual lyrics and melodic structures into what was then uncharted territory. He furthermore called it one factor which spawned the majority of trends in post-1965 rock music, the only others being the Beatles' Rubber Soul and Revolver (1966), and the 1960s folk movement. The New York Observer wrote that "Pet Sounds proved that a pop group could make an album-length piece comparable with the greatest long-form works of Bernstein, Copland, Ives, and Rodgers and Hammerstein."
According to music journalists Stephen Davis and Nick Kent, Pet Sounds was the first rock concept album. Bill Holdship said that it was "perhaps rock's first example of self-conscious art". According to Jim Fusilli, author of the 33⅓ book on the album, it "[raised itself] to the level of art through its musical sophistication and the precision of its statement", while academic Michael Johnson said that the album was one of the first documented moments of ascension in rock music. It is viewed by writer David Leaf as a herald of art rock genre. Vernon Joyson omitted the Beach Boys and Pet Sounds from his book The Acid Trip: A Complete Guide to Psychedelic Music on the basis that they "essentially predated the psychedelic era." Music journalist Jim DeRogatis said that it was one of the first psychedelic rock masterpieces, along with The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators (1966) and Revolver. Writer Bill Martin felt that it aided in the development of progressive rock at a time when the Beach Boys "brought expansions in harmony, instrumentation (and therefore timbre), duration, rhythm, and the use of recording technology".
Pet Sounds is frequently cited by both critics and musicians as the greatest rock album of all time. Advocates include MOJO magazine and Paul McCartney. Although not originally a big seller, Pet Sounds has been influential since it was released. In 1995, a panel of top musicians, songwriters and producers assembled by MOJO voted Pet Sounds as the #1 greatest album among them. Artists and musicians have revered the album as a remarkable milestone in the history of popular music. These have included the Beach Boys' contemporaries Pink Floyd, Cream, The Who,[nb 16] and The Beatles. Pet Sounds later inspired many progressive rock bands, and in 2010 was listed in Classic Rock's "50 Albums That Built Prog Rock".
In the 2005 documentary The Devil and Daniel Johnston, it was reported that singer/songwriter Daniel Johnston was enraptured with Pet Sounds and it immediately led him to buy the rest of the Beach Boys discography. He later recorded his own version of "God Only Knows", a song which also inspired songwriter Margo Guryan to reevaluate her career, saying "I thought it was just gorgeous. I bought the record and played it a million times, then sat down and wrote 'Think of Rain.' That's really how I started writing that way. I just decided it was better than what was happening in jazz." Seattle-based folk band, the Fleet Foxes have often been seen paying tribute to the album. Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth — who has covered both "Here Today" and "I Know There's an Answer" from the album — has commented: "I would look at the cover of Pet Sounds and think... these guys with these sheep. I mean, what's going on here?" Jim Reid of the Jesus and Mary Chain said it's "so obviously brilliant that it’s almost beyond even talking about".
Paul McCartney has frequently stated his affinity with the album, citing "God Only Knows" as his favorite song of all-time, and crediting his uniquely melodic bass-playing style to the album. He acknowledged that it was the primary impetus for the Beatles' 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band The album also influenced their Revolver album. Arranger Robert Kirby claims that English singer-songwriter Nick Drake intended the instrumentals on his 1970 album Bryter Layter to evoke Pet Sounds. Kevin Shields of the Irish shoegazing group My Bloody Valentine referenced Pet Sounds as an example toward why their 1991 album Loveless was recorded in mono. R.E.M.'s song "At My Most Beautiful" from their 1998 album Up was written as a "gift" from Michael Stipe to his bandmates fond of Pet Sounds. According to Thom Yorke, portions of the album OK Computer were based on the atmosphere of Pet Sounds. When Animal Collective co-founder Noah Lennox was asked about critics comparing his 2007 solo album Person Pitch to Pet Sounds, Lennox responded: "For me, Pet Sounds wouldn't be the first thing I would compare my album with…first, because it would be kind of arrogant."
Novelist Thomas Pynchon was played Pet Sounds by journalist Jules Siegel shortly after the album's release; at the time, Pynchon was unaware why the journalist had been interested in covering the group. After listening, Pynchon was reportedly in a "stunned pleasure," sighing softly before saying, "Ohhhhh, now I understand." The album motivated film producer Bill Pohlad to direct the 2014 biopic on Brian's life, Love & Mercy, which includes a substantial depiction of the album's making with actor Paul Dano playing Brian.
