Peter Felix Richards

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Peter Felix Richards (1808–1868) was a pioneering Scottish merchant in post-Treaty of Nanjing Shanghai, and the founder of the Richards Hotel and Restaurant, the first foreign hotel in China, and the forerunner to the Astor House Hotel.

Early life and family[edit]

Peter Felix Richards was born on 6 April 1808 in Edinburgh.[1] By 1848 Richards had married Rebecca MacKenzie (born 6 May 1826 in Brechin, Forfarshire), the daughter of David and Rebecca W. MacKenzie,[2] and the sister of Margaret (born about 1823), Christian (born about 1829), James (born about 1830), Charles (born about 1832), David (born about 1834), and Robert (born about 1836).[3] By 1848 Richards and his wife had their first child, Rebecca A. Richards (born about 1848 in Shanghai).[4] Other children included: Adelaide (born about 1851 in Shanghai),[5] Amelia (born about 1852 in Shanghai),[6] Helen Mary (born about 1853 in Shanghai; died 10 February 1861 in Shanghai),[7] Peter Felix MacKenzie Richards (born about 1863 in Shanghai; died 18 December 1920 in Colchester, Essex, England),[8] and Frederick Edward Richards (born about 1864 in Shanghai).[9]

Career[edit]

Signing of the Nanking Treaty, 1842

On 29 August 1842, the unequal Treaty of Nanking was signed ending the First Opium War (1839–1842) between the British and Qing Empires, and establishing five treaty ports in China where British merchants could operate. In addition to Canton, Amoy, Foochow, and Ningpo, the port of Shanghai was opened officially to foreign trade on 17 November 1843.[10] According to Shanghai historian F.L. Hawks Pott, "The foreign population of the Settlement gradually increased. In 1844 it was 50, in the following year, 90, and after five years it had grown to 175. In addition there was a floating population, consisting of the men on shore from the ships in harbour."[11]

Map of Shanghai, 1855

Shanghai (1844-1856)[edit]

Peter Felix Richards, who had been doing business in China from about 1840,[12] was one of the very first foreign residents of Shanghai.[13] During 1844 Richards established P.F. Richards & Co. (Shanghai and Fuchowfoo),[14] which operated a general store, ship chandler, and commission agent business,[15] on 4th Avenue (四马路) (now Fuzhou Road; 福州路)[16] about a "block and a half to the west" of Sichuan Road.[17] P.F. Richards & Co. imported and sold staples of English diets, including "orange marmalade, cheddar and stilton cheese, mustard, oatmeal, cocoa powder, and oil of Bergamot, as well as French olives and Turkish figs",[18] as well as soda water and aerated lemonade.[19]

According to Pott: "The foreign population was then something over 100, of whom seven were ladies. There were 25 mercantile firms engaged in business."[20] In 1846, Richards opened one of the first western restaurants in Shanghai[21] and the first western hotel in China,[22] south of the Yangkingpang (Yangjingbang) creek[23] on the river front on The Bund[24] facing the Huangpu River[25] near Jinling Road East,[26] in the Huangpu District of Shanghai,[27] in what became in 1849 the French Concession. Named after its founder, Richards' Hotel and Restaurant (礼查饭店; "Licha"; Lee-zo),[28] was "a single and ordinary building",[29] in the Baroque style.[30] that targeted initially the seafaring clientele that made up the bulk of travelers to 19th century Shanghai. The very first public meeting of the British settlement was in the newly opened Richards' Hotel on 22 December 1846.[31] By May 1851 Richards added an auction service to his business.[32]

By 1854 Richards was the owner of the Pekin, a lugger-rigged vessel, that successfully eluded a fleet of Chinese pirate junks, on a voyage originating in Shanghai on 10 June, with Richards on board.[33] After an auction in Shanghai on 27 March 1855, Richards purchased the ship Margaret Mitchell, which had run aground off Woosung on 1 February 1855 and required extensive repairs to make it seaworthy, from its master, Thomas Jameson for $20,000,[34] (then worth nearly £7,000),[35] which was paid on 16 April 1855.[36] Additionally, repairs were estimated initially to cost at least $40,000,[37][38] but increased due to further damage after a collision with the dry dock gate at Shanghai on 4 April 1855.[39] Richards had to mortgage the ship and other assets to finance the purchase, repairs and subsequent return voyage to England at an interest rate of 24%.[40] On 26 March 1855 John Dewsnap, an American engineer who had constructed the dry dock at Hongkou in 1852,[41] defended successfully a lawsuit brought by Jameson in the United States Consular Court of Shanghai for $20,000 for his part in causing the damage in the collision with the dry dock's gate.[42] After 15 September 1855, the Margaret Mitchell left Shanghai under the control of ship master Captain Dewey Stiles, and after stops at Canton; Whampoa, where a mortgage of £1,336 was obtained from Anthon & Co. to finance insurance of the freight and the ship; Batavia; and Amsterdam, arrived in London on 23 May 1856, by which time Richards had discharged the mortgage obtained in Hong Kong.[43] Two of Rebecca's brothers, James Mackenzie (born about 1830) and David Mackenzie (born about 1834), assisted in the operation of Richards' business until their termination in September 1857.[44]

