Peter W. Galbraith
|Peter W. Galbraith|
|Member of the Vermont Senate
from the Windham County district
January 5, 2011 – January 7, 2015
|Preceded by||Peter Shumlin|
|Succeeded by||Becca Balint|
|1st United States Ambassador to Croatia|
June 28, 1993 – January 3, 1998
|Succeeded by||William Dale Montgomery|
|Born||Peter Woodard Galbraith
December 31, 1950
|Spouse(s)||Anne O'Leary (divorced)
|Relations||John Kenneth Galbraith (father)
Catherine Galbraith (mother)
James K. Galbraith (brother)
|Alma mater||Harvard University (A.B.)
Oxford University (M.A.)
Georgetown University (J.D.)
|Profession||diplomat, public servant, professor, writer|
Peter Woodard Galbraith (born December 31, 1950) is an author, academic, commentator, politician, policy advisor, and former United States diplomat. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he helped uncover Saddam Hussein's gassing of the Kurds. From 1993 to 1998, he served as the first U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, where he was co-mediator and principal architect of the 1995 Erdut Agreement that ended the war in that country. Beginning in 2003, Galbraith acted as an advisor to the Kurdistan Regional Government in northern Iraq. As an author and commentator, he argued that Iraq has broken up and that the U.S. occupation authorities should not try to build a strong central government over Kurdish objections. In 2009, Galbraith was appointed United Nations' Deputy Special Representative for Afghanistan where he contributed to exposing the massive fraud that took place in the 2009 Afghanistan Presidential Elections.
- 1 Personal life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Writings
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Personal life and education
Galbraith was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Catherine Galbraith (née Catherine Merriam Atwater) and John Kenneth Galbraith – one of the leading economists of the 20th century. He is the brother of economist James K. Galbraith. Galbraith attended the Commonwealth School. He earned an A.B. degree from Harvard College, an M.A. from Oxford University, and a J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center. He has two children with Tone Bringa, a Norwegian social anthropologist.
Galbraith was a good friend of the twice-elected Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto, dating back to their student days at Harvard and Oxford Universities, and was instrumental in securing Bhutto's release from prison in Pakistan for a medical treatment abroad during the military dictatorship of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.
U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
Galbraith was a professional staff member for the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1979 to 1993. During that time, he published a number of reports about Iraq and took a special interest in the Kurdish regions of Iraq. In 1987, he uncovered Saddam Hussein's systematic destruction of Kurdish villages and a year later wrote the "Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988" which would have imposed comprehensive sanctions on Iraq because of the gassing of the Kurds. The bill unanimously passed the Senate but was opposed by the Reagan Administration as "premature" and did not become law.
During the 1991 Iraqi Kurdish uprising, Galbraith traveled throughout rebel-held northern Iraq, narrowly escaping across the Tigris as Iraqi forces recaptured the area. His written and televised accounts provided early warning of the catastrophe overtaking the civilian population and contributed to the decision to create a safe haven in northern Iraq. In 1992, Galbraith brought out of northern Iraq 14 tons of captured Iraqi secret police documents detailing the atrocities that had been committed against the Kurds. Galbraith’s work in Iraqi Kurdistan is chronicled in Samantha Power’s Pulitzer-Prize-winning book A Problem From Hell: America and the Age of Genocide (Basic Books, 2002), and was the subject of a 1992 ABC News Nightline documentary.
Ambassador to Croatia
In 1993, President Bill Clinton appointed Galbraith as the first United States Ambassador to Croatia. Galbraith was actively involved in the Croatia and Bosnia peace processes. He was co-mediator and principal architect of the 1995 Erdut Agreement that ended the war in Croatia by providing for peaceful reintegration of Serb-held Eastern Slavonia into Croatia. From 1996 to 1998, Galbraith served as de facto Chairman of the international commission charged with monitoring implementation of the Erdut Agreement. Galbraith helped devise and implement the strategy that ended the 1993-94 Muslim-Croat War and participated in the negotiation of the Washington Agreement that established the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. He was co-chairman of the Croatia peace process (“the Z-4 process”) that produced several agreements between the Croatian government and rebel Serbs and the U.S. witnessed at signing of Erdut Agreement.
