Peterborough (UK Parliament constituency)
for the House of Commons
Boundary of Peterborough in Cambridgeshire.
Location of Cambridgeshire within England.
|Electorate||72,787 (December 2010)|
|Member of parliament||Fiona Onasanya (Labour)|
|Number of members||One|
|Number of members||One|
|Type of constituency||County constituency|
|Number of members||1541–1885: Two
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
|European Parliament constituency||East of England|
Peterborough is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, sharing the name of a smaller constituency represented in the Parliament of England until 1707 and then in that of Great Britain until 1800. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election.
- 1 Boundaries
- 2 Franchise
- 3 Members of Parliament
- 4 Election results
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
1918-1950: The administrative county of the Soke of Peterborough, the Urban District of Oundle, the Rural Districts of Easton-on-the-Hill and Gretton, and parts of the Rural Districts of Oundle and Thrapston.
1950-1974: The Municipal Borough of Peterborough, the Urban District of Oundle, the Rural Districts of Barnack and Peterborough, and part of the Rural District of Oundle and Thrapston.
1974-1983: The Municipal Borough of Peterborough, and the Rural Districts of Barnack, Peterborough, and Thorney.
1983-1997: The City of Peterborough wards of Bretton, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, Fletton, North, Orton Longueville, Orton Waterville, Park, Paston, Ravensthorpe, Stanground, Walton, and West.
1997-2010: The City of Peterborough wards of Bretton, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, North, Park, Paston, Ravensthorpe, Walton, Werrington, and West.
2010-April 2016: The City of Peterborough wards of Bretton North, Bretton South, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, Eye and Thorney, Newborough, North, Park, Paston, Ravensthorpe, Walton, Werrington North, Werrington South, and West.
May 2016 – Present: The City of Peterborough wards of Bretton, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, Eye Thorney and Newborough, Gunthorpe, North, Park, Paston and Walton, Ravensthorpe, Werrington and West.
The City of Peterborough formed a parliamentary borough returning two Members in 1541. The rest of the Soke of Peterborough was part of the Northamptonshire parliamentary county, except the area south of the River Nene in the historic county of Huntingdonshire and Thorney, which was considered part of Cambridgeshire. Until 1832 when the whole of the parish of Saint John the Baptist was encompassed, the boundary, as far as is known, excluded the villages of Longthorpe, Dogsthorpe and Newark with Eastfield. The Great Reform Act did not affect the borough, while the rural portion of the Soke was included in the northern division of Northamptonshire. New Fletton was transferred from Huntingdonshire in 1868 and in 1918 the parliamentary borough was abolished and replaced with a new division of the parliamentary county of Northampton with the Soke of Peterborough, including the whole of the Soke and neighbouring parts of the administrative county of Northamptonshire, extending down to and beyond Thrapston and Corby. This became a county constituency under the 1948 revisions, when the boundaries of the constituency were adjusted to correspond to those of the Soke and they remained much the same until 1970. Peterborough became a county constituency in 1974.
Following their review of parliamentary representation in Cambridgeshire in 2005, the Boundary Commission for England made minor alterations to the existing constituencies to deal with population changes. The electoral wards used to create the modified Peterborough constituency fought at the 2010 general election and the 2015 general election were: Bretton North, Bretton South, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, Eye and Thorney, Newborough, North, Park, Paston, Ravensthorpe, Walton, Werrington North, Werrington South, and West. These changes increased the electorate from 64,893 to 70,640. On the enumeration date of 17 February 2000, the electoral quota for England was 69,934 voters per constituency.
Following another review of parliamentary representation in Cambridgeshire in 2016, the Boundary Commission for England again made minor alterations to the existing constituencies to deal with population changes. The electoral wards used to create the modified Peterborough constituency that will be fought at the 2017 general election are: Bretton, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, Eye Thorney and Newborough, Gunthorpe, North, Park, Paston and Walton, Ravensthorpe, Werrington and West. These changes increased the electorate from 70,640 to (unknown figure at this time – being researched).
The Peterborough wards of Barnack, Fletton and Stanground, Fletton and Woodston, Glinton and Castor, Hampton Vale, Hargate and Hempsted, Orton Longueville, Orton Waterville, Stanground South and Wittering form part of the North West Cambridgeshire constituency created in 1997 from parts of Peterborough and Huntingdon constituencies. The serving member for North West Cambridgeshire is the Conservative, Shailesh Vara MP, who succeeded Sir Brian Mawhinney, former Secretary of State for Transport and Chairman of the Conservative Party, in 2005. Mawhinney, who had previously served as Member of Parliament for Peterborough from 1979, was created Baron Mawhinney, of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire in 2005. Eye and Thorney was previously included in the North East Cambridgeshire (prior to 1983 Isle of Ely) constituency.