Pet Sounds inspired tribute albums such as Do It Again: A Tribute To Pet Sounds, The String Quartet Tribute to the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds and Mojo Presents: Pet Sounds Revisited. Many songs from Pet Sounds have also appeared on general-themed Beach Boy and Brian Wilson tribute albums like Making God Smile and Smiling Pets, which feature cover versions by various artists including Sixpence None the Richer and Seagull Screaming Kiss Her Kiss Her. Other artists include They Might Be Giants, David Bowie, Black Francis, Peter Thomas, Rivers Cuomo, Patrick Wolf, Tim Burgess, Saint Etienne and the Flaming Lips.
Pet Sounds tribute parodies include Punk Sounds by the Huntingtons. Track-for-track mash-ups include Sgt. Petsound's Lonely Hearts Club Band a blend of Pet Sounds with Sgt. Pepper. It was released under the pseudonym "The Beachles".
In the mid-1990s, Robert Schneider of The Apples in Stereo and Jim McIntyre of Von Hemmling founded Pet Sounds Studio, which served as the venue for many Elephant 6 projects such as Neutral Milk Hotel's In the Aeroplane Over the Sea, and the Olivia Tremor Control's Dusk at Cubist Castle and Black Foliage.
After its release, several selections from Pet Sounds became staples for the group's live performances, including "Wouldn't It Be Nice", "Sloop John B" and "God Only Knows". Other songs were performed, albeit sporadically and infrequently through the years, and the album was never performed in its entirety with every original group member. In the late 1990s, Carl Wilson vetoed an offer for the Beach Boys to perform Pet Sounds in full for ten shows, reasoning that the studio arrangements were too complex for the stage, and that Brian could not possibly sing his original parts.
As a solo artist, Brian performed the entire album live on three occasions on his 2002 and 2006 "Pet Sounds" tours, which included fellow band member Al Jardine at several shows. He also performed it twice on his 2013 tour, which again included Jardine as well as original Beach Boys guitarist David Marks. Recordings from Wilson's 2002 concert tour were released as Brian Wilson Presents Pet Sounds Live.
Pet Sounds has had many different reissues since its release in 1966, including remastered mono and stereo versions. Its first reissue was in 1972, when it was packaged as a bonus LP with the Beach Boys' latest album Carl and the Passions – "So Tough". The first release of the album on CD came in 1990, when it was released with the addition of three bonus tracks: "Unreleased Backgrounds"[nb 17], "Hang On to Your Ego" and "Trombone Dixie" all of which were described as unreleased. The audiophile label DCC Compact Classics issued a gold-plated CD of the album in 1993.
In 1997, The Pet Sounds Sessions box set was released. It included the original mono release of Pet Sounds, the very first stereo release (created by Mark Linett), and three discs of unreleased material. The stereo mix was reissued in 1999 on vinyl and on CD. In 2001, Pet Sounds was rereleased with the mono and improved stereo versions, plus "Hang on to Your Ego" as a bonus track, all on one disc. On August 29, 2006, Capitol released a 40th Anniversary edition, containing a new 2006 remaster of the original mono mix, DVD mixes (stereo and Surround Sound), and a "making of" documentary. The discs were released in a regular jewel box and a deluxe edition was released in a green fuzzy box. A two disk colored gatefold vinyl set was released with green (stereo) and yellow (mono) disks. On September 2, 2008, Capitol reissued a single LP version replicating the original artwork and the inner sleeve with the original mono mix on 180 gram vinyl. In 2009, the Audio Fidelity label issued a gold-plated audiophile CD of the mono mix, remastered by Steve Hoffman (who had also mastered the 1993 DCC gold CD).
In 2012 Capitol released a new CD remaster containing the mono and stereo versions of the album as part of another re-issue campaign, which included a new boxed set as well as remasters of many of the albums previously released as two albums on one disc as stand-alone cds.
The Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab label issued a hybrid SACD of the stereo mix in 2012. Another hybrid SACD, containing both the mono and stereo mixes, is scheduled for release by Acoustic Sounds, Inc. in 2015.
Track list notes courtesy of Brad Elliot. Following a 1994 court case, the songs "Wouldn't It Be Nice" and "I Know There's an Answer" were amended to include a songwriting credit to Mike Love that did not exist previously.