From the Chinese New Year (6 February) 1856, Richards announced that his would take Mexican dollars at par value to make purchases and settle accounts,[45] however this decision was rescinded on 1 March 1856, and the discounted rate would be in effect.[46] After 1 March 1856, Richards announced that his company would be renamed "Richards & Co.".[47]

USA and England (1856-1857)[edit]

In preparation for his imminent trip to the United States of America and England to arrange more suppliers for his business, on 1 March Richards announced that during his absence that James McKenzie would manage his operations in Shanghai, while George D. Symonds would manage his interests in Fuchowfoo, and that both were authorised to sign by procuration.[47] On 15 May 1856, while in New York, Richards' company was declared insolvent by decree of the British Consular Court in Shanghai,[48] and all of his assets (including the Margaret Mitchell and the Richards' Hotel) were assigned provisionally to his creditors, Britons William Herbert Vacher and Charles Wills (died 8 September 1857),[49] acting on behalf of Gilman, Bowman and Jardine, Mathieson respectively.[50] Vacher and Wills authorised James McKenzie to continue to manage the store and ship chandlery "under inspection".[51]

By early June 1856 Richards planned to leave New York to return to England in order to sell the Margaret Mitchell to ameliorate his financial situation.[52] However, Richards' ownership of the Margaret Mitchell was disputed by Thomas Mitchell of Glasgow, the original owner, and by another group who had purchased it from Stiles, the ship's master, upon its return to England.[36]

Shanghai (1857-1861)[edit]

On 16 August 1857, Daniel Brooke (D.B.) Robertson (born 1810; died 27 March 1881 at Piccadilly),[53] the British Consul of Shanghai announced that Richards' insolvency was superseded with the approval of his creditors.[54] The following day, Richards announced that he was personally resuming control and management of his business in China.[55] In February 1858 Richards' store and the Richards Hotel and Restaurant were relocated to a site on the northern banks of the Suzhou Creek, near its confluence with the Huangpu River in the Hongkou District of Shanghai.[56] On 5 February 1858 Richards announced that:

We beg to give notice that we have removed from our Establishment to the Premises expressly built for us, immediately after crossing the New Bridge between the British and American Consulates. The Premises command a beautiful view of the whole front settlement and of the surrounding country and down towards Woosung as far as the eye can reach. They have also a commanding and central river position remarkably well adapted for Shipping Business; we Have spared no expense to make the Store convenient and safe for Goods.[57]

In August 1858 the Privy Council determined that the Margaret Mitchell had been sold legally to Richards and was now the property of his insolvency assignees.[58]

By 1859 the hotel was renamed (in English) the Astor House Hotel,[59] while retaining the original Chinese name until 1959. According to actress Grace Hawthorne, who stayed at the Astor House in 1894: "The man who named it, some thirty years ago or so, had been to New-York and found in the Astor House a model of elegance and hotel excellence. He returned to Shanghai, and forthwith named his hotel the Astor House.[60] According to John B. Powell, "He christened his establishment in honor of the then most famous hotel in the United States, the Astor House in New York; however, he was compelled to add the designation "hotel," as the fame of the New York hostelry had not yet reached the China coast. Aside from the name, the two establishments had little in common."[61]

Even after the sale of the Astor House Hotel to Englishman Henry W. Smith on 1 January 1861,[62] Richards and his wife were still residents of the Astor House at the time that their seven-year-old daughter, Helen Mary Richards, died on 10 February 1861.[63]

Later years (1861-1868)[edit]

By 17 March 1861, Richards had relocated to Tientsin, where he had established himself as an "Agent ... to carry on business generally with the Chinese in Imports and Exports, having had twenty one years experience in business in China and being acquainted with the language sufficiently to transact business without the assistance of Compradors."[64] In March 1862 Richards was described as "an enterprising speculator".[65] By 1863 Richards was back in Shanghai, when his son Peter Felix MacKenzie Richards was born.[66] Another son, Frederick Edward was also born in China by 1865.[67]

It seems that by 1866 that Richards was residing in the port city of Chihfu,[68] described in May 1865 as a town of "little commercial importance" and "one of the most wretched dens", with about 70 European residents,[69]

Richards died on 14 November 1868 in Shanghai, aged 60, and left an estate valued at less than £2.[70] Subsequently, his widow, Rebecca, and their five surviving children returned to Britain.[71]

Posterity[edit]

In 1871 Richards' wife, Rebecca, was living as an annuitant in her hometown at 56 Southesk Street, Brechin, Angus, Scotland, with her daughter, Adelaide, and her two sons: Peter Felix MacKenzie Richards, and Frederick Edward Richards.[72] By 1881 Rebecca Richards was living at Newington, Edinburgh, Scotland, where she was a lodging house keeper, with her two sons: Frederick, a commercial clerk; and Peter, an apprentice engineer.[73] In 1891 Rebecca Richards was living at 88 Polwarth Gardens, Newington, Edinburgh, with her daughter, Rebecca A. Richards, who was employed as a governess.[74]

