Peter H. Raven

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Peter Raven[1]
Peter Raven smiling, October 16, 2007.jpg
Peter Raven, after receiving the Addison Emery Verrill Award
Born Peter Hamilton Raven
June 13, 1936 (1936-06-13) (age 81)
Shanghai, China
Nationality American
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley,
University of California, Los Angeles
Spouse(s) Sally Ruth Barrett Raven (deceased), 1958-1968
Tamra Engelhorn Raven, 1968-1995
Kathryn Edith Fish, 1996-2000
Patricia Jane Duncan Raven, 2001-present
Children Alice Catherine Raven (born 1959)
Elizabeth Marie Raven(born 1961)
Francis Clark Raven (born 1977)
Kathryn Amelia Raven (born 1982)
Awards International Prize for Biology (1986)
Volvo Environment Prize (1992)
Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement (1994)
AAAS Philip Hauge Abelson Prize (1997)
International Cosmos Prize (2003)
ANZAAS Medal (2004)
Scientific career
Fields Botany, Evolutionary biology, Biodiversity
Institutions Stanford University,
Missouri Botanical Garden
Washington University in St. Louis

Peter Hamilton Raven FMLS (born June 13, 1936) is an American botanist and environmentalist, notable as the longtime director, now President Emeritus, of the Missouri Botanical Garden.[2]

Early life[edit]

On June 13, 1936, Raven was born in Shanghai, China to American parents. An uncle of his father's was, for a time, one of the wealthiest Americans in China, but was later jailed in a banking scandal. That incident and Japanese aggression in China led the Raven family to return to San Francisco, CA in the late 1930s.

After becoming a member of the California Academy of Sciences while still a youth, Raven went on to graduate with a BSc in Biology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1957 and a Ph.D. in botany from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1960.

Career[edit]

After teaching at Stanford University, Raven went on to become Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1971. In 2006, his position was renamed President and Director. Raven announced his plans to retire in 2011, to coincide with his 75th birthday and his 40th year at the Garden. Peter Wyse Jackson was appointed as Raven's successor at the Missouri Botanical Garden in September 2010.

Raven is possibly best known for his work Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution published in the journal Evolution in 1964 which he coauthored with Paul R. Ehrlich. Since then he has authored numerous scientific and popular papers, many on the evening primrose family, Onagraceae. Raven is also an author of the widely used textbook Biology of Plants, now in its eighth edition, coauthored with Ray F. Evert and Susan E. Eichhorn (both of University of Wisconsin, Madison).

He is a frequent speaker on the need for biodiversity and species conservation.

In 2000, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists established the Peter Raven Award in his honor to be conferred to authors with outstanding contributions to plant taxonomy and "for exceptional efforts at outreach to non-scientists".

He serves on the advisory council of CRDF Global. He served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, from 1993-1996.

Research[edit]

Raven has published more than 700 articles, books, and monographs covering topics in Evolution, Taxonomy and Systematics, Biogeography, Coevolution, Plant Conservation, Ethnobotany, and Public Policy, including several text books[3].

During his early years he was associated with and led Sierra Club outings for several weeks at a time, after which he published "Base Camp Reports." Published from 1950 to 1956, these reports covered a wide range of subjects, including plant lists, insects, and ecology. His first such report, at the age of 14, summarized 506 plant collections representing 337 species collected in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Inyo and Fresno Counties. G. Ledyard Stebbins was a counselor on this particular trip, identified by Raven as Prof. G. L. "Led" Stebbins.[4]

During this time he also published on new weed species and other plants found in and around San Francisco as well as the Sierra Nevada Mountains.[5][6][7][8][9]


In 1950 Raven, at the age of 14, had collected a plant called C. rubicunda.[10] In the early 1950's, in the course of revising the genus Clarkia Harlan Lewis and his wife Margaret Lewis discovered the herbarium specimen collected by Raven.[10] They visited him in 1952 when he was 16, and wanted to know where the collection was made.[10] Lewis eventually located the new species, and in 1958 Lewis and Raven[11] published a botanical description of this plant, called C. franciscana, which was morphologically very closely related to C. rubicunda and C. amoena.

