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Moth orchids
Phalaenopsis amabilis Orchi 03.jpg
Phalaenopsis amabilis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Vandeae
Subtribe: Aeridinae
Genus: Phalaenopsis
Type species
Phalaenopsis amabilis
Blume (1825)

Phalaenopsis /ˌfælɪˈnɒpsɪs/ Blume (1825), commonly known as moth orchids,[2] is a genus of about seventy species of plants in the family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are monopodial epiphytes or lithophytes with long, coarse roots, short, leafy stems and long-lasting, flat flowers arranged in a flowering stem that often branches near the end. Orchids in this genus are native to India, Taiwan, China, Southeast Asia, New Guinea and Australia with the majority in Indonesia and the Philippines.


Orchids in the genus Phalaenopsis are monopodial epiphytic, sometimes lithophytic herbs with long, coarse roots and short leafy stems hidden by overlapping leaf bases. The leaves are usually arranged in two rows, relatively large and leathery, oblong to elliptic and sometimes succulent. A few to many, small to large, long-lasting, flat, often fragrant flowers are arranged on erect to hanging racemes or panicles. The sepals and petals are free from and spread widely apart from each other. The lateral sepals are usually larger than the dorsal sepal and the petals much wider than the sepals. The labellum is joined stiffly to the column and has three lobes. The side lobes are erect and more or less parallel to each other and the middle lobe sometimes has a pair of appendages or antennae.[2][3][4][5][6]

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The genus Phalaenopsis was first formally described in 1825 by Carl Ludwig Blume and the description was published in Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië.[1][7] The name Phalaenopsis is derived from the Ancient Greek word phalaina (φαλαινα) meaning "a kind of moth"[8]:535 with the suffix -opsis meaning "having the appearance of" or "like".[8]:483[9]

The genus name is abbreviated Phal. horticulturally.[10]


The former genus Ornithochilus was merged with Phalaenopsis and is considered by some to be a subgenus. Its members have distinctly 4-lobed, fringed labella with a short, curved spur situated near the middle of the lip as opposed to the base. Ornithochilus formerly had three known species, native to China, the Himalayas and Southeast Asia:[11][12]


Species of Phalaenopsis are found from India to southern China, Indochina, Malaysia and from Indonesia to the Philippines and New Guinea. There is a single species endemic to Queensland. The greatest disversity of phalaenopsis occurs in Indonesia and the Philippines.


The following is a list of Phalaenopsis species accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at January 2019:

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Phalaenopsis amabilis Orchi 007.jpg Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume 1825 East Malaysia to Papuasia 0– 600 meters
Phalaenopsis amboinensis Orchi 104.jpg Phalaenopsis amboinensis J.J.Smith 1911 Ambon Island, Sulawesi, Papua and New Guinea and Indonesia
Phalaenopsis aphrodite Orchi 0049.jpg Phalaenopsis aphrodite Rchb.f 1862 Philippine Islands, Sulu Archipelago, and Taiwan
Phalaenopsis appendiculata Orchi 034.jpg Phalaenopsis appendiculata Carr 1929 Pahang, Malaysia to northeastern Borneo
Phalaenopsis bastianii Orchi 2531.jpg Phalaenopsis bastianii O.Gruss & L.Röllke 1991 the Philippines - Luzon, in the Sulu Archipelago
Phalaenopsis bellina Orchi 02.jpg Phalaenopsis bellina Christenson 1995 Borneo 200 meters and below
Phalaenopsis braceana (Hook. f.) Christenson 1986 Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan, Myanamar, Thailand, Vietnam, China - Yunnan 1100 – 2100 meters.
Ogród Botaniczny UJ w Krakowie 087 - cropped.jpg Phalaenopsis buyssoniana Rchb. f. 1888 Indochina, Thailand, and Vietnam
Phalaenopsis cacharensis (Barbhuiya, B.K.Dutta & Schuit.) Kocyan & Schuit. 2014 India (Cachar, Assam)
Phalaenopsis celebensis Orchi 206-1.jpg Phalaenopsis celebensis Sweet 1980 Sulawesi
Phalaenopsis chibae Orchi 1365-1.jpg Phalaenopsis chibae T.Yukawa 1996 Vietnam 400 – 600 meters
Phalaenopsis cochlearis (Borneo) Holttum, Orchid Rev. 73- 409 (1964) (36008796681).jpg Phalaenopsis cochlearis Holttum 1964 Malaysia and Sarawak, Borneo 450 – 700 meters
Phalaenopsis corningiana Orchi 955.jpg Phalaenopsis corningiana Rchb. f. 1879 Borneo 450 – 610 meters
Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi Orchi 14.jpg Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb.f. 1860 India, Myanamar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Nicobar Islands, Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Sumatra, and the Philippines 1000 meters and below
Phalaenopsis deliciosa Orchi 644.jpg Phalaenopsis deliciosa Rchb. f. 1854 India to SE Asia, Java, Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines 600 meters and below
Phalaenopsis difformis (Wall. ex Lindl.) Kocyan & Schuit. 2014 Assam India, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, western Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Malayasia, Laos, central and southern China, Vietnam, Borneo and Sumatra 300 – 1600 meters
Phalaenopsis doweryensis Orchi 003.jpg Phalaenopsis doweryënsis Garay & Christenson 2001 Sabah 150 meters
Phalaenopsis equestris.jpg Phalaenopsis equestris [Schauer]Rchb.f 1849 Taiwan - Hsiao Lan Yü to the Philippines 0 – 300 meters.
Phalaenopsis fasciata Orchi 004 - cropped.jpg Phalaenopsis fasciata Rchb.f 1882 the Philippines
Phalaenopsis fimbriata Orchi 587.jpg Phalaenopsis fimbriata J.J. Sm. 1921 Java, Sumatra and Sarawak 790 – 1300 meters.
Phalaenopsis minus.jpg Phalaenopsis finleyi Christenson 2011 Thailand and Burma
Phalaenopsis floresensis 2 - cropped.jpg Phalaenopsis floresensis Fowlie 1993 island of Flores in Indonesia 150 – 500 meters
Phalaenopsis fuscata Orchi 004.jpg Phalaenopsis fuscata Rchb. f. 1874 Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, to Philippines - Palawan island 0 – 1000 meters
Phalaenopsis gibbosa Orchi 032.jpg Phalaenopsis gibbosa H.R. Sweet 1970 Laos and northern Vietnam 0 – 1000 meters
Phalaenopsis gigantea Orchi 1133.jpg Phalaenopsis gigantea J.J.Smith 1909 Sabah, Borneo, Java and Sarawak 0 – 400 meters
Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica Orchi 008.jpg Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica [Rchb.f] Sweet 1969 the Philippines - Luzon, Leyte, Samar, Palawan, and Mindanao islands
Phalaenopsis honghenensis F.Y.Liu, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13 373 (1991) (43757012332).jpg Phalaenopsis honghenensis F.Y. Liu 1991 China - Yunnan 2000 meters
Phalaenopsis inscriptiosinensis Fowlie, Orchid Digest 47 11 (1983) (41267534755).jpg Phalaenopsis inscriptiosinensis Fowlie 1983 Central Sumatra 914 meters and below
Phalaenopsis japonica (Rchb.f.) Kocyan & Schuit., Phytotaxa 161- 67 (2014). (34153976831) (2) - cropped.jpg Phalaenopsis japonica (Rchb.f.) Kocyan & Schuit. 2014 W Yunnan, Zhejiang, Japan (Southern areas to Ryukyu Islands), Korea (Jeollanam-do). 600 – 1400 meters
Phalaenopsis javanica (North of Java Indonesia) J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 2, 26- 77 (1918) (38757054822).jpg Phalaenopsis javanica J.J.Sm. 1918 Western Java
Phalaenopsis kapuasensis Metusala & P.O'Byrne 2017 Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia 50 – 200 meters
Phalaenopsis kunstleri (18099782832) (cropped).jpg Phalaenopsis kunstleri Hook. f. 1890 Myanmar to Malaysia
Phalaenopsis lindenii '170302' Loher, J. Orchidées 6 103 (1895) (29112488127).jpg Phalaenopsis lindenii Loher 1895 the Philippines - Luzon island 1000 – 1500 meters
Orchid (4381946775) (2).jpg Phalaenopsis lobbii (Rchb. f.) H.R. Sweet 1980 Himalayas, NE India, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanamar and Vietnam 366 – 1200 meters
