Peter II of Cyprus
coat-of-arms of Lusignan of Cyprus and Jerusalem
|King of Cyprus|
|Reign||17 January 1369 - 13 October 1382|
|Born||ca 1354 or 1357|
|Died||13 October 1382|
|Mother||Eleanor of Aragon|
He was the son of Peter I of Cyprus and his second wife Eleanor of Aragon. He ascended the throne underage, at the assassination of his father. He had also been a Titular Count of Tripoli and King of Jerusalem.
He married by proxy in Milan on 2 April 1376 and in person at Santa Sophia, Nicosia, on July/August, 1378 Valenza or Valentina Visconti (Milan, 1360/1362 – in Italy, ca. 1393 before September, 1393), a daughter of Bernabò Visconti, co-lord of Milan, and his wife Beatrice della Scala. They had one daughter de Lusignan in 1379 or 1380 who died as an infant in Nicosia soon before 3 October 1382 and was buried in St. Dominic's, Nicosia. She later married after 1383 Galeazzo, Conte di Virtú. Before Peter's wedding, it was suggested that he marry a daughter of Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos. The suggestion was rejected for political reasons, since the Latins did not encourage the marriage of Peter to a Greek princess. The justification that was given to the Palaiologos messengers was that the king was busy with the dangers that threatened Cyprus because of the Genoese invasion of the island.
He was succeeded, not by his surviving sister Margaret, but by his uncle, James I of Cyprus, since his daughter did not survive and didn't have other children.
The period of his reign featured by decline in contrast with the previous period of his father' s reign. During his reign, he lost his father's Cypriot possessions in Asia Minor. Even more Cyprus received disastrous invasion by Genoese in 1373–1374 which led to the capture of Famagusta, the most important harbour which began to decline. Important damages were caused to the other major towns of Cyprus because of the war with Genoese.
Peter II was declared as King of Cyprus after his father's murder in January 1369. However, because he was not adult (15 years old), his uncle John of Lusignan, Prince of Antioch ruled the Kingdom as regent until Peter came of age. John's appointment was seriously opposed, especially by queen Eleanor, who believed that he was involved in her husband's murder. Vowing revenge, Eleanor asked for military aid from Europe in order to punish Peter I's murderers. In her secret calls to various sides, Genoese responded positive who so the whole case as a chance of their involvement to the Kingdom of Cyprus.
In 1372, Peter II was crowned in Nicosia at the Cathedral of St. Sophia as King of Cyprus on 6 January, and at the Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Famagusta as king of Jerusalem on 10 October and Genoese found the chance for intervention in Cyprus, after his crowning. While his crowning as King of Jerusalem on 12 October, during the ceremony of his crowning there were marked serious episodes. Protagonists of the episodes were the Venetians and Genoese of Famagusta. According to the custom, the leaders of those two colony communities of Famagusta were holding, during the ceremony, honorary two reins of royal horse.
The episodes began suddenly after a conflict of who will hold the left and who the right rein and continued and became expanded during the evening of the celebration dinner and afterwise to the roads of Famagusta, where Venetians and Genoese had armed conflict with many victims and damages. For the bloody fights, Genoese tradesmen were considered responsible and they were arrested. The rest of the Genoese accused then in Genoa the arrest of their compatriot and the authority of that powerful city believed that this was their chance for intervention in Cyprus. So, they organized an expeditional force which was financed by rich Genoese. Head of the expeditional army was Peter di Campofregoso, brother of the Doge of Genoa.
Peter and his councilors in Cyprus, believed that all available military forces should be syphoned to the island to face the Genoese threat. Therefore, Peter forfeited Antalya (captured by his father, Peter I) to Emir Teke in a treaty. The Cypriots withdrew their forces in 1373. Peter did not lead the resistance against Genoese, but left it to his uncles, John and James I. Oppositely, the young king, who was with his mother Eleanor on Famagusta, he only managed to lose a very important city-harbour and to be arrested as captive. Famagusta which was excellently fortified, was captured by Genoese with technique. Specifically, it was allowed the entrance of Genoese in the city supposedly for negotiations and that entrance was proved fatal.
Peter was held captive by the Genoese with his mother Eleanor. The Genoese also attacked Limassol and Paphos, and also entered the kingdom's capital, Nicosia. His two uncles John and James resisted successfully against Genoese from the St. Hilarion Castle and from the town of Kyrenia. The following year (1374), he was forced to come to a humiliated agreement with Genoese which was declaring: the remaining of Famagusta under Genoese sovereignty, the payment of huge compensations to Genoese, to give Kyrenia under Genoese sovereignty and James to leave Cyprus. James obeyed and left Kyrenia but leaving for Europe he was arrested by the Genoese, despite the permission that they would not disturb him. He returned when he became King of Cyprus.
The whole Genoese operation in Cyprus, brought them many benefits. However, before they left, they executed those who were involved to Peter I's murder as they promised to Eleanor, who after the end of the war against Genoese, organised and killed the Prince John, who believed he was involved in the murder of her husband.
The powerful Eleanor came in conflict with Valentine after her wedding with Peter II, and also was involved in many issues and scandals. So, Peter decided to send away his mother from Cyprus. Despite his mother's protests, Eleanor went back to Spain in September 1378.
Also Peter negotiated and succeeded a peace treaty with the Sultan of Egypt. Also he built and improved the fortifications of Nicosia.
He also built a royal villa in the village of Potamia and other tasks. Like his father, he creates his own similar currencies. He died on 13 October 1382 at the Palace of La Cava, Nicosia, and was buried at St. Dominic's, Nicosia.
|King of Cyprus
|— TITULAR —
King of Jerusalem