During the war years, Galbraith was responsible for U.S. humanitarian programs in the former Yugoslavia and for U.S. relations with the UNPROFOR mission headquartered in Zagreb. Ambassador Galbraith’s diplomatic interventions facilitated the flow of humanitarian assistance to Bosnia and secured the 1993 release of more than 5,000 prisoners of war held in inhumane conditions by Bosnian Croat forces.
From January 2000 to August 2001, Galbraith was Director for Political, Constitutional and Electoral Affairs for the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). He also served as Cabinet Member for Political Affairs and Timor Sea in the First Transitional Government of East Timor. In these roles, he designed the territory’s first interim government and the process to write East Timor’s permanent constitution. During his tenure, Galbraith conducted successful negotiations with Australia to produce a new treaty governing the exploitation of oil and gas in the Timor Sea. The resulting Timor Sea Treaty gave East Timor the preponderance of control over the oil and gas resources and 90% of the petroleum. Under the previous Timor Gap Treaty—considered illegal by East Timor and the United Nations—Indonesia and Australia had jointly controlled the resources and shared equally the revenues. Galbraith's Timor Sea Treaty more than doubled the GNP of East Timor (as compared to Indonesia's share of revenues under the Timor Gap Treaty), and is believed to be the first time the United Nations has a negotiated a bilateral treaty on behalf of a state. He also led the UNTAET/East Timor negotiating team during eighteen months of negotiations with Indonesia aimed at normalizing relations and resolving issues arising from the end of the Indonesian occupation.
Involvement in Iraq's constitutional process
From 2003 to 2005, Iraq was involved in a number of negotiations to draft an interim and then a permanent constitution. In that context, Galbraith advised both the KDP and the PUK, the two main Kurdish parties of Iraq, particularly with a view to encouraging the emergence of a strongly decentralised state. In his book, The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War Without End, which was published in 2006, Galbraith wrote on page 166 that "in May 2003, I realised that the Kurdish leaders had a conceptual problem in planning for a federal Iraq. They were thinking in terms of devolution of power – meaning that Baghdad grants them rights. I urged that the equation be reversed. In a memo I sent Barham [Salih] and Nechirvan [Barzani] in August, I drew a distinction between the previous autonomy proposals and federalism: '[...] The Constitution should state that the Constitution of Kurdistan, and laws made pursuant to the Constitution, is the supreme law of Kurdistan. Any conflict between laws of Kurdistan and the laws of or Constitution of Iraq shall be decided in favor of the former.'" Galbraith wrote that his ideas on federalism "eventually became the basis of Kurdistan's proposals for an Iraq constitution".
Galbraith favors the independence – legal or de facto – of the northern region of Iraq known as Iraqi Kurdistan. In the End of Iraq, Galbraith advocates acceptance of a "partition" of Iraq into three parts (Kurd, Shiite Arab, and Sunni Arab) as part of a new U.S. "strategy based on the reality of Iraq", and argues that the U.S.'s "main error" in Iraq has been its attempt to maintain Iraq as a single entity.
After leaving the US government in 2003, Galbraith set up a consulting firm that provided negotiating and other services to governmental and corporate clients. In this capacity, he served as East Timor's negotiator regarding the gas prone Sunrise field in Timor Sea and assisted the Government of Zambia develop negotiating strategies related to minerals. He had several corporate clients in Iraqi Kurdistan, including DNO, a Norwegian oil company which is currently engaged in exploring oil reserves in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. He represented the company on a joint commission with the Iraqi Ministry of Oil in Baghdad. Some Iraqi Arabs complained that, because of his business interests, he should not have advised the Kurds on constitutional issues, even though the Kurds, who asked for his advice, saw no conflict of interest. Abdul-Hadi al-Hassani, vice chairman of the Oil and Gas Committee in the Iraqi Council of Representatives, said that Mr. Galbraith’s "interference was not justified, illegal and not right, particularly because he is involved in a company where his financial interests have been merged with the political interest."