Evolution[edit]

While a graduate student at the University of California, Los Angeles, Raven and Harlan Lewis published a major paper in 1958 on the evolution of C. franciscana, and generalized to what was by then a general a pattern of speciation in Clarkia.[12]They concluded that C. franciscana had evolved from Clarkia rubicunda; and they asserted that C. franciscana's origin mirrored a recurring theme in Clarkia of a derived species showing a close morphological similarity to a parental species, the derived species being geographically proximal, but differing from the parent by chromosomal differences and showing interspecific sterility. Further, they hypothesized that such speciation in Clarkia was rapid, and perhaps occurred within the last 12,000 years.

Additionally, they hypothesized that this rapid mode of speciation seen in Clarkia was analogous to a mode of speciation known as quantum evolution:

Several diploid species of Clarkia (Onagraceae) have very limited areas of distribution (Lewis and Lewis, 1955). Most of these grow adjacent to or are surrounded by other closely related species that resemble them so closely that they would ordinarily be regarded as conspecific. Specific status is accorded to them because of reproductive isolation coupled with at least one consistent difference in external morphology. This pattern recurs with sufficient constancy to suggest that the various examples have a common explanation, with similar factors operating in each instance. This pattern suggests to us a rapid shift of the adaptive mode, such as Simpson (1944) termed quantum evolution, at the diploid specific level. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate this process by a consideration of the mode of origin of a narrow serpentine endemic, Clarkia franciscana Lewis and Raven (1958)...The repeated occurrence of the same pattern of differentiation in Clarkia suggests that a rapid reorganization of chromosomes has been an important mode of evolution in the genus. This rapid reorganization of the chromosomes is comparable to the systemic mutations proposed by Goldschmidt as a mechanism of macroevolution. In Clarkia, we have not observed marked changes in physiology and pattern of development that could be described as macroevolution. Reorganization of the genomes may, however, set the stage for subsequent evolution along a very different course from that of the ancestral populations.

Following his early publication in 1958 on evolution of C. franciscana, Raven went on to publish many papers on evolutionary topics. While at Stanford University, with Paul R. Ehrlich, he coined the term coevolution after a 1964 review of butterflies and their food plants[13]. Based on a review of insect and plant literature, they hypothesized that

the evolution of secondary plant substances and the stepwise evolutionary responses to these by phytophagous organisms have clearly been the dominant factors in the evolution of butterflies and other phytophagous groups. Furthermore, these secondary plant substances have probably been critical in the evolution of angiosperm subgroups and perhaps of the angiosperms themselves. The examination of broad patterns of coevolution permits several levels of predictions and shows promise as a route to the understanding of community evolution...It is apparent that reciprocal selective responses have been greatly underrated as a factor in the origination of organic diversity.

In a 1969 paper Ehrlich and Raven were also critical of the idea that the definition of species as advocated by Ernst Mayr, Theodosius Dobzhansky, and G. Ledyard Stebbins had very little meaning for plants.[14] They concluded:

Evidence is presented from a variety of sources which indicates that species should not be thought of as evolutionary units held together by the cohesive force of gene flow. Gene flow in nature is much more restricted than commonly thought and experimental evidence is badly needed to document the extent to which it does occur. Selection itself is both the primary cohesive and disruptive force in evolution; the selective regime determines what influence gene flow has on observed patterns of differentiation. Populations will differentiate if they are subjected to different selective forces and will tend to remain similar if they are not. For sexual organisms it is the local interbreeding population and not the species that is clearly the evolutionary unit of importance.

In 1978 Sussman and Raven[15]advanced the idea that nonflying mammals, such as primates and marsupials, could have been significant pollinators but were outcompeted by nectar-feeding birds and bats. Any coevolved relationships between flowering plant species and non-flying mammal pollinators that persist at the present would appear to be "living fossils, which have a great deal to tell us about the evolution of both the mammals, including some of our antecedents, and of the flowering plants."

Raven wrote a review of the plant population data as of 1979, and identified several themes that he felt had potential for future research, including the above theme of the species problem.[16]He said:

Many areas of investigation in the field of population biology are pushing the limits of time-honored concepts. In systematics, for example, taxonomic categories are being seen as useful ways to summarize natural variation and not as operationally definable units that have evolutionary, genetic, and ecological validity.