In 1871 Richards' oldest child, Rebecca A. Richards, aged 23, was employed as a governess at the Ladies' Seminary at Hovingham, Yorkshire.[75]

In 1871 Amelia, aged 19, was a pupil teacher at 8 Westgate, Grantham, Lincolnshire.[76] In 1901 Amelia was still unmarried, and working as a tutor at 45-55 Aynhoe Road, Hammersmith, London.[77]

In 1891 Peter was employed as a civil engineer, and lived in two rented rooms at 28 Parchmore Road, Thornton Heath, Croydon.[78] From 6 December 1892 Peter was a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers.[79] On 24 June 1893 Peter, then living at 21 Great George Street, London, changed his name by deed poll to Peter Mackenzie-Richards.[80] On 4 September 1893 Peter married Mary Edith "Mollie" MacRae (born 1 July 1869 in Brighton, Sussex; died 7 December 1954 at Heigham Hall, a private mental hospital in Norwich, Norfolk),[81] at St. Leonard's Church, London Road, Upper Deal, Kent.[82] They had four children: Kenneth Mackenzie-Richards (born about September 1894 in Kensington; died 26 December 1980);[83] Campbell MacKenzie-Richards (born 6 January 1900; died 9 November 1927);[84] Ursula Mackenzie-Richards (born 13 November 1902; died 11 December 1995);[85] died 11 December 1995); and Mary Mackenzie-Richards (born 1907 in Woodbridge, Suffolk; died 1983).[86] By 1901 Peter and Molly, and their younger son, Campbell, were living in apartment 4 at the red-brick Georgian era Clapham Mansions, Nightingale Lane, Clapham Common, Streatham, Wandsworth.[87] From at least 1900 until 1916 Peter's offices were at 53 Victoria Street, Victoria, London.[88] Peter died on 18 December 1920 in Colchester, Essex.[89] While the death certificate indicates that Peter Mackenzie-Richards died of "Aortic Incompetence", "Pulmonary Congestion", and "Hepatic Congestion", family tradition suggests his death was as a result of the Spanish flu.[90]