Phalaenopsis lowii Orchi 912.jpg Phalaenopsis lowii Rchb.f 1862 Myanamar, Thailand and Borneo 800 meters.
Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana, 2015-03-13, Phipps Conservatory.jpg Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana Rchb.f 1862 the Philippines below 100 meters.
Phalaenopsis luteola (Burb. ex Garay) Christenson & O.Gruss 2001 Northwestern Borneo
Phalaenopsis maculata Orchi 22614.jpg Phalaenopsis maculata Rchb.f 1881 Malaya to Borneo and Sulawesi 0 – 1000 meters
Phalaenopsis malipoensis (26182921470).jpg Phalaenopsis malipoensis Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen 2005 China - Yunnan
Phalaenopsis mannii Orchi 012.jpg Phalaenopsis mannii Rchb.f 1871 Indian Himalayas, Assam, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanamar, southern China and Vietnam 500 – 1500 meters
Phalaenopsis mariae Orchi 005.jpg Phalaenopsis mariae Burbidge ex Warner & Williams 1883 Northeastern Borneo to the Philippines - Mindanao 600 meters
Phalaenopsis marriottiana (Rchb.f.) Kocyan & Schuit. 2014 Guangxi China and Myanmar
Phalaenopsis mentawaiensis ‘-1' O.Gruss, Orchidee (Hamburg) 65- 238 (2014) (24706145877).jpg Phalaenopsis mentawaiensis O.Gruss 2014 Mentawai Islands of Sumatra
Phalaenopsis micholitzii Rchb. f. 1874 the Philippines - Mindanao island 400 meters
Phalaenopsis mirabilis (Seidenf.) Schuit. 2007 Thailand.
Phalaenopsis modesta Orchi 272.jpg Phalaenopsis modesta J.J. Sm. 1906 Borneo 50 – 900 meters
Phalaenopsis mysorensis C.J.Saldanha 1974 Mysore, India.
Phalaenopsis natmataungensis (T.Yukawa, Nob.Tanaka & J.Murata) Dalström & Ormerod 2010 Myanmar 1700 – 1950 meters
Phalaenopsis pallens (14868211765).jpg Phalaenopsis pallens [Lindley]Rchb.f 1864 the Philippines - Luzon and Mindanao islands 500 meters
Phalaenopsis pantherina Orchi 981.jpg Phalaenopsis pantherina Rchb. f. 1864 Borneo 0 – 800 meters.
Phalaenopsis parishii Orchi 433.jpg Phalaenopsis parishii Rchb. f. 1865 eastern Himalayas, Assam India, Myanamar, Thailand and Vietnam below 500 meters
Phalaenopsis philippinensis '-1702' Golamco ex Fowlie & C.Z.Tang, Orchid Digest 51 92 (1987) (40084006705).jpg Phalaenopsis philippinensis Golamco ex Fowlie & C.Z.Tang 1987 the Philippines - Luzon island up to 1200 meters
Doritis pulcherrima Buyssoniana 1zz.jpg Phalaenopsis pulcherrima (Lindl.) J.J.Sm. 1933 Assam India, Myanamar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Yunnan and Xizang China, Vietnam, Borneo and Sumatra
Phalaenopsis pulchra Orchi 2012-09-14 048.jpg Phalaenopsis pulchra (Rchb. f.) H.R. Sweet 1968 the Philippines - Luzon island 100 – 650 meters
Phalaenopsis reichenbachiana.jpg Phalaenopsis reichenbachiana Rchb.f. & Sander 1882 the Philippines - Mindanao island
Phalaenopsis robinsonii J.J.Sm. 1917 Ambon, Maluku. the Moluccas
Phalaenopsis rundumensis P.J.Cribb & A.L.Lamb [2012] 2011 Sabah
Phalaenopsis sanderiana Orchi 0010.jpg Phalaenopsis sanderiana Rchb. f. 1883 the Philippines - Mindanao island
Phalaenopsis schilleriana T.K.B Rchb.f., Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 16 115 (1860) (44776954120).jpg Phalaenopsis schilleriana Rchb.f 1860 the Philippines - Luzon, Mindoro, and Biliran islands 0 – 450 meters
Phalaenopsis stobartiana Orchi 064.jpg Phalaenopsis stobartiana Rchb. f. 1877 China - southeastern Tibet to Guangxi
Phalaenopsis stuartiana 'Mindoro -180501' Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 16 748 (1881) (45703584255).jpg Phalaenopsis stuartiana Rchb.f. 1881 the Philippines - Mindanao island below 300 meters
Phalaenopsis subparishii (Z.H.Tsi) Kocyan & Schuit. 2014. N Fujian, N Guangdong, NE Guizhou, SW Hubei, Hunan, NE Sichuan, Zhejiang. 300 – 1100 meters
Phalaenopsis sumatrana 'Palawan' Korth. & Rchb.f., Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 16 115 (1860), nom. cons. (31221825717).jpg Phalaenopsis sumatrana Korth. & Rchb. f. 1860 Indochina, Borneo to Philippines - Palawan island 700 meters
Kingidium taenialis 1 toapel.jpg Phalaenopsis taenialis [Lindl.] E.A Christ. & Pradham 1986 Himalayas, Assam India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanmar, to China - Yunnan 1000 – 2500 meters
Phalaenopsis tetraspis C1 - Flickr - blumenbiene (1).jpg Phalaenopsis tetraspis Rchb.f. 1868 Andaman and Nicobar Islands to northwestern Sumatra 0 meters.
Phalaenopsis thailandica O.Gruss & Roeth 2009 Thailand
Phalaenopsis tsii (M.H.Li, Z.J.Liu & S.R.Lan) Hua Deng, Z.J.Liu & Yan Wang 2015 China (Hunan) 1200 – 1850 meters
Phalaenopsis ubonensis (O.Gruss) J.M.H.Shaw 2014 Thailand and Laos
Phalaenopsis venosa Orchi 983.jpg Phalaenopsis venosa Shim & Fowlie 1983 Celebes Islands, Sulawesi 914 meters.
Phalaenopsis violacea Orchi 107.jpg Phalaenopsis violacea Witte 1861 Malaya to Sumatra 150 meters.
Phalaenopsis viridis Orchi 220312.jpg Phalaenopsis viridis J.J. Sm 1907 Sumatra 700 – 1000 meters
Phalaenopsis wilsonii (17960844591).jpg Phalaenopsis wilsonii Rolfe 1909 Sichuan, Eastern Tibet,Yunnan, and Guangxi, China 800 – 2200 meters
Phalaenopsis yingjiangensis (Z.H.Tsi) Kocyan & Schuit. 2014 Yunnan China and India 1584 meters
Phalaenopsis zhejiangensis (Z.H.Tsi) Schuit. 2012 Zhejiang China 300 – 900 meters