In the unreformed House of Commons to be either a candidate or an elector for a county seat, a man had to own (not rent) freehold property valued for the land tax at two pounds a year (women could neither vote nor stand for election). This was known as the 40/- freehold. The franchise for borough seats varied enormously. Originally in Peterborough the dean and chapter had claimed the franchise and held that only residents of Minster Precincts were burgesses. By the interregnum, the city was one of 37 boroughs in which suffrage was restricted to those paying scot and lot, a form of municipal taxation. In 1800 there were 2,000 registered voters in Northamptonshire and 400 in Peterborough. By 1835 this was 576, or about one per cent of the population. Bribery was general until the introduction of the secret ballot under the Ballot Act 1872. Votes were cast by spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings, erected on the Market Place (now Cathedral Square).
In 1832 the Great Reform Act enfranchised those who owned or leased land worth £10 or more and the Second Reform Act extended this to all householders paying £10 or more in rent per annum, effectively enfranchising the skilled working class, so by 1868 the percentage of voters in Peterborough had risen to about 20% of the population. The Third Reform Act extended the provisions of the previous act to the counties and the Fourth Reform Act widened suffrage further by abolishing practically all property qualifications for men and by enfranchising women over 30 who met minimum property qualifications. This system, known as universal manhood suffrage, was first used in the 1918 general election. However, full electoral equality wouldn't occur until the Fifth Reform Act ten years later.
According to the 2001 census, the population count of Peterborough constituency is 95,103 persons, comprising 46,131 males and 48,972 females. 67.56% of those aged 16–74 are economically active, including 5.92% umemployed; a further 12.26% are retired and 3.08% students. Of a total 39,760 households, 63.80% are owner occupied, fewer than the regional (72.71%) and national (68.72%) averages. Turnout at the 2005 general election was 41,194 or 61.0% of those eligible to vote, below the regional (63.6%) and national (61.3%) figures.
Members of Parliament
Peterborough sent two members to parliament for the first time in 1547. Before the civil war, many were relatives of the clergy; then for two hundred years after the restoration there was always a Fitzwilliam, or a Fitzwilliam nominee, sitting as member for Peterborough, making it a Whig stronghold. Representation was reduced to one member under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.
One of the earliest incumbents, Sir Walter Mildmay, member for Peterborough from 1553 to 1554, subsequently became Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1559 to 1589. Later, in the nineteenth century, William Elliot, Whig member from 1802 until his death in 1819, was Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland between 1806 and 1807; the Hon. William Lamb (later the 2nd Viscount Melbourne), Whig member from 1816 to 1819, became Home Secretary in 1830 then Prime Minister from 1834 to 1841; and Sir James Scarlett (later the 1st Baron Abinger), Whig member from 1819 to 1830, was, from 1827, Attorney General for England and Wales.
From the formal merger of the breakaway Liberal Unionists with the Conservatives in 1912 and the absorption of rural North Northamptonshire in 1918, Peterborough has been predominantly Conservative; however, it has elected Labour MPs several times from 1929 onwards.
Lord Burghley, as he then was, succeeded the socialist writer and illustrator, Frank Horrabin, who was born in the city and elected under the leadership of Ramsay MacDonald in 1929. David Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter, winner of 400m hurdles at the 1928 Summer Olympics, member of the International Olympic Committee for 48 years and chairman of the organising committee of the 1948 Summer Olympics, was the Conservative member from 1931 to 1943.
In 1966, in one of the closest polls in UK history, Sir Harmar Nicholls held the seat by three votes after seven recounts. Nicholls was the Conservative member from 1950 to 1974, when he lost in the October election of that year to Labour's Michael Ward, having held on by just 22 votes after four recounts in the election eight months earlier. The growth in the New Town from 1967 may in part account for Labour's victory here in 1974. In 1979, however, Ward lost the seat to the Conservative Brian Mawhinney, who would represent Peterborough for the entire duration of the incoming Conservative government and was a Cabinet Minister and Conservative Party Chairman during the second Major government (1992–97).
The seat was made more competitive in the 1997 boundary review by the formation of the North West Cambridgeshire seat, which incorporated the rural land outside Peterborough and several Conservative-inclined wards from the city. Since its formation, North West Cambridgeshire has been one of the safest Conservative seats in the country, whilst Peterborough was ranked 93rd in the Conservatives's one hundred most vulnerable seats (the ones which the other parties must take if there is to be a change of government) and 73rd on Labour's target list; these factors led Mawhinney to stand in North West Cambridgeshire instead.