By 1893, Frederick was employed as a merchant. On 18 February 1893 Frederick married Lillian Annie Webb (born about 1865 in Clapham), the oldest child of George Webb (born about 1834 in London; died before 1893), a deceased silversmith and cutler,[91] and Annie T. Webb (born about 1840 in Streatham), at the Church of Saint Saviour, South Hampstead, London.[92] By 1894, Frederick and Lillian were living in Foo Chow, China, where he was employed as a clerk by commercial agents Dodwell, Carlill & Co..[93] Their daughter, Hilda W.L. Richards (born about 1894), and son, Ronald Edward Mackenzie Richards (born 13 March 1895; died 13 November 1914 near Ypres) were both born in Foo Chow.[94] In 1901 Hilda, age 6, and Ronald, age 5, were living at Newlands Lodge, Collinsons Lane, Hitchin, Hertfordshire with two of their unmarried aunts, Ethel M. Webb (born about 1868 in Clapham ) and Elsie G. Webb (born about 1878 in Clapham).[95]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ See http://www.familysearch.org: Source Information: Batch Number: 8106309 Sheet: 39 Source Call No.: 1260848; Hibbard, Bund, 212; and "The Pub with No Peer", Shanghai Star (16 January 2003); http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2003/0116/cu18-2.html.
  2. ^ Rebecca's family name is sometimes spelled "McKenzie". Extracted birth or christening record. Familysearch.org: Batch No.: C112754 Dates: 1819 - 1857 Source Call No.: 0993413 Type: Film Printout Call No.: 6902951 Type: Film Sheet: 00; 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871.
  3. ^ 1841 Scotland Census.
  4. ^ See 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Hovingham County/Island: Yorkshire Country: England Registration district: Malton Sub-registration district: Hovingham ED, institution, or vessel: 1 Household schedule number: 104 Class: RG10; Piece: 4826; Folio: 12; Page: 18; GSU roll: 847365.
  5. ^ 1871 Scotland Census; Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 19; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871.
  6. ^ 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Grantham Ecclesiastical parish: Grantham Town: Grantham County/Island: Lincolnshire Country: England Registration district: Grantham Sub-registration district: Grantham ED, institution, or vessel: 2 Household schedule number: 9 Class: RG10; Piece: 3358; Folio: 32; Page: 2; GSU roll: 839360; The 1901 UK Census has Amelia living in Britain as a tutor in Hammersmith.
  7. ^ See E. S. Elliston, Shantung Road Cemetery, Shanghai, 1846-1868: With Notes About Pootung Seamen's Cemetery [and] Soldiers' Cemetery (Millington, 1946):26.
  8. ^ 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871; 1901 England Census. Class: RG13; Piece: 475; Folio: 29; Page: 50. Civil parish: Streatham Ecclesiastical parish: Ascension Balham Hill County/Island: London Country: England; Registration district: Wandsworth; Sub-registration district: Streatham; ED, institution, or vessel: 37; Household schedule number: 325; Shearburn Family Tree, http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/780374/person/-778444995; England & Wales, Death Index: 1916-2005: Death Registration Month/Year: 1920. Age at death (estimated):58; Registration district: Colchester Inferred County: Essex Volume: 4a Page: 731.
  9. ^ 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871; See 1881 Scotland Census. Parish: Edinburgh St Cuthberts; ED: 95; Page: 7; Line: 13; Roll cssct1881_293; Year: 1881.
  10. ^ J.W. Maclellan, The Story of Shanghai: From the Opening of the Port to Foreign Trade (Shanghai: The "North-China Herald" Office, 1889):14, http://libweb.uoregon.edu/ec/e-asia/read/storyofshanghai.pdf
  11. ^ See "Population in the 1840s", Tales of Old Shanghai, http://www.talesofoldchina.com/shanghai/business/t-cens01.htm
  12. ^ It must have been in either Hong Kong or Canton. See P.F. Richards, letter dated 17 March 1861 from Tientsin, published in North-China Herald (6 April 1861).
  13. ^ "List of Foreign Residents in Shanghae", North-China Herald (3 August 1850):1.
  14. ^ North-China Herald (3 August 1850):1; Mark Swislocki, Culinary Nostalgia: Regional Food Culture and the Urban Experience in Shanghai (Stanford University Press, 2008):104; Papers of miscellaneous companies, 1823–1940 (Manuscripts/MS JM/MS.JM/I28), Jardine Matheson Archive, http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0012%2FMS%20JM%2FMS.JM%2FI28
  15. ^ Hibbard, Bund, 212; Shanghai Almanac and Miscellany (1856):111, where Richards is listed as "Ship Chandlers, General Store-keeper, Shipping Victuallers."
  16. ^ "Ladies of Old Shanghai on the 4th Avenue", Multitext (29 June 2009), http://multipletext.com/2009/6-Shanghai_ladies.htm
  17. ^ Swislocki, 103. This would make its location half way between Jiangxi Middle Road and Henan Middle Road on Fuzhou Road.
  18. ^ Swislocki, 103. This business continued to operate until at least 1859, see North-China Herald (25 July 1851), and Shanghai Almanac and Miscellany (1856):111.
  19. ^ North-China Herald (3 August 1850):1. For an extensive list of products sold, see North-China Herald (17 May 1851):1.
  20. ^ F.L. Hawks Potts, A Short History of Shanghai (Kelly & Walsh, 1928), http://www.earnshaw.com/shanghai-ed-india/tales/library/pott/pott02.htm
  21. ^ Mark Swislocki, Culinary Nostalgia: Regional Food Culture and the Urban Experience in Shanghai (Stanford University Press, 2008):107.
  22. ^ Hibbard suggests that the Hotel was established in 1844. See Hibbard, Bund, 212.