He went on to assert that developmental biology would be more important in the future:[16]

It should be possible to learn more about the kinds of functional blocks of genes that are predicted on theoretical bases. The interactions between these, and the ways in which they can be altered in producing varient phenotypes, will, when properly understood, provide a basis for the phenomena that have been loosely been termed genetic homeostasis or genotypic integration in the past.

He advocated another theme, that being that funding should be provided for study on a few species rather than spread amongst many in order to solve population biology problems:[16]

The organisms to be studied in such exhaustive depth ought certainly to be selected with the greatest care. Perhaps even major funding...could be found for a concentrated attack on the ecological genetics of a few well-selected plants. When we know how some populations function in detail, we shall then be in a position to know why species remain as coherent units even in the absence of gene flow, what a "genetic revolution" means at the population level...and how and under what conditions morphologically and ecologically distinct units are produced. In my opinion, not a single one of these questions will ever be answered by the continued separate application of the traditional methods of genetics, taxonomy, or ecology...

In 1980 Raven continued discussing problems associated with defining species in plants.[17]He discussed the widespread ability of plant species to hybridize, especially in perennial plants, and the historical observations of such back to 1717. He used as examples of perennial plants in the genera Epilobium, Scaevola, Bidens, and Ceanothus as examples of plants that appeared to use hybridization as a means to adapting to new environments. He stated "If the hybrids are particularly favored in specific ecological situations, asexual reproduction, polyploidy, or simply autogamy may favor the perpetuation of specific genotypes through a narrowing of the spectrum of genetic recombination characteristic of the population. No general conclusions about the most appropriate way to treat these populations taxonomically appear to be possible." In annual plants, using examples from Clarkia, he asserted that several species of Clarkia often occur sympatrically, yet hybrids are very rare in the wild," and that much of the sterility is due to chromosomal repatterning between species." He said:

The severe limitations on gene flow as it is actually observed in nature, and the intensive nature of adaptation to the local environment exhibited by populations of organisms, have made it evident over the past 20 years that the species should not be regarded as a fundamental unit of evolution except in terms of relationships...For plants at least, the uncritical acceptance of typological statements such as that recently published by M.J.D. White...is highly misleading as a guide for the interpretation of populations in nature...In both annuals and longlived plants, it is likely that selection for better adapted populations in a mosaic environment continually provides a supply of evolutionary novelties. A few of these, especially if they are suited to novel or marginal ecological conditions, become successful. Reproductive isolation is neither necessary nor an inevitable end point for plant species, and interspecific hybridization itself may be a highly adaptive and nearly universal feature of population systems in plants...In many ways, the normal mechanism of speciation in plants as just described appears to be highly compatible with the evolutionary pattern described in the field of paleobiology as the theory of punctuated equilibria...

In 1980 Raven and coauthors reviewed the literature concerning fungal symbiosis in vascular plants.[18]They reviewed two kinds of fungal-plant associations: endomycorrhizal and endoomycorrhizal. They reported that endomycorrhizal fungi, which penetrate plant cells, are found in 80% of all vascular plants, including ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, and are found in forests of high species richness. On the other hand, ectomycorrhizal fungi, which do not penetrate plant cells, occur in forests of low species richness, are usually in temperate forests, or infertile soils of the tropics. Further, they hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal forests have expanded through the Middle Cretaceous at the expense of endomycorrhizal forests.

Raven's Ph.D. thesis was on a genus within the Onagraceae, and his interest on the evolution of plants within this family as well as the Myrtales runs through his entire career.[10][3]In 1988 he published a review of the Onagraceae, covering its taxonomy, evolution, cytogenetics, anatomy, breeding systems, and geographic distribution.[19]He asserted that the family was the best known plant family of its size, and proposed that further studies of the family would be useful in understanding of "variation and evolution of plants in the future."