|1.||"Wouldn't It Be Nice" (B. Wilson/Asher/Love)||B. Wilson and Love||2:25|
|2.||"You Still Believe in Me"||B. Wilson||2:31|
|3.||"That's Not Me"||Love with B. Wilson||2:28|
|4.||"Don't Talk (Put Your Head on My Shoulder)"||B. Wilson||2:53|
|5.||"I'm Waiting for the Day" (B. Wilson/Love)||B. Wilson||3:05|
|6.||"Let's Go Away for Awhile" (B. Wilson)||Instrumental||2:18|
|7.||"Sloop John B" (trad. arr. B. Wilson)||B. Wilson and Love||2:58|
|8.||"God Only Knows"||C. Wilson||2:51|
|9.||"I Know There's an Answer" (B. Wilson/Terry Sachen/Love)||Love and Jardine with B. Wilson||3:09|
|11.||"I Just Wasn't Made for These Times"||B. Wilson||3:12|
|12.||"Pet Sounds" (B. Wilson)||Instrumental||2:22|
|13.||"Caroline, No"||B. Wilson||2:51|
|1990 CD reissue bonus tracks|
|14.||"Unreleased Backgrounds" (B. Wilson)||The Beach Boys||0:50|
|15.||"Hang on to Your Ego" (B. Wilson/Sachen/Love)||B. Wilson||3:18|
|16.||"Trombone Dixie" (B. Wilson)||Instrumental||2:53|
|2001 CD reissue bonus track|
|14.||"Hang on to Your Ego" (B. Wilson/Sachen/Love)||B. Wilson||3:20|
The following credits are sourced from liner notes included with the 1999 mono/stereo reissue of Pet Sounds, except where otherwise noted.
- The Beach Boys
- Al Jardine – lead, harmony and backing vocals, tambourine (uncertain)
- Bruce Johnston – harmony and backing vocals
- Mike Love – lead, harmony and backing vocals
- Brian Wilson – lead, harmony and backing vocals, dog whistles, organ, piano, sound effects
- Carl Wilson – lead, harmony and backing vocals, guitar, twelve-string guitar
- Dennis Wilson – harmony and backing vocals, drums
- Production staff
- Session musicians
- Tony Asher – plucked piano strings
- Arnold Belnick – violin
- Chuck Berghofer – string bass
- Hal Blaine – bongos, drums, tympani
- Norman Botnick – viola
- Glen Campbell – guitar, twelve-string electric guitar
- Frank Capp – bells, glockenspiel, latin percussion, percussion, tympani, vibraphone
- Al Casey – guitar
- Roy Caton – trumpet
- Jerry Cole – electric guitar, guitar, mandolin
- Gary Coleman – bongos, tympani
- Mike Deasy – guitar
- Al De Lory – harpsichord, organ, piano, tack piano
- Joseph DiFiore – viola
- Justin DiTullio – cello
- Steve Douglas – clarinet, flute, percussion, tenor saxophone, saxophone
- Jesse Erlich – cello
- Carl Fortina – accordion
- Ritchie Frost – drums, empty Coca-Cola cans, percussion
- James Getzoff – violin
- Jim Gordon – drums, percussion
- Bill Green – flute, percussion, saxophone, tenor saxophone
- Leonard Hartman – bass clarinet, clarinet, english horn
- Jim Horn – baritone saxophone, flute, tenor saxophone, saxophone
- Paul Horn – tenor saxophone
- Harry Hyams – viola
- Jules Jacob – flute
- Plas Johnson – flute, percussion, saxophone, tenor saxophone
- Carol Kaye – electric bass
- Barney Kessel – guitar, mandolin
- Bobby Klein – tenor saxophone
- Larry Knechtel – organ
- William Kurasch – violin
- Leonard Malarsky – violin
- Frank Marocco – accordion
- Gail Martin – trombone
- Nick Martinis – drums
- Terry Melcher – tambourine
- Mike Melvoin – harpsichord
- Jay Migliori – baritone saxophone, bass clarinet, clarinet, flute, saxophone
- Tommy Morgan – harmonica
- Jack Nimitz – baritone saxophone
- Bill Pittman – guitar
- Ray Pohlman – Danelectro bass, electric bass, mandolin, guitar
- Don Randi – piano
- Alan Robinson – french horn
- Jerome Reisler – violin
- Lyle Ritz – string bass, ukulele
- Joseph Saxon – cello
- Ralph Schaeffer – violin
- Sid Sharp – violin
- Billy Strange – electric guitar, guitar, twelve-string electric guitar
- Ron Swallow – tambourine (uncertain)
- Ernie Tack – bass trombone
- Paul Tanner – theremin
- Tommy Tedesco – acoustic guitar
- Darrel Terwilliger – viola
- "Tony" – sleigh bell[nb 18]
- Jerry Williams – percussion
- Julius Wechter – tympani, latin percussion, percussion, vibraphone
- Tibor Zelig – violin
|The Times||United Kingdom||The 100 Best Albums of All Time||1993||1|
|New Musical Express||United Kingdom||New Musical Express Writers Top 100 Albums||1993||1|
|Mojo||United Kingdom||Mojo's 100 Greatest Albums of All Time||1995||1|
|The Guardian||United Kingdom||100 Best Albums Ever||1997||6|
|Channel 4||United Kingdom||The 100 Greatest Albums||1997||33|
|Grammy Awards||United States||Grammy Hall of Fame Award||1998||—|
|Virgin||United Kingdom||The Virgin Top 100 Albums||2000||18|
|VH1||United Kingdom||VH1's Greatest Albums Ever||2001||3|
|BBC||United Kingdom||BBC 6 Music: Best Albums of All Time||2002||11|
|Rolling Stone||United States||The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time||2003||2|
|Jim DeRogatis||United States||One Hundred and Ninety Eight Albums You Can't Live Without||2003||2|
|Robert Dimery||United States||1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die||2006||—|
|Time Magazine||United States||The All-TIME 100 Albums||2006||—|
|Q||United Kingdom||Q Magazine's 100 Greatest Albums Ever||2006||12|
|The Observer||United Kingdom||The 50 Albums That Changed Music||2006||10|
|"—" denotes a non-ordered list|
- During the spring of 1965, Brian had what he considered to be "a very religious experience" after consuming a full dose of LSD. He stated, "I learned a lot of things, like patience, understanding. I can't teach you, or tell you what I learned from taking it." A week after his first LSD trip, he began suffering from auditory hallucinations, which have persisted throughout his life.