  23. ^ From 1849 the Creek was the boundary between the French and British Concessions. It was subsequently drained by order of the French Municipal Council in May 1915 and became Avenue Edward VII. See Christian Henriot, ed., Virtual Shanghai: Shanghai Urban Space in Time, http://www.virtualshanghai.net/Image.php?ID=65; Robert Dollar, Memoirs of Robert Dollar: 69; Shanghai History, http://autumnjade.com/shanghai_history.html) (now Yanan Dong Lu, see See "Street Names", Tales of Old Shanghai; http://www.talesofoldchina.com/shanghai/places/t-plac02.htm).
  24. ^ "Some Pages in the History of Shanghai, 1842-1856", The Asiatic Review [East India Association] 9-10 (1916):129.
  25. ^ Hibbard, Bund, 212; and http://www.pujianghotel.com/e-cn-1.htm
  26. ^ Some sources indicate the original location was "on Astor Road (now Jinmen Lu)"; See "The Pub with No Peer", Shanghai Star (16 January 2003); http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2003/0116/cu18-2.html; and Vivian Wang, "Hotel with a History", China Daily (Hong Kong edition) (17 January 2003); http://www2.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-01/17/content_151819.htm. However, Astor Road is now Jinshan Lu. See "Street Names", Tales of Old Shanghai; http://www.talesofoldchina.com/shanghai/places/t-plac02.htm (accessed 8 July 2009). This is near the site of the current hotel.
  27. ^ "Five-star legend", Shanghai Daily News (18 April 2005); http://english.eastday.com/eastday/englishedition/node20665/node20667/node22808/node45576/node45577/userobject1ai1026003.html (accessed 11 April 2009).
  28. ^ Teikoku Tetsudōchō, Japan, An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: Trans-Continental Connections between Europe and Asia Vol. 4 (Imperial Japanese Government Railways, 1915):233.
  29. ^ George Lanning and Samuel Couling, The History of Shanghai (The Shanghai Municipal Council; Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1921):434-435.
  30. ^ Property Details: http://www.wotif.com/hotel/View?hotel=W47786
  31. ^ "Some Pages in the History of Shanghai, 1842-1856", The Asiatic Review [East India Association] 9-10 (1916):129; George Lanning and Samuel Couling, The History of Shanghai Part 1 (Shanghai: For the Shanghai Municipal Council by Kelly. & Walsh, Limited, 1921; 1973 ed.):290; J.H. Haan, "Origin and Development of the Political System in the Shanghai International Settlement", Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 22 (1982):38; http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/44/4401496.pdf
  32. ^ "Public Auction", North-China Herald (17 May 1851):1.
  33. ^ "Fierce Piratical Attacks", Allen's Indian Mail and Register of Intelligence for British and Foreign India, China, and All Parts of the East, Vol. XII (London: H. Allen and Co., 1854):528; THE EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES (1859):423.
  34. ^ Maurice Charles Merttins Swabey, ed., Reports of Cases Decided in the High Court of Admiralty of England: And on Appeal to the Privy Council. 1855-1859 (Butterworths, 1860):389; David Maclachlan, A Treatise on the Law of Merchant Shipping (Maxwell, 1860):149).
  35. ^ Using the retail price index, this is the equivalent of £474,636.78 in 2008, or using the consumer price index, $20,000 in 1855 is the equivalent of US$513,850 in 2010. See Lawrence H. Officer, "Purchasing Power of British Pounds from 1264 to Present," MeasuringWorth, 2009, http://www.measuringworth.com/ppoweruk/; and Samuel H. Williamson, "Six Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1790 to Present," MeasuringWorth, 2009, http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/
  36. ^ a b Swabey, 382ff.
  37. ^ Maclachlan, 149.
  38. ^ Using the consumer price index, $40,000 in 1855 is the equivalent of $1,027,699.28 in 2010. See Samuel H. Williamson, "Six Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1790 to Present," MeasuringWorth, 2009, http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/
  39. ^ Swabey, 387.
  40. ^ Swabey,382ff, 389, 391.
  41. ^ Essex Institute Historical Collections 97 (1961):63.
  42. ^ Index to the Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Representatives (1856):26; Lanning & Couling, 384.
  43. ^ Swabey, 393-394, 403.
  44. ^ Their family name was sometimes printed as "McKenzie". Shanghai Almanac and Miscellany (1856); 1841 Scotland Census; "Notice", North-China Herald (9 September 1857):2.
  45. ^ "Miscellaneous: Notice", North-China Herald (2 February 1856).
  46. ^ "Miscellaneous: Notice", North-China Herald, (1 March 1856):1.
  47. ^ a b North-China Herald (15 March 1856):1; Swabey, 397; Shanghae Almanac for the Bissextile or Leap Year of 1856 and Miscellany, Vol. 5 (Printed at the "North-China Herald" Office., 1856).
  48. ^ Swabey, 399.
  49. ^ Wills died on 8 September 1857 at sea on board the P&O steamer Bengal. See "Deaths", North-China Herald (31 October 1857):2.