Helen Clark (née Brinton) won the seat for Labour in 1997. She was defeated at the 2005 general election, following which it was widely reported that Clark was planning to defect to the Conservative Party, an announcement which was not popular locally. However, by early June it emerged that while she had left the Labour Party, she had not in fact joined the Conservatives and did not intend to.
Clark's successor as MP, Stewart Jackson, was re-elected in 2010 with an increased majority, which then fell in 2015. The 2017 result marks the first time since 1929 that Peterborough has voted Labour in an election where the Conservatives won the national popular vote, and the first time it has ever elected a Labour MP in a year in which Labour did not form the government. Furthermore, Peterborough became one of four constituencies, the others being Croydon Central, Enfield Southgate and Reading East, which elected Labour MPs in 2017 having not done so since 2001.
Parliamentary Borough 1547–1918
The Tories (or Abhorrers) and Whigs (or Petitioners) originated in the Court and Country parties that emerged in the aftermath of the civil war, although it is more accurate to describe them as loose tendencies, both of which might be regarded as conservative in modern terms. Modern party politics did not really begin to coalesce in Great Britain until at least 1784.
In 1832 the Tory Party evolved into the Conservative Party and in 1859 the Whig Party evolved, with Radicals and Peelites, into the Liberal Party. In opposition to Irish home rule, the Liberal Unionists ceded from the Liberals in 1886, aligning themselves with the Conservatives. The Labour Party was later founded, as the Labour Representation Committee, in 1900.
|1885||Hon. John Wentworth-FitzWilliam||Independent Liberal / Liberal Unionist|
|1889 by-election||Sir Alpheus Cleophas Morton||Liberal|
|1895||Sir Robert Purvis||Liberal Unionist / Conservative|
|1906||Sir Granville Greenwood||Liberal|
|1918||parliamentary borough abolished|
Division and County Constituency
The parliamentary borough of Peterborough was abolished under the Representation of the People Act 1918, and the name was transferred to a division of the new parliamentary county of Northampton with the Soke of Peterborough. The Peterborough division became a county constituency in 1950.
Peterborough was redefined as a borough constituency with effect from the February 1974 general election. Successors of the historic parliamentary boroughs, the spending limits for election campaigns are slightly lower than in county constituencies.
MPs since 1974
|Feb. 1974||Sir Harmar Nicholls, 1st Baronet||Conservative|
|Oct. 1974||Michael Ward||Labour|
|1979||Sir Brian Mawhinney||Conservative|
Elections in the 2010s
|Liberal Democrat||Beki Sellick||1,597||3.3||-0.4|
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing||+2.7|
|Liberal Democrat||Darren Fower||1,774||3.8||-15.9|
|Liberal Democrat||Nick Sandford||8,816||19.6||+2.9|
|English Democrat||Rob King||770||1.7||N/A|
Elections in the 2000s
|Liberal Democrat||Nick Sandford||6,876||16.7||+2.2|
|National Front||Terry Blackham||931||2.3||N/A|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing||+6.85|
|Liberal Democrat||Nick Sandford||5,761||14.5||+3.8|
Elections in the 1990s
|Labour||Helen Brinton (AKA Helen Clark)||24,365||50.3||+10.1|
|Liberal Democrat||David Howarth||5,170||10.7||+2.8|
|Natural Law||Charles Brettell||334||0.7||+0.4|
|ProLife Alliance||Stephen Goldspink||275||0.6||N/A|
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing||+11.6|
|Liberal Democrat||Amanda Taylor||5,208||7.9||-8.2|
|Natural Law||Charles Brettell||215||0.3||N/A|
Elections in the 1980s
|Workers Revolutionary||DE Hyland||155||0.3||+0.11|
Elections in the 1970s
|National Front||J Willhelmy||672||1.18||N/A|
|Workers Revolutionary||M Bishop||106||0.19||N/A|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing||+6.28|
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing||+1.91|
Elections in the 1960s
Elections in the 1950s
|Liberal||Wolf Isaac Akst||2,367||4.64||-3.78|
|Labour Co-op||Stanley Tiffany||22,671||45.65||-5.05|
|Liberal||Wolf Isaac Akst||4,180||8.42||N/A|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing||+0.7|
Elections in the 1940s
|Labour Co-op||Stanley Tiffany||22,056||50.7|
|Labour Co-op gain from Conservative||Swing|
|Independent Labour||Samuel Bennett||10,890||47.6|
General Election 1939/40 Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected:
Elections in the 1930s
|Labour||Ernest A J Davies||17,373||43.4|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing|
Elections in the 1920s
|Labour gain from Unionist||Swing||+9.7|
Elections in the 1910s
|Liberal||Thomas Ivatt Slater||3,214||14.9|
|Unionist gain from Liberal||Swing|
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
- "Electorate Figures – Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Fraser, Hugh (1918). The Representation of the People Act 1918, with Explanatory notes. London: Sweet and Maxwell. pp. 515–516.