Biogeography[edit]

Raven showed an early interest in plant disjunctions prior to the wide acceptance of plate tectonic theory of the late 1960's[20], and was an early adopter of plate tectonics in explaining plant disjunctions by the early 1970's.[21]

The Nothofagus plant genus illustrates Gondwanan distribution, having descended from the supercontinent and existing in present-day Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and the Southern Cone. Fossils have also recently been found in Antarctica.[22]

In 1963 Raven published a review of amphitropical distributions of plant species in North and South America.[20] He divided species into three groups: biopolar or high-latitude species, temperate species, and desert species. He concluded that:

(1) the North and South American populations are closely related; (2) the plants are almost without exception self-compatible and often autogamous; (3) they constitute an unbalanced assemblage entirely unrepresentative of the floras of the two extratropical areas; (4) they grow almost exclusively in open communities, not in woodland or scrub associations; (5) there are no corresponding cases among terrestrial vertebrates and very few among the insects; and (6) the floras of the two areas have been distinct since at least the middle Cretaceous and are still very different at present...The only explanation that accounts for all of these facts seems to be that at least the great majority of the plants reached their disjunct areas by long-distance dispersal relatively recently...those that may have differentiated from common ancestors that spanned the tropics, no time has probably been more likely than the recent past. Both bipolar and temperate disjuncts have come mostly from the north...and are almost entirely herbaceous. The desert disjuncts, on the other hand, often appear to have originated in the south...or to have diverged from a common tropical ancestor. Many of them are woody.

In 1974, with Daniel I. Axelrod, Raven published an extensive article on plant and animal biogeography in the context of plate tectonics[23]. They stated that the new plate tectonic theory "did not require any new modifications of previously established major principles of evolution...however there were new principles of biogeography..." These were:

Lands may be rafted across latitudinal belts of climate which may lead to a) widespread impoverishment of the biota (India), b) new opportunities for change (arid flora of Australia), or c) lead even to the total decimation of a rich biota (Antarctica). Since moving plates may carry ancient biota far from the area in which they lived, reconstructions of ancient biotic zones and climates must take cognizance of such changes

After an extensive review of the literature, they concluded:

West Gondwanaland was a primary area of evolution for many major groups, possibly including birds, marsupials, snakes, and anurans, but certainly many orders of angiosperms, and perhaps the earliest angiosperms themselves. The area included vast arid to subhumid tracts in tropical latitudes, terrain and edaphic conditions were diverse, and there was ample opportunity for rapid evolution. Opening the South Atlantic 125-130 m.y. BP, which signaled the spread of more mesic climates over much of the region, seems to have triggered the main evolutionary radiation and surge of angiosperms into the mesic lowland record 110 m.y. BP. By the Paleocene, Africa and South America were separated by a gap of only 800 km, populated with volcanic islands that aided east-west dispersal of tropical taxa.

In 1978, again with Axelrod, they published on the origin and complexity of Californian flora.[24]They reviewed that the flora of California consisted of "northern, temperate elements and xeric, southern elements, and is characterized by a high degree of endemism." They proposed that the reasons for the large number of species in the state as well as the endemics is due to the favorable climate that has prevailed in California for most of the Tertiary, as well as the recent elevation of the Sierra Nevada and other ranges, together with: "The concomitant development of a cold off-shore current which ultimately resulted in the development of a mediterranean, summer-dry climate during the past million years...The endemics of California are a mixture of relicts and newly produced species...and it is the latter that have contributed most to the size of the flora and to the high proportion of endemism in it." They continued:

The proportion of dicots, and especially of annual dicots, is unusually high; and it is the dicot groups in which a proliferation of species has taken place in recent geologic time that have made the greatest contribution to the high number of species and high proportion of endemism in the flora of California. In general, the flora of California resembles the weedy flora of the world in its high proportion of annuals, and like it, has evolved in response to recent climatic change and periodic drought...In a historical context, the flora of California can be thought of as comprising two elements: a northern, or Arcto-Tertiary one, and a southern, or Madro-Tertiary one...Within the broad ecotone between these fundamentally different vegetation types, a summer-dry climate developed following the Pliocene and provided the major stimulus for the proliferation of species and some genera...The relict genera and species occur in the areas both where Arcto-Tertiary and where Madro-Tertiary elements predominate but are best represented in areas of relatively high summer rainfall. Their survival in California has been conditioned by the equability of the climate of the coastal portions of the region which provided a haven for evolutionary oddities that were often more widespread in the past. In contrast, the neoendemics are best represented in areas of full mediterranean climate, especially those in ecotonal situations, where they have developed rapidly, mostly in response to the vicissitudes of an oscillating we-dry climate during the past several million years...The deserts...are recent in their present context, but analogous pockets of semiarid vegetation that probably occurred farther south included many of their ancestors. The Inyo region, with at least seven endemic species, stands out floristically among these desert regions, with many endemic species, especially on the steep limestone cliffs near Death Valley...The upper elevations of the Sierra Nevada and the arid flats of the Central Valley are geologically recent habitats with relatively few endemics and almost no relects, whereas the middle elevations of the Central Coast Ranges, the Islands, and northwestern Baja California are ecotonal regions of equable climate that are inhabited by many endemics, both ancient and recently derived. The Klamath-Siskiyou Region, with its varied topography and relatively abundant warm-season precipitation, and the North-Coast region in general, are outstanding centers in which relict species have survived...Edaphic endemism has been important in the derivation of the flora of California, with serpentine and associated ultrabasic rocks playing a key role. Many of the species that are wholly or partly restricted to such substrates are older than the development of the soils in which they occur, and appear to have been progressively restricted to these soils on account of their high moisture-holding capacity as the climate has become progressively drier. In a number of actively evolving groups, however, neoendemics also originated on these soils during the Quaternary...Among woody plants and perennial herbs of California, the origin of new species following interspecific hybridization...has been frequent...there have been abundant recent opportunities for evolution. Annual dicots have produced scores of new species, especially in ecotonal areas, through combinations of autogamy, polyploidy, and saltational speciation...The naturalized flora of California consists of 57% ...annuals. In contrast the native flora of the State includes only 28.6% annuals...About three-quarters of the naturalized flora of the State is from Eurasia and North Africa, some 17% from the New World, and the remainder from miscellaneous sources; relatively few of the native plants of California have been successful as weeds in California or elsewhere.

Raven and Axelrod wrote a paper in 1985 on the origin of the Cordileran flora, a region bounded by the east slope of the Sierra Nevada and Transverse Ranges and Peninsular Ranges of California to the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains, north to the Snake River Plain-western Wyoming, and south to central Arizona-New Mexico.[25]They concluded that:

Temperate forest trees and associated shrubs were in the uplands of the region by the early Eocene as indicated by fossil floras in the province and its bordering areas...Woodland and scrub taxa appeared suddenly in the central Cordilleran area in the middle Eocene (Green River flora) and increased during the Oligocene. That they may have originated over the southwestern United States-northern Mexico prior to the late middle Eocene is implied by the Del Mar flora near San Diego (48 m.y.). Situated then near the present latitude of Guaymas in a persistent drier high pressure zone, it is rich in woodland-scrub taxa. These evidently shifted northward into the central Cordilleran region with spreading drier climate. By the late Eocene (43 m.y.), woodland-scrub taxa are recorded in northeastern Nevada, in the lee of the old continental divide and its overlying volcanic pile...A number of monotypic and small genera...some of which are known to have occurred in the late Eocene, evidently originated in the central Cordilleran region in both woodland...and forest...zones, as did a number of unique species of widespread genera...By the late Oligocene (27 m.y.) an essen- tially modern flora - lacking most of the temperate Asian, eastern North American, and Mexican elements - occupied the southern Rocky Mountains and presumably extended southward into Mexico...Many Cordilleran taxa ranged into the western Great Basin following the middle Miocene (14-15 m.y.) as summer rains decreased and most exotic deciduous hard- woods and conifers were eliminated there. As the Pacific Ocean chilled, and summer rainfall decreased further, some Cordilleran taxa in the west were restricted eastward to Utah- Colorado-northern Arizona, but others adapted to the progressively more xeric climate...Major uplift of the Rocky Mountain- Colorado Plateau region during and following the later Miocene gave the region a colder climate. This restricted numerous older Cordilleran taxa to areas of milder winter climate south of central Arizona-New Mexico, leaving an impoverished, woody flora at the north...The rising Sierra Nevada-Peninsular Ranges at the west and the Rocky Mountains- Colorado Plateau at the east cast a double rainshadow over the Great Basin, bringing to it a drier climate, decreased summer rain and colder winters. Forests and woodlands were now greatly impoverished as taxa were con- fined to the east and west. Only relict stands of these communities persisted in the rising mountains...Expanding diverse topo-climatic adaptive zones, together with fluctuating climates, characterized the entire Cordilleran region during the Pliocene and Quaternary. The extreme climate with a short growing season, lowered precipitation, and high summer evaporation, enabled relatively few taxa to be added to the impoverished Cordilleran flora...The alpine floras of the region have derived their taxa by migration from northern sources during the glacials as well as from the migration upward of preadapted lowland taxa in the region and their subsequent evolutionary change. 10. Moderating climates following the last glacial-pluvial enabled numerous desert and steppe taxa to range northward from Chihuahuan and Sonoran regions into the southern Rocky Mountain and Great Basin provinces. They penetrated northward up drier, warmer major drainage systems (Colorado, Rio Grande, Pecos Rivers) and through topographic lows between ranges.