- Jardine played the opening guitar riff during sessions for the previous album, Beach Boys' Party!. It can be observed in their 2013 compilation Made in California.
- "The Little Girl I Once Knew", "In My Childhood", "Don't Talk (Put Your Head on My Shoulder)", "Run, James, Run", "Trombone Dixie", and "Three Blind Mice". "Run, James, Run" was the working title for the instrumental "Pet Sounds", the suggestion being that it would be offered for use in a James Bond movie).
- Wilson later clarified: "The Beatles inspired me. They didn't influence me." He has also said that the main difference between him and the Beatles is that the Beatles "will simplify to its skeletal form an arrangement," whereas Wilson would be "impelled to make it more complex," and that if he had arranged "Norwegian Wood", he would have "orchestrated it, put in background voices, [and] done a thousand things".
- Other artists who inspired the album included Phil Spector, Burt Bacharach ("Let's Go Away for Awhile"), The Kingston Trio ("Sloop John B"), Johann Sebastian Bach, and Glenn Miller ("Caroline, No").
- While it is often said that Brian composed all of the music to Pet Sounds, it has been claimed that Asher made significant musical contributions to "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times", "Caroline, No", and "That's Not Me".
- Throughout the latter half of the 1960s, Brian was repeatedly been shown to have become interested in Eastern philosophy and the psychedelic experience, often pointing to ego loss as the key to a better way of living.[verification needed]
- Sessions begun on July 12, 1965 with "Sloop John B". After finishing the rushed Party! album, Brian returned to the studio sporadically throughout November and December to finish "Sloop John B", and to begin work on "You Still Believe in Me". Fervent sessions devoted to the now-entitled Pet Sounds album were kicked off in January 1966, when Brian began work on the instrumental tracks to "Let's Go Away for Awhile", "Wouldn't It Be Nice", and "Caroline, No".
- For his session of "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times", Paul Tanner remembered: "Brian came over to me and sang such and such a thing, and I said 'Well, write it down and I'll play it,' and he said 'Write it down? We don't write anything down—if you want it written down you have to write it down yourself."
- In 1995, it emerged that this session was originally intended to add vocals to "Let's Go Away for Awhile", but Capitol insisted that the session date be used for the album's mixing.
- This was done at Columbia, because it was the only facility in LA with an 8-track.
- The five-piece group was by then being regularly augmented by singer Bruce Johnston, who later became a permanent member
- The fortunate survival of most of these 4-track instrumental masters and 8-track vocal masters, permitted Capitol to create the high-fidelity stereo remixes of the isolated backing tracks and vocal tracks which appear on The Pet Sounds Sessions.
- Brian's deafness is rumored to be the result of childhood injury to his eardrum caused by a blow from his violent father Murry Wilson, although Brian claimed that he was born deaf in one ear.
- It's not known what the piece's purpose was to be, but it was inexplicably included as part of the Beach Boys' 2011 release of The Smile Sessions.
- Pete Townshend of The Who stated "'God Only Knows' is simple and elegant and was stunning when it first appeared; it still sounds perfect". In May 1966, Bruce Johnston flew to London with copies of Pet Sounds and recalls Keith Moon loving the album. Keith later stated "Pet Sounds was too far removed from the style he loved".
- An a cappela demo section of "Don't Talk (Put Your Head on My Shoulder)" sung by Brian Wilson.
- Speculated by Mark Dillon to be Tony Asher.
