The genus Petaurus contains flying phalangers or wrist-winged gliders, a group of arboreal marsupials. There are six species, sugar glider, squirrel glider, mahogany glider, northern glider, yellow-bellied glider and Biak glider, and are native to Australia or New Guinea. The greater glider has been shown to be three different species.
Flying phalangers are typically nocturnal, most being small (sometimes around 400 mm, counting the tail), and have folds of loose skin (patagia) running from the wrists to the ankles. They use the patagia to glide from tree to tree by jumping and holding out their limbs spread-eagle. They are able to glide for distances over 140 metres. Beside the distinctive skin folds, flying phalangers also have large, forward-facing eyes, short (though pointed) faces, and long flat tails which are used as rudders while gliding.
All are omnivores, and eat tree sap, gum, nectar, pollen, and insects, along with manna and honeydew. Most flying phalangers appear to be solitary, though the yellow-bellied glider and sugar glider are both known to live in groups.
While Biak and sugar gliders are relatively common, most of the other species are rare. The Mahogany glider is the most threatened species in Australia and is listed as endangered. They are so uncommon that they were not seen for more than a hundred years after their original discovery in 1883. Nearly a month after they were rediscovered in 1989, their habitat was cleared for plantations, and another population was not found until 1991. The reasons for the endangered status of the Mahogany glider include habitat degradation or loss, limited distribution, and the lack of habitat protection. Along with Mahogany gliders being endangered the squirrel gliders (petaurus norfolcensis) are endangered as well.
- Genus Petaurus
- McGregor, Denise C.; Padovan, Amanda; Georges, Arthur; Krockenberger, Andrew; Yoon, Hwan-Jin; Youngentob, Kara N. (2020-11-06). "Genetic evidence supports three previously described species of greater glider, Petauroides volans , P. minor , and P. armillatus". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 19284. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76364-z. ISSN 2045-2322.
- Jackson, Stephen M. (July 2011). "Petaurus gracilis (Diprotodontia: Petauridae)". Mammalian Species. 43 (1): 141–148. doi:10.1644/882.1. ISSN 0076-3519. S2CID 35166232.
- Crane, M. J.; Lindenmayer, D. B.; Cunningham, R. B. (February 2013). "Use and characteristics of nocturnal habitats of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfocensis) in Australian temperate woodlands". Australian Journal of Zoology. 60 (5): 320–329. doi:10.1071/ZO12080. ISSN 0004-959X. S2CID 83561055.
- Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
- Sugar Glider - Tasmanian Government
- Sugar Glider- Caffee Zoo
- Yellow-Bellied Glider[dead link] - University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- Mahogany Glider - Animal Info
- Feathertail Glider - University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- Australia's Charismatic Glider Marsupials. BBC Travel
- Marsupials and Monotremes of the Museum of Wiesbaden - (Images)
- The Marsupial Society of Australia
- about Marsupials