Galbraith responded in a letter to the Rutland Herald that "[e]ven a superficial analysis would show that [the allegations] could not be true. At the time the Iraqi Constitution was negotiated in 2005, I was a private citizen with no connection whatsoever with the U.S. government. In short, I was in no position to push through anything. At the request of Kurdistan's leaders, I did offer them advice on how to negotiate best to achieve their goals. But I never participated in any negotiations and was never in the room when they took place."
Galbraith is a leading commentator on issues including political developments in Iraq, Afghanistan, amongst others. He has contributed opinion columns in relation to these issues for a wide range of publications, including the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Guardian, The Independent and the New York Review of Books. On Iraq, he has consistently argued that "[c]ivil war and the breakup of Iraq are more likely outcomes [of the invasion of Iraq] than a successful transition to a pluralistic Western-style democracy". He has also argued that the Bush administration "has put the United States on the side of undemocratic Iraqis who are Iran's allies". On the 2009 Afghan Presidential Elections, he wrote in the New York Times that "[if] the second round of Afghanistan’s presidential elections [...] is a rerun of the fraud-stained first round, it will be catastrophic for that country and the allied military mission battling the Taliban and Al Qaeda." After the election's second round was canceled, he wrote that "[t]he decision by the Independent Election Commission (IEC) to cancel the second round and declare the incumbent, Hamid Karzai, the victor concludes a process that undermined Afghanistan's nascent democracy."
Deputy U.N. Envoy to Afghanistan
Galbraith, considered a close ally of Richard Holbrooke, the U.S. Special Representative to Afghanistan, was announced as the next United Nations' Deputy Special Representative for Afghanistan on March 25, 2009 but abruptly left the country in mid September 2009 at the request of UN Special Representative to Afghanistan Kai Eide following a dispute over the handling of the reported fraud in the 2009 Afghan presidential election - and on September 30, the UN announced that he had been removed from his position by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
In response to his firing, Galbraith told The Times, "I was not prepared to be complicit in a cover-up or in an effort to downplay the fraud that took place. I felt we had to face squarely the fraud that took place. Kai downplayed the fraud.". When Eide announced his own stepping down in December, 2009, he did not do so voluntarily, according to Galbraith, though Eide has said it was a voluntary departure.
In December 2009, Kai Eide and Vijay Nambiar accused Galbraith of proposing enlisting the White House in a plan to force the Afghan president, Hamid Karzai, to resign, and to install a more Western-friendly figure as president of Afghanistan. According to reports of the plan, which was never realized, the new government would be led by the former finance minister Ashraf Ghani, or by the former interior minister Ali Ahmad Jalali. Karzai's term expired May 21, 2009, and the Supreme Court, in a controversial decision, extended until voting on August 20, 2009. Galbraith flatly denied there was a plan to oust Karzai. He said he and his staff merely had internal discussions on what to do if a runoff for the presidency were delayed until May 2010 as a result of the fraud problems and other matters. Karzai's continuation in office a full year after the end of his term would have been unconstitutional and unacceptable to the Afghan opposition. Galbraith explained that the internal discussions concerned avoiding a constitutional crisis, that any solution would have required the consent of both Karzai and the opposition, and the UN's involvement was consistent with its good offices role. He noted that Kai Eide, his chief accuser, proposed replacing Karzai with an interim government a month later in a meeting with foreign diplomats in Kabul.