In 1996 Raven, Axelrod, and Al-Shehbaz wrote a paper on the history of the modern flora of China, Europe, and the continental United States.[26] They said that the three regions have approximately the same geographic area, yet China has two times the number of species as the United States, and three times as many as Europe. They asserted that all three regions had essentially the same flora as of 15 million years ago, but China came to possess the most species because of three reasons. First, China has a tropical rain forest. Second, there is an unbroken gradient of vegetation from the tropical rain forest to "boreal coniferous forests that has persisted and afforded habitats characterized by equable climates during the last 15 million years, when massive extinctions were taking place elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere...such continuity is interrupted in North America by the Gulf of Mexico and in Europe by the Alps, the Mediterranean, and the Sahara Desert." The third reason was due to the impact of the Indian subcontinent with Asia starting 50 million years ago, making a "highly dissected, elevated geography."

Taxonomy/Systematics/Floras[edit]

Raven has produced a wide variety of works in the area of plant systematics. Most of them are related to the plant family Onagraceae. In 1969 he published a 235 page report on Camissonia[27]; In 1976 he, along with his wife at the time Tamara Engelhorn, published a 321 page monograph on Epilobium in Australasia[28];an embryological analysis of species in the Myrtales[29]; In 1992 a 209 page monograph on the systematics of Epilobium in China[30]; in 1997 a 234 page monograph on the systematics of Oenothera[31]; and in 2007 a 240 page monograph on a reclassification of the Onagraceae.[32] And in 1981 he published a 1,049 page monograph on the systematics of Legumes.[33]

He has also published a number of books (Floras) devoted to the systematics of plants found in particular regions. These include a 1966 book on the native shrubs of Southern California[34]; a 1966 flora on the Santa Monica Mountains in California[35]; and, with various editors and authors, an ongoing 33 volume set (to date) on the flora of China, organized by plant family.[36][37][38][39]

Ethnobotany[edit]

Raven and collaborators Brent Berlin and Dennis E. Breedlove published extensively on the classification of plants by the Myan-speaking people of highland Chiapas.[40][41][42][43]They concluded that plant, as well as animal, descriptions could be grouped into five different hierarchical "taxonomic ethnobiological categories"; these included 1.) "unique beginner," such as plants and animals, 2.) "life form", such as tree, vine, bird, grass, mammal, etc.; 3.) the largest category, consisting usually of ~500 taxa, is "generic", and consists of names such as oak, pine, catfish, perch, and robin. Further, some "generics" were not included with in the classification of "life forms", and were called "aberrant". These included names such as cactus, bamboo, pineapple, platypus, etc., and were often of economic value--Agave, bean, and corn as examples. Two other taxa were called "specific" and "varietal," and were generally less numerous. Examples of "specific" include blue spruce, white fir, and post oak, and examples of "varietal" included baby beans, button beans, etc.