  50. ^ "In H.B.M.'s Consular Court in Shanghai, China", dated 15 May 1856 North-China Herald, (26 July 1856):1; W.H. Vacher, and C. Wills, "In re P.F. Richards & Co. of China, Insolvents", dated 15 May 1856 North-China Herald (24 May 1856); Swabey, 383, 396, 399; Appellant: James Farquhar Morice and Richard Towne of 63 Cannon Street, London, joint owners of the ship Margaret Mitchell Respondent: Ellis James Gilman, Richard J Ashton and Charles Freeman, all of 39 Lombard Street, London, attorneys of William Herbert Vacher and Charles Wills both of Shanghai, China, alleged lawful assignees of the estate and effects of Peter Felix Richards, alleged sole owner of said ship, and also Peter Felix Richards of Shanghai Subject: Ownership Lower Court: High Court of Admiralty of England. See PCAP 1/253: "Registrar of Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Causes of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: Processes", Records of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/displaycataloguedetails.asp?CATLN=6&CATID=4553332; See also: PCAP 3/26; Registrar of Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Causes of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: Processes; http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/displaycataloguedetails.asp?CATLN=6&CATID=4553332&FullDetails=True&Gsm=2008-02-12&j=1
  51. ^ W.H. Vacher, and C. Wills, "In re P.F. Richards & Co. of China, Insolvents", dated 15 May 1856 North-China Herald (24 May 1856).
  52. ^ Swabey, 397, 401.
  53. ^ "Obituary", Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography 3 (1881):366-367, https://www.jstor.org/pss/1800512
  54. ^ D.B. Robertson, "In H.B.M.'s Consular Court at Shanghae", 16 August 1857, North-China Herald (29 August 1857):1.
  55. ^ "Circular", North-China Herald (22 August 1857):2.
  56. ^ "Five-star legend", Shanghai Daily News (18 April 2005); http://english.eastday.com/eastday/englishedition/node20665/node20667/node22808/node45576/node45577/userobject1ai1026003.html (accessed 11 April 2009); Dong, 208.
  57. ^ "Notice of Removal", North-China Herald (6 February 1858):2.
  58. ^ Great Britain. Supreme Court of Judicature, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, Great Britain. Privy Council, The Weekly Reporter, Vol. 11 (Wildy & sons, 1863):794. On 24 September 1859, the ship was under the control of Dewar Stiles, in Sydney, Australia. See "Mariners and Ships in Australian Waters", http://mariners.records.nsw.gov.au/1858/09/031mar.htm; State Records Authority of New South Wales: Shipping Master's Office; Passengers Arriving 1855-1922; NRS13278, [X96-100] reel 406.
  59. ^ "OF FOREING (sic) RESIDENTS AND MERCANTILE FIRMS AT SHANGHAI", The Hongkong Directory: With List of Foreign Residents in China 2nd ed. (The "Armenian Press", 1859):76, 90; "Five-star legend", Shanghai Daily News (18 April 2005); http://english.eastday.com/eastday/englishedition/node20665/node20667/node22808/node45576/node45577/userobject1ai1026003.html (accessed 11 April 2009); Dong, 208.
  60. ^ "A Trip Around the World: Miss Grace Hawthorne, the Actress, Talks of Her Journeyings," The New York Times (13 October 1895):28; https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1895/10/13/102477237.pdf
  61. ^ John B. Powell, My Twenty Five Years in China (1945; Reprint: READ BOOKS, 2008):7.
  62. ^ P.F. Richards, "Notice", North-China Herald (29 December 1860):1.
  63. ^ E. S. Elliston, Shantung Road Cemetery, Shanghai, 1846-1868: With Notes About Pootung Seamen's Cemetery [and] Soldiers' Cemetery (Millington, 1946):26.
  64. ^ North-China Herald (6 April 1861), dated 17 March at Tientsin. Eric Politzer located this source.
  65. ^ D.F. Rennie, Peking and the Pekingese During the First Year of the British Embassy at Peking, 2 vols. (London: J. Murray):304.
  66. ^ See Shearburn Family Tree, http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/780374/person/-778444995; England & Wales, Death Index: 1916-2005: Death Registration Month/Year: 1920. Age at death (estimated): 58; Registration district: Colchester Inferred County: Essex Volume: 4a Page: 731.
  67. ^ See 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871.
  68. ^ The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c (The Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1866):224.
  69. ^ Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford, The Attache at Peking (London: Macmillan, 1900):45
  70. ^ Probate was granted on 3 December 1868 based on the application of David Mackenzie, a general merchant employed by P.F. Richards & Co., and possibly Richards' brother-in-law. See FO 917/61: "Administration and Probate of Estates and Wills", Foreign Office: Supreme Court, Shanghai, China: Probate Records, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/displaycataloguedetails.asp?CATLN=6&CATID=2578709
  71. ^ 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871; 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Hovingham County/Island: Yorkshire Country: England Registration district: Malton Sub-registration district: Hovingham ED, institution, or vessel: 1 Household schedule number: 104. Class: RG10; Piece: 4826; Folio: 12; Page: 18; GSU roll: 847365; 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Grantham Ecclesiastical parish: Grantham Town: Grantham County/Island: Lincolnshire Country: England Registration district: Grantham Sub-registration district: Grantham ED, institution, or vessel: 2 Household schedule number: 9 Class: RG10; Piece: 3358; Folio: 32; Page: 2; GSU roll: 839360.
  72. ^ 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871.
  73. ^ See 1881 Scotland Census. Parish: Edinburgh St Cuthberts; ED: 95; Page: 7; Line: 13; Roll cssct1881_293; Year: 1881.
  74. ^ 1891 Scotland Census. Registration Number: 685/5 Registration district: Newington Civil parish: Edinburgh St Cuthberts County: Midlothian Address: 88 Polwarth Gdns Occupation: Private Means ED: 136 Household schedule number: 79 Line: 5 Roll: CSSCT1891_358.
