Peter Junger

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Peter D. Junger (1933 – November 2006) was a computer law professor and Internet activist, most famous for having fought against the U.S. government's regulations of and export controls on encryption software.

The case, Junger v. Daley (6th Cir. 2000),[1] held that computer source code is protected by the First Amendment. The US government prohibited publication of encryption software on the Internet, arguing that encryption software was a "munition" subject to export controls.[2] Junger filed suit in 1996 challenging the regulations.

Junger also did significant legal theoretical work on the interplay between intellectual property, computer law, and the First Amendment. He defined himself as a "First Amendment absolutist."[3]


Junger grew up in Wyoming, graduating from Harvard University in 1955 and Harvard Law School in 1958. From January 1959 to December 1960 he was an enlisted man in the U.S. Army serving in West Germany. After practicing law from 1961 to 1970, he accepted a faculty position at Case Western Reserve University's School of Law. He retired and was Professor of Law Emeritus in 2001.

Junger was also a practicing Buddhist, president of his local Buddhist Temple from 2003 to 2006.

Peter Junger died in November, 2006, at the age of 73 at his home in Cleveland. He was survived by his mother, Genevieve Junger (born 1901).[4]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Junger v. Daley, (6th Cir. 2000).
  2. ^ The "Export Administration Regulations" ("EAR") administered by the US Dept. of Commerce; previously the "International Traffic in Arms Regulations" ("ITAR") administered by the US Dept. of State. ITAR required application for a license to disclose cryptographic software to "foreign persons". EAR permitted publication of software source code in books but required a license before publication on the Internet.
  3. ^ Peter Junger, "The Kindness of Dave Farber", Nov. 30, 2004, available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2006-12-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) ("I come about as close as anyone can be to being a 'First-Amendment absolutist,' but I find that most of my immediate concerns relate to the application of the First Amendment to computer programs and digital data.").
  4. ^ Suchetka, Diane (Nov 24, 2006). "Peter Junger, led Buddhist Temple, studied and taught computer law". The Cleveland Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2022.

External links[edit]