- "Pet Sounds Billboard charts". AllMusic.
- Covach & Boone 1997, p. 3.
- Martin 1998, p. 39.
- Fusilli 2005, pp. 116-17.
- Leaf 1985, p. 75.
- Stephen Davis (June 22, 1972). "Pet Sounds". Rolling Stone.
- Tunbridge 2010, p. 174.
- Tunbridge 2010, p. 173-74.
- Martin 1998, p. 40.
- Moorefield 2005, p. 16.
- Martin 1998, pp. 39–42.
- Jones 2008, p. 54.
- Zager 2012, p. 181.
- "New Musical Express Writers Top 100 Albums". NME. October 2, 1993. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "The Times All Time Top 100 Albums". The Times. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made". Mojo. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: The Beach Boys, 'Pet Sounds'". Rolling Stone.
- "The National Recording Registry 2004". The National Recording Registry.
- Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 72–73.
- Sanchez 2014, pp. 63–64.
- Carlin 2006, p. 53.
- Carlin 2006, p. 59.
- Schinder & Schwartz 2007, pp. 111–112.
- Carlin 2006, p. 65.
- Griffiths, David (December 21, 1968). "Dennis Wilson: "I Live With 17 Girls"". Record Mirror.
- Howard 2004, p. 58.
- Badman 2004, p. 136.
- "Brian Wilson – A Powerful Interview". Ability. 2006. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Great Moments in Folk Rock: Lists of Aunthor Favorites". richieunterberger.com. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- Carlin 2006, p. 66.
- "Comments by Al Jardine". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- Carlin 2006, pp. 66–67.
- Doe, Andrew G. "GIGS65". Bellagio 10452. Endless Summer Quarterly. Doe, Andrew G. "GIGS66". Bellagio 10452. Endless Summer Quarterly.
- "Interview with Brian Wilson". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- Mettler, Mike (May 13, 2015). "Brian Wilson Feels No Pressure When Creating His Sonically Beautiful Pocket Symphonies". Sound Bard.
- Fusilli 2005, p. 80.
- Elliot, Brad (1999). "Pet Sounds Liner Notes". Pet Sounds (CD Liner). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records.
- Schinder 2007, p. 114.
- Carlin 2006, p. 75.
- Leaf, David (1997). "Song by Song Notes". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records.
- "Interview with Tony Asher". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- Hoskyns 2009, p. 106.
- Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 72.
- Doe & Tobler 2009, p. 20.
- "Tony Asher Interview". April 4, 1996.
- Kent 2009, pp. 21–3.
- Gaines & Hajdu 2009, p. 149.
- "The Observers: Marilyn Wilson". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- Video on YouTube
- Dennis Wilson - Pete Fornatale Interview 1976 on YouTube
- Irvin 2007, p. 64.
- "Comments by Carl Wilson". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- Doe & Tobler 2009, p. 19.
- Sharp, Ken (July 28, 2000). "Alan Jardine: A Beach Boy still riding the waves". Goldmine.
- Cromelin, Richard (October 1976). "Surf's Up! Brian Wilson Comes Back From Lunch". Creem.
- Kent 2009, p. 17.
- DeRogatis 2003, p. xi.
- Marcus, Jeff (September 18, 2012). "Psychedelic era yielded great music, but fewer picture sleeves". Goldmine.
- Levy, Piete (October 24, 2013). "Brian Wilson; Chris Tomlin; Blue October; Kate Nash; Limousines; Jacuzzi Boys; City and Colour". Journal Sentinel (Milwaukee). Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- Joyson 1984, p. 8.
- "Beach Boys "That's Why God Made the Radio"". Huff Post. June 4, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Priore 2005.
- Lowe 2007, p. 219.
- Sommer, Tim (July 21, 2015). "Beyond the Life of Brian: The Myth of the ‘Lesser’ Beach Boys". The New York Observer.
- Stebbins 2011, p. 152.
- Stebbins 2011, pp. 151–152.
- Unterberger & Hicks 1999, p. 469.
- Lambert 2007, p. 232.
- Leone, Dominique (September 8, 2006). "The Beach Boys: Pet Sounds: 40th Anniversary". Pitchfork. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- Perone 2012, p. 29.
- "Richie Unterberger review of Pet Sounds". AllMusic.
- Perone 2012, p. 28.
- Perone 2012, p. 30.
- Perone 2012, pp. 28, 30.
- Elliott, Brad (August 31, 1999). "Pet Sounds Track Notes". beachboysfanclub.com. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- Doe & Tobler 2004, p. 49.
- "Brian Pop Genius!". Melody Maker. May 21, 1966.
- Gary Ewer, from "The Essential Secrets of Songwriting"
- Essentials of music: Baroque composers.