- Youngs, Frederic A. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England Volume II: Northern England (Part III: Parliamentary Constituencies) Royal Historical Society, London, 1991
- Clegg QC, William Final Recommendations for Parliamentary Constituencies in the Counties of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Boundary Commission for England, 19 January 2005 Archived 28 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Clegg QC, William General Review of Parliamentary Constituency boundaries in Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Assistant Commissioner's report to the chairman and Members of the Boundary Commission for England, 18 March 2004 Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Knight, Charles Peterborough in 1840 Old Towns of England Originally published in The Penny Magazine by The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
- Forrester, E.G. Northamptonshire County Elections and Electioneering 1695–1832 Oxford University Press, 1941
- Pelling, Henry Mathison A Social Geography of British Elections 1885–1910 (pp.96–97 & 106–124) Macmillan, London, 1967
- 2001 Census Area Statistics Office for National Statistics, April 2001
- Wentworth-Fitzwilliam family of Milton Peterborough City Council (retrieved 22 September 2007) Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Tebbs, Herbert F. Peterborough: A History (pp.192–194) The Oleander Press, Cambridge, 1979. See also Bromund, Ted A Complete Fool's Paradise: The Attack on the Fitzwilliam Interest in Peterborough 1852 Parliamentary History, vol.12 no.1 (pp.47–67) Edinburgh University Press, 1993 and Howarth, Janet The Liberal Revival in Northamptonshire 1880–1895: A Case Study in Late Nineteenth Century Elections The Historical Journal, vol.12 no.1 (pp.78–118) Cambridge University Press, 1969
- The History of Parliament The House of Commons: 1509–1558 (3 vols.) Bindoff, S.T., 1558–1603 (3 vols.) Hasler, P.W., 1660–1690 (3 vols.) Henning, Basil Duke, 1715–1754 (2 vols.) Sedgwick, Romney, 1754–1790 (2 vols.) Namier, Sir Lewis Bernstein and Brooke, John, 1790–1820 (5 vols.) Thorne, R.G. Martin Secker and Warburg (reissued by Her Majesty's Stationery Office) for the History of Parliament Trust, London, 1964–1986
- Craig, Frederick Walter Scott British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1970 (4 vols.) Macmillan, London, 1971–1977 and Stenton, Michael and Lees, Stephen (eds.) Who's Who of British members of parliament 1832–1979: a biographical dictionary of the House of Commons based on annual volumes of Dod's Parliamentary Companion and other sources (4 vols.) Harvester Press, Hassocks, 1976–1981
- The Liberal candidate was Peter J. Boizot, founder of the Pizza Express restaurant chain and now Deputy Lieutenant of Cambridgeshire
- "BBC NEWS – UK – England – Cambridgeshire – Ousted MP defects to the Tories". bbc.co.uk.