  75. ^ 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Hovingham County/Island: Yorkshire Country: England Registration district: Malton Sub-registration district: Hovingham ED, institution, or vessel: 1 Household schedule number: 104. Class: RG10; Piece: 4826; Folio: 12; Page: 18; GSU roll: 847365.
  76. ^ 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Grantham Ecclesiastical parish: Grantham Town: Grantham County/Island: Lincolnshire Country: England Registration district: Grantham Sub-registration district: Grantham ED, institution, or vessel: 2 Household schedule number: 9 Class: RG10; Piece: 3358; Folio: 32; Page: 2; GSU roll: 839360.
  77. ^ 1901 England Census. Civil parish: Hammersmith Ecclesiastical parish: Christchurch West Kensington Park and St Matthew County/Island: London Country: England Registration district: Fulham Sub-registration district: South Hammersmith (including Starch Green) ED, institution, or vessel: 22 Household schedule number: 127. Class: RG13; Piece: 48; Folio: 131; Page: 21.
  78. ^ 1891 England Census. Civil parish: Croydon Ecclesiastical parish: St Paul Town: Thornton Heath County/Island: Surrey Country: England Registration district: Croydon Sub-registration district: Croydon ED, institution, or vessel: 62. Class: RG12; Piece: 597; Folio 30; Page 3; GSU roll: 6095707.
  79. ^ Charter, Supplemental Charters, By-Laws, and List of Members of the Institution of Civil Engineers (1895):138; Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 214 (Institution of Civil Engineers, 1922):205.
  80. ^ William Phillimore Watts Phillimore and Edward Alexander Fry, eds., An Index to Changes of Name: Under Authority of Act of Parliament Or Royal License (BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009):212.
  81. ^ By 1836 it had been opened as a Private Lunatic Asylum. It was probably the last privately owned lunatic asylum in the country. The building was demolished about 1960. See Walter Rye, "HEIGHAM HALL ASYLUM", in History of the Parish of Heigham in the City of Norwich (Norwich: Roberts & Co, 1917), http://www.welbank.net/norwich/hist.html#hhall; "Heigham Hall Private Mental Hospital, Norwich", http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nra/searches/subjectView.asp?ID=O45571; Jonathan Tooke, "Hidden Histories: Discovering Disability in Norwich's Museum Collections: A Research Project for Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service", http://www.renaissance-east.org.uk/UserData/root/Files/Hidden%20Histories%20Report.pdf[permanent dead link]
  82. ^ Alexander Macrae, History of the Clan Macrae with Genealogies (A.A. Ross & Co., 1899):119; England & Wales, Death Index Death Registration Month/Year: 1954 Age at death (estimated): 85 Registration District: Norwich Inferred County: Norfolk Volume: 4b Page: 528.
  83. ^ Kenneth studied at the University of London, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1915. Kenneth was a scientist who worked in the area of paint pigments, and was also a member of the Oil & Colour Chemists' Association. In the third quarter of 1921 Kenneth married Elizabeth M. Brown (born about 1885; died 1948) at Kensington. After the death of Elizabeth in 1948, Kenneth married Celia Margaret Maples (née Dean) (born 28 June 1908 at Wandsworth; died September 1988 at Cambridge) (the widow of Charles John Maples (born about 1908 in London, England), an accountant, whom she had married at Battersea in the 2nd quarter of 1932) at Kensington in the second quarter of 1949. See England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837-1915 > 1894 > Q3-Jul-Aug-Sep. Page 328. District: Kensington County: Greater London, London, Middlesex Volume: 1a Page: 104; England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916-2005 > 1921 > Q3-Jul-Aug-Sep > B > 106 and Volume Number: 1a Page Number: 329. See England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, Year of Registration: 1908 Quarter of Registration: Jul-Aug-Sep District: Wandsworth County: Greater London, London, Surrey Volume: 1d Page: 731; England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916-2005. Registration district: Kensington Registration county (inferred): Middlesex Volume Number: 5c Page Number: 2567; University of London, Calendar (1929):710; New York Passenger Lists Year: 6 January 1939; Ship Name: George Washington; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_6270; Lines: 29 and 30; K. Mackenzie-Richards, "Some Aspects of the Fading of Colored Pigments", J. Oil & Colour Chemists Assoc. 22 (1939):262-276; England & Wales, Death Index: Sep 1988 Birth Date: 28 Jun 1908 Death Registration Month/Year: Sep 1988 Age at death (estimated): 80 Registration district: Cambridge Inferred County: Cambridgeshire Volume: 9 Page: 574.