The United Nations announced that Galbraith had initiated legal action against the United Nations over his dismissal. The United Nations has an internal justice system under which such challenges can be lodged. Martin Nesirky, spokesman for the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, said the reason Galbraith "was terminated was that the secretary general determined that such action would be in the interests of the organization".
Galbraith was an assistant professor of Social Relations at Windham College in Putney, Vermont, from 1975 to 1978. Later, he was Professor of National Security Strategy at the National War College in 1999 and between 2001 and 2003. In 2003, he resigned from the U.S. government service after 24 years.
Galbraith served as chairman of the Vermont Democratic Party from 1977 to 1979.
On January 17, 2008, he told VPR that he was considering a run for the governorship of Vermont. He would have run as a Democrat against the incumbent Republican governor Jim Douglas and Progressive Anthony Pollina in the 2008 elections. On May 13, he announced that he would not be running and said he would back former House Speaker Gaye Symington instead.
On November 2, 2010, he won election to the Vermont State Senate from Windham County as a Democrat. He was reelected in 2012. He did not run for a third term in 2014, citing a desire to focus on his career in international diplomacy.
- Galbraith, Peter (2006), The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War without End; Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-9423-8
- Galbraith, Peter W. (2008), Unintended Consequences: How War in Iraq Strengthened America's Enemies; Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4165-6225-7
- U.S. State Department Diplomatic and Consular Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1993. p. 25.
- Galbraith, Peter (2006). The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War without End. Simon and Schuster. pp. 4, 12, 222, 224. ISBN 0-7432-9423-8.
- "How to get out of Iraq?". New York Review of Books. 2004-05-13.
- "Is this a victory?". New York Review of Books. 2008-09-28.
- Galbraith, Peter W. (2009-10-27). "Afghanistan Votes, the U.N. Dithers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Galbraith, Peter (2009-11-02). "Karzai was hellbent on victory. Afghans will pay the price". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Bone, James; Coghlan, Tom (2009-03-17). "US strengthens diplomatic presence in Afghanistan". London: Times Online.
- Press Release (2009-03-25). "Secretary-General Appoints Peter W. Galbraith Of United States As Deputy Special Representative For Afghanistan". Secretary-General Department of Public Information.
- Bone, James; Starkey, Jerone; Coghlan, Tom (2009-09-15). "UN chief Peter Galbraith is removed in Afghanistan poll clash". London: Times Online.
- Oppel, Richard A.; MacFarquhar, Neil (2009-09-30). "After Clash Over Afghan Election, U.N. Fires a Diplomat". The New York Times.
- Bone, James (2009-10-01). "Sacked envoy Peter Galbraith accuses UN of 'cover-up' on Afghan vote fraud". London: Times Online.
- Hockenberry, John; Headlee, Celeste Headlee (2009-10-01). "Dismissed Afghan Envoy Speaks Out". Transcript of interview with Peter Galbraith (TheTakeAway.org).
- "Galbraith: Eide was fired" by Josh Rogin, Foreign Policy "The Cable," 2009-12-14, 3:41pm. Footnote expanded 2009-12-17.
- "Diplomat to Challenge Dismissal by U.N. After Afghan Vote "
- "Faculty and Staff Windham". College Alumni Association.
- BBC News (2009-10-05). "Sacked UN man attacks mission". BBC.com.
- Curran, John (January 22, 2008). "Former Ambassador Testing the Waters for Gubernatorial Bid". Boston.com. Retrieved November 12, 2009.[dead link]
- "Galbraith Not Running for Governor". WCAX.com. May 13, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2009.
- Heintz, Paul (June 10, 2014). "Peter Galbraith, a Lightning Rod in the Vermont Senate, to Step Down". Seven Days. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- "Peter W. Galbraith". New York Review of Books. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Fired UN Official Accuses the U.N. of Helping Cover Up Electoral Fraud". Democracy Now!. October 5, 2009. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Sacked UN diplomat speaks out". BBC News. October 13, 2009. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Board". The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation.
- Appearances on C-SPAN