- Guarisco, Donald A. "Here Today". AllMusic. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Heiser, Marshall (November 2012). "SMiLE: Brian Wilson’s Musical Mosaic". The Journal on the Art of Record Production (7).
- Fusilli 2005.
- Gaines & Hajdu 2009, p. 146.
- Gaines & Hajdu 2009, p. 145.
- Kent 2009, p. 16.
- Ryan 1984, p. 139.
- Doe & Tobler 2004, p. 50.
- "The Out-Of-Sight! SMiLE Site". goodhumorsmile.com. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
- Koestler 1989, p. 38.
- "Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Songs of All-Time".
- Matthew, Jacobs (April 16, 2013). "LSD's 70th Anniversary: 10 Rock Lyrics From The 1960s That Pay Homage To Acid". Huffington Post.
- DeRogatis 2003.
- Hegarty & Halliwell 2011, p. 23.
- Masley, Ed (May 12, 2014). "Interview: Sean Lennon on Ghost of a Saber Tooth Tiger". azcentral.
- Zager 2012.
- Badman 2004, p. 134.
- "INTERVIEW WITH BRIAN WILSON OF THE BEACH BOYS IN EARLY 1980'S". Global Image Works. 1976. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Tunbridge 2010, p. 173.
- Fusilli 2005, p. 84.
- Kent 2009, pp. 23–4.
- Schinder 2007, p. 114–15.
- "Pet Sounds credits". AllMusic. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- Brown 2007, p. 152.
- Preiss 1979, p. 54.
- Love, Mike (1997). "The Making of Pet Sounds: Preface". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records.
- "Musician Comments: Chuck Britz". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
- Brend 2005, p. 18.
- Sharp, Ken (April 2, 2013). "Al Jardine of the Beach Boys: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About "SMiLE" (Interview)". Rock Cellar Magazine. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Doe & Tolber 2009, p. 24.
- Waspensky, Russ (1997). "Pet Sounds Session List". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records.
- Buskin, Richard (April 2007). "CLASSIC TRACKS: The Ronettes 'Be My Baby'". Sound on Sound. Sound on Sound. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Linett, Mark (1997). "Notes on Recording and Mixing". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records.
- Moorefield 2005, p. 18.
- Schinder 2007.
- Sanchez 2010, p. 85.
- Buckley 2003, p. 7.
- Benci, Jacopo (January 1995). "Brian Wilson interview". Record Collector (UK) (185).
- Planer, Lindsay. "Unsurpassed Masters, Vol. 14 (1966): The Alternate "Pet Sound" Album, Vol. 2 review". AllMusic. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Sanchez 2010, p. 83.
- Badman 2004, pp. 130–31.
- Kent 2009, p. 23.
- "Beach Boys Singles Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "UK Top 40 Singles Chart". Everyhit.com. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- Billboard's Review Panel (May 28, 1966). "Album Reviews". Billboard 78 (21): 68.
- Carlin 2006, p. 85.
- Doe, Andrew G. (2013). "RIAA". Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Gold & Platinum". RIAA. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "Comments by Bruce Johnston". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- Jones 2008, p. 47.
- Carlin 2006, pp. 85–86.
- *"The Observers: Karl Engemann". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- "BBC's Brian Wilson Presents Pet Sounds Live In London (DVD) Review".
- Fusilli 2005, p. 111.
- AllMusic review
- Blender review[dead link]
- Kot, Greg (May 17, 1990). "Beach Boys Pet Sounds". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- Sinclair, Tom (December 12, 1997). "Box Populi". Entertainment Weekly (New York) (409). Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Review: Pet Sounds". Q (London): 133. July 1996.
- "The Beach Boys: Album Guide". Rolling Stone. 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Slant Magazine review". Slantmagazine.com.
- "Sputnikmusic review". Sputnikmusic.com.
- Leaf 1985, pp. 76, 87–88..
- Badman 2004, p. 139.
- Scullati, Gene (September 1968). "Villains and Heroes: In Defense of the Beach Boys". Jazz & Pop. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Holdship, Bill. "Album Review: Pet Sounds". Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original on March 29, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- Unterberger & Hicks 1999, p. 382.
- Sanchez 2014, p. 83.
- Christgau, Robert (October 14, 2004). "Get Happy: Brian Wilson: "SMiLE"". Rolling Stone (New York). Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- Murray, Noel (October 16, 2014). "A beginner’s guide to the sweet, stinging nostalgia of The Beach Boys". The A.V. Club.
- "Pet Sounds". Beat Instrumental & International Recording (93). 1971.
- Doe & Tobler 2009, p. 26.
- Howard 2004, p. 65.