They extended their analysis of plants and animals to other indigenous peoples[42] including the Hanunoo speaking people of the island of Mindoro, Phillipines; the Karam of Papua New Guinea; the Cantonese speaking boat people of Castle Peak Bay, Hong Kong; the Navajo of the Southwestern United States; the Fore people of Papua New Guinea; the Guaraní people of South America; and the Nahuatl speaking people of Mexico, and concluded that their five to six taxonomic ethnobiological categories were generalizable.

Awards and honors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Royal Patrons and Honorary Fellows". The Linnean Society of London. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  2. ^ http://www.mobot.org/press/Media_Room_Images/Dr_Raven/Dr_Raven_Images.asp
  3. ^ a b Raven, Peter H. "Publications of Peter H. Raven" (PDF). Discoverlife.org. 
  4. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1950). "Base Camp Botany". Sierra Club: 1-19. 
  5. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1952). "Parsley for Marin County". Leafl. West. Bot. 6: 204. 
  6. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1952). "Plant notes from San Francisco, California". Leafl. West. Bot. 6: 208-211. 
  7. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1954). "New weeds for the Sierra Nevada, California". Leafl. West. Bot. 7: 151. 
  8. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1955). "A range extension for Allocarya cusickii in California". Leafl. West. Bot. 7: 255. 
  9. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1956). "The grasses of San Francisco, California". Leafl. West. Bot. 8: 198-200. 
  10. ^ a b c d Newbold, Heather, Editor (2000). Life Stories: World-renowned scientists reflect on their lives and the future of life on earth. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. p. 30-31. 
  11. ^ Lewis, Harlan; Raven, Peter (1958). "Clarkia franciscana, a new species from central California". Brittonia. 10: 7-13. 
  12. ^ Lewis, Harlan; Raven, Peter H. (1958). "Rapid Evolution in Clarkia". Evolution. 12 (3): 319-336. 
  13. ^ Ehrlich, Paul R.; Raven, Peter (1964). "Butterflies and Plants: A study in Coevolution". Evolution. 18 (4): 586-608. 
  14. ^ Ehrlich, Paul R.; Raven, Peter H. (1969). "Differentiation of Populations". Science: 1228-1232. 
  15. ^ Sussman, Robert W.; Raven, Peter H. (1978). "Pollinatin by Lemurs and Marsupials: An Archaic Coevolutionary System". Science. 200: 731-736. 
  16. ^ a b c Raven, Peter H. (1979). Future Directions in Plant Population Biology. In: Topics in Plant Population Biology. O. T. Solbrig, S. Jain, G. B. Johnson, and P. H. Raven, (eds). New York: Columbia University Press. p. 461-481. 
  17. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1980). "Hybridization and the Nature of Species in Higher Plants". Canadian Botanical Association Bulletin. 13 (1): 3-10. 
  18. ^ Malloch, D. W.; Pirozynski, K. A.; Raven, P. H. (1980). "Ecological and Evolutionary Significance of mycorrhizal Symbioses in Vascular Plants (A Review)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77: 2113-2118. 
  19. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1988). Onagraceae as a Model of Plant Evolution. In: Plant Evolutionary Biology. Leslie Gottlieb and Subodh K. Jain, eds. London, New York: Chapman and Hall. p. 85-107. 
  20. ^ a b Raven, Peter H. (1963). "Amphitropical Relationships in the Floras of North and South America". Quarterly Review of Biology. 38 (2): 151-177. 
  21. ^ Raven, Peter H. (1972). "Plant Species Disjunctions: A Summary". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 59 (2): 234-246. 
  22. ^ HaoMin & ZheKun 2007
  23. ^ Raven, Peter H.; Axelrod, Daniel I. (1974). "Angiosperm Biogeography and Past Continental Movements". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 61 (3): 539-673. 
  24. ^ Raven, Peter H.; Axelrod, Daniel I. (1978). "Orign and Relationships of the Californian Flora". Univ. of California. Publ. Bot. 72: 1-134. 