  84. ^ Campbell married Mirabel Cobbold (born 1904) on 17 August 1927 at Aldburgh, Suffolk. See The Aircraft Engineer (28 July 1927):530, http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1927/1927%20-%200578.html; and (1 September 1927):626, http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1927/1927%20-%200680.html; England & Wales, Marriage Index. Date of Registration: Jul-Aug-Sep 1927 Registration district: Plomesgate Registration county (inferred): Suffolk Volume Number: 4a Page Number: 2837. He was baptised on 1 March 1900 at the Holy Trinity Church at Upper Tooting. See London Metropolitan Archives, Holy Trinity, Upper Tooting, Register of Baptisms, Including Baptisms at Saint Augustine, Tooting, P95/TRI2, Item 004. 1900. Page 6. He was a Flight Officer (later Flight Lieutenant) in the Royal Air Force attached to the experimental staff of the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. He was the first to fly the two-seat Gloster Grebe. Campbell was killed in a night flying accident on 9 November 1927 at Surrey. He is buried at the parish church of St. Andrew, Great Yeldham. Campbell had one child with Mirabel, Gillian, who was born posthumously. See Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Parliamentary Debates: Official Report, Vol. 210 (H.M. Stationery Off., 1928); "Monumental Inscriptions", Seax - Essex Archives Online, http://seax.essexcc.gov.uk/result_details.asp?DocID=513067; United Service and Royal Aero Club (Great Britain), Flight International 81 (IPC Transport Press Ltd., 1962):778; Charles Harry Clinton Pirie-Gordon, ed., Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry: Founded by the Late Sir Bernard Burke, Vol. 1, 15th ed. (Shaw, 1937):440; Ces Mowthorpe, Sky Sailors: The Story of the World's Airshipmen (Sutton, 1999):69; Francis K. Mason, The Gloster Gladiator (Issue 98 of Profile Publications) (Macdonald, 1964):13; United States Naval Institute, Naval Institute Proceedings 52 (1926):2548; "FO Campbell MACKENZIE-RICHARDS RAF (1900–1927)", http://cobboldfht.com/family-tree.php/people/view/497; "Family Tree", http://cobboldfht.com/family-tree.php/tree/view/person:496/marriage:314; England & Wales, Death Index (October–December 1927), Registration district: East Grinstead Inferred County: Sussex Volume: 2b Page: 179.
  85. ^ England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index: Year of Registration: 1902 Quarter of Registration: Oct-Nov-Dec District: Tendring County: Essex Volume: 4a Page: 759.
  86. ^ Mary married John C.P. Cox at Bedford, Bedfordshire in the third quarter of 1939. England & Wales, Marriage Index: Date of Registration: Jul-Aug-Sep 1939 Registration district: Bedford Registration county (inferred): Bedfordshire Volume Number: 3b Page Number: 1231
  87. ^ See 1901 England Census. Class: RG13; Piece: 475; Folio: 29; Page: 50. Civil parish: Streatham Ecclesiastical parish: Ascension Balham Hill County/Island: London Country: England; Registration district: Wandsworth; Sub-registration district: Streatham; ED, institution, or vessel: 37; Household schedule number: 325; Shearburn Family Tree, http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/780374/person/-778444995; England & Wales, Death Index: 1916-2005: Death Registration Month/Year: 1920. Age at death (estimated):58; Registration district: Colchester Inferred County: Essex Volume: 4a Page: 731.
  88. ^ The Sanitary Record and Journal of Sanitary and Municipal Engineering, Vol. 25 (Sanitary Pub. Co., 1900); London Phone Book (1906). Exchange: Victoria City/Town: Victoria, Westminster Directory title: London Surnames A - Z Jul Publication Year: 1906 Directory County: London Page Number: 319; Directory title: London Surnames A-Z Apr Publication Year: 1916 Directory County: London Page Number: 488.
  89. ^ Shearburn Family Tree, http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/780374/person/-778444995; England & Wales, Death Index: 1916-2005: Death Registration Month/Year: 1920. Age at death (estimated):58; Registration district: Colchester Inferred County: Essex Volume: 4a Page: 731.
  90. ^ Simon Shearburn, e-mail, (18 January 2010). However, as the Spanish flu pandemic had abated by June 1920, six months before Peter's death, the family tradition may need to be discounted.
  91. ^ 1871 England Census: Class: RG10; Piece: 695; Folio: 86; Page: 11; GSU roll: 823337.
  92. ^ See London Metropolitan Archives, Saint Saviour, Hampstead, Register of marriages, P81/SAV, Item 007.
  93. ^ The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c (The Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1894):657. Dodwell Carlill & Co. was founded in 1891. In 1899 the name of the company was changed to Dodwell & Co Ltd. In 1972 the company was acquired by Inchcape plc. See http://www.iss-shipping.com/aboutiss-isshistory.aspx ; Dan Waters, "Hong Kong Hongs with Long Histories and British Connections", 228-229
  94. ^ Ronald was a graduate of the University of Toronto, and served as a private in the London Scottish Regiment during World War One, and was killed during the First Battle of Ypres, making him the first University of Toronto graduate to be killed during the War. See http://Military-Genealogy.forcesreunited.org.uk UK, Soldiers Died in the Great War, 1914-1919. Death Date: 14 Nov 1914 Enlistment Location: Golders Green Rank: Private Regiment: London Regiment Battalion: 14th (County of London) Battalion (London Scottish). Number: 3136 Type of Casualty: Killed in action Theatre of War: Aldershot; Martin L. Friedland, The University of Toronto: A History (University of Toronto Press, 2002):253; University of Toronto, Roll of Service, 1914-1918 (1919):118; Archibald Hope Young, and W. A. Kirkwood, The War Memorial Volume of Trinity College, Toronto (Printers Guild, 1922):xv.
  95. ^ See 1901 England Census. Civil parish: Hitchin Ecclesiastical parish: Hitchin St Mary Town: Hitchin County/Island: Hertfordshire Country: England Registration district: Hitchin Sub-registration district: Hitchin ED, institution, or vessel: 10 Household schedule number: 122. Class: RG13; Piece: 1302; Folio: 81; Page: 21.