- Greene 2010, p. 155.
- Fusilli 2005, pp. 116-19.
- Johnson 2009, p. 197.
- Leaf 1985, p. 74.
- Stratton, Jeff (October 26, 2000). "Bandwidth". New Times Broward-Palm Beach.
- "The Rubberization of Soul". UNT Digital Library. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- Records That Changed the World
- "The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds and "Good Vibrations 40 Anniversaries Feted by Capitol/EMI". EMIssion-online.com. June 23, 2006. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Leaf, David (1997). "The Observers: Paul McCartney". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records.
- "Musicians on Brian: Elton John". Brian Wilson.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
- "Roger Waters Interview", Rolling Stone, March 12, 2003
- "Musicians on Brian: Pete Townshend". Brian Wilson.com. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- Richard Bogovich, Cheryl Posner, The Who: a who's who, (McFarland, 2003), ISBN 0-7864-1569-X, p.24.
- "The Observers: George Martin". The Pet Sounds Sessions (Booklet). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1997.
- Classic Rock magazine, July 2010, Issue 146.
- Bjervamoen, Harald. "RockStory - Progressive Rock Roots". RockProg. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- "Do It Again: A Tribute to Pet Sounds". AllMusic. Allmusic.com. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Broome, Eric (September 2001). "Margo Guryan". Mean Street magazine. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- "The Culture Show "Fleet Foxes – musical genius or just too sappy?"".
- Seymour, Corey (June 5, 2015). "Love & Mercy Does Justice to the Brilliance of Brian Wilson". Vogue.
- "25 -- 'Here, There and Everywhere'". 100 Greatest Beatles Songs. Rolling Stone.
- "An interview with Robert Kirby". Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- McGonigal 2007, p. 57.
- Sakamoto">Sakamoto, John. "Michael Stipe Talks Shop". Jam! Magazine. October 18, 1998.
- DiMartino, Dave (May 2, 1997). "Give Radiohead Your Computer". Yahoo! Launch. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
- Green, Ross (July 5, 2011). "Interview: Panda Bear Talks Influences, Expectations and Synthesizers". Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- Siegel, Jules (March 1977). "Who Is Thomas Pynchon...And Why Did He Take Off With My Wife?". Playboy. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Tapley, Kristopher (May 21, 2015). "Bill Pohlad wants 'Love & Mercy' to take you inside the genius of Beach Boy Brian Wilson". Hitfix.
- "Tribute Albums". Beach Boys: The Complete Guide. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- "Smiling Pets review". Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- "Pet Sounds parodies". Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- "The Beachles". Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- "The Beach Boys Tour Statistics". setlist.fm. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Carlin 2006, p. 286.
- "Brian Wilson Pulls Off a Surprise 'Pet Sounds' Show In New York". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "Brian Wilson Tour Statistics". setlist.fm. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Badman 2004, p. 378.
- Hilburn, Robert (May 11, 1990). "'Pet Sounds' Finally Reissued". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- Crowe, Jerry (November 1, 1997). "'Pet Sounds Sessions': Body of Influence Put in a Box". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "Pet Sounds: Complete Album". HMV. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
- Kreps, Daniel (June 12, 2008). "EMI/Capitol Catch Vinyl Fever with Radiohead, "Pet Sounds" Reissues". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- Doe & Tobler 2009, pp. 22, 25.
- "Pet Sounds Musicians". Pet Sounds (CD Liner). The Beach Boys. Capitol Records. 1999.
- Dillon 2012.
- "UK Top 40 Hit Database". EveryHit.
- "The Times: The 100 Best Albums of All Time — December 1993". The Times'. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
- " — December 1993". New Musical Express. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
- "Mojo's 100 Greatest Albums of All Time". Mojo. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "The Guardian's 100 Best Albums Ever". The Guardian. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- ""Channel 4" 100 Greatest Albums". C4. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "The Grammy Hall of Fame Award". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
- "The Virgin Top 100 Albums". BBC. September 3, 2000. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "VH1's Greatest Albums Ever". VH1. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "BBC 6 Music: Best Albums of All Time".
- "The Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
- DeRogatis 2003, p. 565.
- Dimery, Robert (February 7, 2006). "1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.". Universe. New York, NY (ISBN 0-7893-1371-5). p. 910.
- "The All-TIME 100 Albums". Time Magazine. November 2, 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "Q Magazine's 100 Greatest Albums Ever". Q Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "The 50 Albums That Changed Music". The Observer (London). July 16, 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- Bacon, Tony (2000). Fuzz & Feedback: Classic Guitar Music of the '60s. Miller Freeman. ISBN 978-0-87930-612-0.