  25. ^ Axelrod, Daniel I.; Raven, Peter H. (1985). "Origins of the Cordileran Flora". Journal of Biogeography. 12 (1): 21-47. 
  26. ^ Axelrod, Daniel I.; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Raven, Peter H. (1996). "History of the Modern Flora of China". Proceedings of the IFCD: 43-55. 
  27. ^ Raven, P. H. (1969). "A revision of the genus Camissonia (Onagraceae)". Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 37: 161-396. 
  28. ^ Raven, P. H.; Raven, T. E. (1976). "The Genus Epilobium (Onagraceae) in Australasia: A Systematic and Evolutionary Study". New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin. 216: 321. 
  29. ^ Tobe, H.; Raven, P. H. (1983). "An embryological analysis of Myrtales: its definition and characteristics". Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 71-94. 
  30. ^ Chen, C. J.; Hoch, P. C.; Raven, P. H. (1992). "Systematics of Epilobium (Onagraceae) in China". Syst. Bot. Monographs. 34: 1-209. 
  31. ^ Dietrich, W.; Wagner, W. L.; Raven, P. H. (1997). "Systematics of Oenothera Section Oenothera Subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae)". Syst. Bot. Monographs. 50: 1-234. 
  32. ^ Wagner, Warren L.; Hoch, Peter C.; Raven, Peter H. (2007). "Revised Classification of the Onagraceae". Syst. Bot. Monographs. 83: 1-240. 
  33. ^ Polhill, R. M.; Raven, P. H. (1981). "Advances in Legume Systematics". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1,2: 1-1049. 
  34. ^ Raven, P. H. (1966). Native Shrubs of Southern California. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 132. 
  35. ^ Thompson, H. H.; Prigge, B. A.; Raven, P. H. (1986). Flora of the Santa Monica Mountains, California. Los Angeles: University of California. p. 185. 
  36. ^ Zheng-yi, Wu; Raven, P. H. (1994). Flora of China. Verbenaceae through Solanaceae, Vol. 17. Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis). p. 378. 
  37. ^ Zheng-yi, Wu; Raven, P. H. (1994). Flora of China. Gentianaceae through Boraginaceae, Vol. 16. Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis). p. 479. 
  38. ^ Zheng-yi, Wu; Raven, P. H. (1996). Flora of China. Myrsinaceae through Loganiaceae, Vol. 15. Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis). p. 387. 
  39. ^ Zheng-yi, Wu; Raven, P. H. (1998). Flora of China. Scrophulariaceae through Gesneriaceae, Vol. 18. Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis). p. 449. 
  40. ^ Berlin, Brent; Breedlove, Dennis E.; Raven, Peter H. (1968). "Covert Categories and Folk Taxonomies". American Anthropologist. 70: 290-299. 
  41. ^ Berlin, Brent; Breedlove, Dennis E.; Rave, Peter H. (1974). Principles of Tzeltal Plant Classification: An Introduction to the Bothanical Ethnography of a Mayan-Speaking People of Highland Chiapas. New York, London: Academic Press. p. 660. ISBN 0-12-785047-3. 
  42. ^ a b Berlin, Brent; Breedlove, Dennis E.; Raven, Peter H. (1973). "General principles of classification and nomenclature in folk biology". Amer. Anthrop. 75: 214-242. 
  43. ^ Berlin, Brent; Breedlove, Dennis E.; Raven, Peter H. (1973). "General Principles of Classification and Nomenclature in Folk Biology". American Anthropologist. 75: 214-242. 
  44. ^ Staff writer (2014). "The 2010 William L. Brown Award". William L. Brown Center for Plant Genetic Resources. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  45. ^ a b Peter H. Raven -- Curriculum Vita, retrieved 8 September 2010 
  46. ^ 2014 RHS Awards for Exceptional Contributions to Horticulture Announced
  47. ^ St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". stlouiswalkoffame.org. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  48. ^ "Royal Patrons and Honorary Fellows". Retrieved 10 Jan 2016. 
  49. ^ IPNI.  P.H.Raven. 

Works[edit]

Paul R. Ehrlich and Peter H. Raven (1964), "Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution", Evolution, 18: 586-608.

Peter H. Raven and Helena Curtis (1970), Biology of Plants, New York: Worth Publishing. [Early presentation of five-kingdom system.]

External links[edit]