- POLITICS: 'A slap in the face' Peterborough Evening Telegraph, 9 May 2005[dead link]
- Moss, Stephen Thrown out of the house The Guardian, 1 June 2005
- "History of Parliament". Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Carter, P. R. N. Carew, Sir Wymond (1498–1549) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/61138, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Airs, Malcolm Pallady, Richard (b. 1515/16, d. in or before 1563) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21163, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Ford, L. L. Mildmay, Sir Walter (1520/21–1589) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18696, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Riordan, Michael Henry VIII, privy chamber of (act. 1509–1547) Sir William Fitzwilliam (c.1506–1559) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/70829, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Bindoff, op. cit. (p.186). Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- Bindoff, op. cit. (p.537). Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- "Fitzwilliam, William (c.1550–1618), of Dogsthorpe and Milton, Northants., The History of Parliament". Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- Wright, Stephen Fane, Mildmay, second earl of Westmorland (1602–1666) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9139, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Mercer, Malcolm Fane, Sir Thomas (d. 1589) Francis Fane, first earl of Westmorland (1583/4–1629) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9130, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- "Humphrey Orme was elected ... and there was an immediate complaint against his sitting on the grounds that he was neither a good puritan nor a stable parliamentarian;" see Tebbs, op. cit. (p.94). "Although its election committee certainly received and examined evidence concerning a disputed and possibly double return at Peterborough, it is not clear what part, if any, the Council played in the final decision in favour of Alexander Blake;" see Gaunt, Peter Cromwell’s Purge? Exclusions and the First Protectorate Parliament (p.16) Parliamentary History, vol.6 no.1 (pp.1–22) May 1987. "The defeated candidate ... had allegedly been supported by disaffected and disqualified voters; Orme himself had married a recusant and was probably a Royalist sympathiser;" Ibid. at footnote 80 (p.21)
- Both terms were originally pejorative, deriving respectively from tóraidhe, one of the dispossessed Irish who became outlaws and whiggamor, a Scots Gaelic word for a cattle or horse drover
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 1)
- Double return between Lord le Despencer and Francis St John. Lord le Despencer declared elected
- Unseated on petition in favour of Baron Fitzwilliam of Milton Hall in 1667
- Hainsworth, D. R. Fitzwilliam, William, first Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Ireland (1643–1719) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/67100, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Rigg, J. M. Dolben, Sir Gilbert, first baronet (1658/9–1722) (rev. D. W. Hayton) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7774, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- "Charles Parker ... in 1728, was High Sheriff of Northamptonshire and at that time not pro-Fitzwilliam. His action at the election of that year led to a case before the Bar of the House of Commons to settle a controversy over the powers of the Bailiffs of the City [and of the Soke] as returning officer at the election. Parker, as Sheriff, sent the election writ to Robert Smith, the Bailiff of the Liberty who returned Earl Fitzwilliam [at that time in the Peerage of Ireland only] and an unknown nominee of [the Earl of Exeter] ... James Pix, the City's Bailiff, contested the return and won, so the sitting members ... were declared elected," even though Wortley Montagu had died six months earlier; see Tebbs, op. cit. (p.95) which incorrectly refers to Sidney's son Edward Wortley Montagu
- Turner, Roger Lamb, Sir Matthew, first baronet (1705?–1768) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15919, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Lambert, Elizabeth R. Laurence, French (1757–1809) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16126, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Kelly, James Ponsonby, George (1755–1817) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22495, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Mandler, Peter Lamb, William, second Viscount Melbourne (1779–1848) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15920, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Barker, G. F. R. Scarlett, James, first Baron Abinger (1769–1844) (rev. Elisabeth A. Cawthon) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24783, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Courtney, W. P. Heron, Sir Robert, second baronet (1765–1854) (rev. H. C. G. Matthew) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13091, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Smith, G. B. Fitzwilliam, Charles William Wentworth, third Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Great Britain and fifth Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Ireland (1786–1857) (rev. H. C. G. Matthew) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9653, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Wallis, Frank H. Whalley, George Hammond (1813–1878) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29158, retrieved 6 October 2007). Unseated on petition in 1853; at the subsequent by-election he was again returned, but his election was again declared void
- Courtney, W. P. Hankey, Thomson (1805–1893) (rev. A. C. Howe) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12197, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Clarke, Ernest Wells, William (1818–1889) (rev. John Martin) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29019, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Resigned by becoming Steward of the Manor of Northstead in 1883 and was adjudged bankrupt later that year
- Waley, Daniel Buxton, Sydney Charles, Earl Buxton (1853–1934) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32224, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Pelling, loc. cit. confirms that Wentworth-Fitzwilliam contested the election against an official Liberal candidate and that the Conservative candidate withdrew in his favour. He became a Liberal Unionist the following year and died as a result of a riding accident in 1889
- Ryder, Richard D. Greenwood, Sir Granville George (1850–1928) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/41162, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- Sitting member for North Northants. from 1910
- Cole, Margaret Horrabin, James Francis (1884–1962) (rev. Amanda L. Capern) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33995, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- McWhirter, Norris Cecil, David George Brownlow, sixth marquess of Exeter (1905–1981) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30910, retrieved 6 October 2007). Resigned his seat in 1943 when he was appointed Governor of Bermuda
- Roth, Andrew Lord Harmar-Nicholls: Self-made Tory peer more adept at business than politics The Guardian, 18 September 2000
- "No. 46229". The London Gazette. 7 March 1974. p. 2987.
- "UPDATE: Stewart Jackson seeks fourth term as MP for Peterborough as opposition prepare for election". www.peterboroughtoday.co.uk.
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1955.
- The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1951.
- Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
- Report of the Annual Conference of the Labour Party, 1939