- Badman, Keith (2004). The Beach Boys: The Definitive Diary of America's Greatest Band, on Stage and in the Studio. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-818-6.
- Brend, Mark (2005). Strange Sounds: Offbeat Instruments and Sonic Experiments in Pop (1. ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Backbeat. ISBN 9780879308551.
- Brown, Mick (2007). Tearing Down the Wall of Sound. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-26772-6.
- Buckley, Peter (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-105-0.
- Carlin, Peter Ames (2006). Catch a Wave: The Rise, Fall, and Redemption of the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-59486-320-2.
- Covach, John; Boone, Graeme M. (1997). Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199880126.
- Doe, Andrew; Tobler, John (2004). Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84449-426-2.
- Doe, Andrew; Tobler, John (2009). "The Beach Boys – Pet Sounds – May 1966". In Charlesworth, Chris. 25 Albums that Rocked the World. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-85712-044-1.
- DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Milk It!: Collected Musings On the Alternative Music Explosion of the 90s (1st Da Capo Press ed.). Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81271-1.
- DeRogatis, Jim (1996). Kaleidoscope Eyes: Psychedelic Rock From the 1960s to the 1990s. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-85702-599-7.
- DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.
- Fusilli, Jim (2005). Beach Boys' Pet Sounds. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-1266-8.
- Hegarty, Paul; Halliwell, Martin (2011). Beyond and Before: Progressive Rock Since the 1960s. Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8264-4483-7.
- Howard, David N. (2004). Sonic Alchemy: Visionary Music Producers and Their Maverick Recordings (1. ed.). Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Hal Leonard. ISBN 9780634055607.
- Gaines, Steven; Hajdu, David (2009). Heroes and Villains: Essays on Music, Movies, Comics, and Culture. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780786751044.
- Greene, John Robert (2010). America in the Sixties. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-5133-8.
- Irvin, Jim (2007). "1966 – The Beach Boys – Pet Sounds". The Mojo Collection: 4th Edition. Canongate Books. ISBN 978-1-84767-643-6.
- Johnson, Michael (2009). Pop Music Theory: Harmony, Form, and Composition (2nd ed.). Boston, Mass.: Cinemasonique Music. ISBN 9780578035390.
- Jones, Carys Wyn (2008). The Rock Canon: Canonical Values in the Reception of Rock Albums. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-6244-0.
- Joyson, Vernon (1984). The Acid Trip: A Complete Guide to Psychedelic Music. Todmorden, England: Babylon Books. ISBN 978-0907188247.
- Kent, Nick (2009). The Dark Stuff Selected Writings on Rock Music. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780786730742.
- Koestler, Arthur (1989). The Act of Creation. London: Arkana [The Penguin Group]. ISBN 9780140191912.
- Lambert, Philip (2007). Inside the Music of Brian Wilson: The Songs, Sounds, and Influences of the Beach Boys' Founding Genius. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-0748-0.
- Leaf, David (1985). The Beach Boys. Courage Books. ISBN 978-0-89471-412-2.
- Lowe, Kelly Fisher (2007). The Words and Music of Frank Zappa. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6005-9.
- Martin, Bill (1998), Listening to the Future: The Time of Progressive Rock, Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0-8126-9368-X
- McGonigal, Mike (2007). My Bloody Valentine's Loveless. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-5067-7.
- Moorefield, Virgil (2005). The Producer as Composer: Shaping the Sounds of Popular Music - Virgil Moorefield - Google Boeken. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13457-8. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- Perone, James E. (2012). The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations [4 volumes]: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-37907-9.
- Preiss, Byron (1979). The Beach Boys. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345273987.
- Priore, Domenic (2005). Smile: The Story of Brian Wilson's Lost Masterpiece. London: Sanctuary. ISBN 1860746276.
- Ryan, David Stuart (1984). John Lennon's Secret. London: Kozmik Press Centre. ISBN 0-905116-08-9.
- Sanchez, Luis (2014). The Beach Boys' Smile. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62356-956-3.
- Schinder, Scott (2007). "The Beach Boys". In Schinder, Scott; Schwartz, Andy. Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Changed Music Forever. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0313338458.
- Stebbins, Jon (2011). The Beach Boys FAQ: All That's Left to Know About America's Band. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-4584-2914-8.
- Tunbridge, Laura (2010). The Song Cycle. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89644-3.
- Unterberger, Richie; Hicks, Samb (1999). Music USA: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-421-7.
- White, Timothy (1996). The Nearest Far Away Place: Brian Wilson, the Beach Boys, and the Southern California Experience. Henry Holt (P). ISBN 978-0-8050-4702-8.
- Zager, Michael (2012). Music Production: for Producers, Composers, Arrangers, and Students (2nd ed.). Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-8201-9.