Natural hybrids[edit]

  • Phalaenopsis × amphitrite Kraenzl. (P. sanderiana × P. stuartiana; Mindanao, Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × gersenii (P. sumatrana × P. violacea; Borneo and Sumatra)
  • Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica × lueddemanniana (P. hieroglyphica × P. lueddemanniana; Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × intermedia Lindl. (P. aphrodite × P. equestris; star of Leyte; Leyte, Philippines) (First recognized Phalaenopsis hybrid)
    • Phalaenopsis × intermedia var. diezii (P. aphrodite × P. equestris; star of Leyte; Leyte, Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × leucorrhoda Rchb.f. (P. aphrodite × P. schilleriana; Luzon, Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × rolfeana H.R.Sweet
  • Phalaenopsis × rothschildiana (P. amabilis × P. schilleriana; Luzon, Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × schilleriano-stuartiana (P. schilleriana × P. stuartiana; Leyte, Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × singuliflora (P. bellina × P. sumatrana; Borneo)
  • Phalaenopsis × valentinii Rchb.f.
  • Phalaenopsis × veitchiana (P. equestris × P. schilleriana; Luzon and Leyte, Philippines)
Floral arrangement

Intergeneric hybrids[edit]

The following nothogenera have been established for intergeneric hybrids which include species of Phalaenopsis as ancestors.

Pink phalaenopsis (moth) orchids

Post-pollination changes[edit]

Phalaenopsis are unique in that in some species, the flowers turn into green leaves after pollination. As in many other plants, the petals of the orchid flowers serve to attract pollinating insects and protect essential organs. Following pollination, petals usually will undergo senescence (i.e. wilt and disintegrate) because it is metabolically expensive to maintain them. However, in many Phalaenopsis species, such as P. violacea, the petals and sepals find new uses following pollination, thus escaping programmed cell death. In producing chloroplasts, they turn green, become fleshy, and start to photosynthesize, as leaves do.[13]


In Phalaenopsis, phenylpropanoid enzymes are enhanced in the process of plant acclimatisation at different levels of photosynthetic photon flux.[14]

Use in horticulture[edit]

Phalaenopsis bellina

Phalaenopsis, abbreviated Phal in the horticultural trade,[15] are among the most popular orchids sold as potted plants, owing to the ease of propagation and flowering under artificial conditions. They were among the first tropical orchids in Victorian collections. Since the advent of the tetraploid hybrid Phalaenopsis Doris, they have become extremely easy to grow and flower in the home, as long as some care is taken to provide them with conditions that approximate their native habitats. Their commercial production has become an industry.

If very healthy, a Phalaenopsis plant may have up to ten or more leaves. They bloom in their full glory for several weeks. If kept in the home, the flowers may last two to three months after which a phalaenopsis orchid will need to conserve energy for further leaf, bud, and root development.[16]

In nature, Phalaenopsis species are typically fond of warm temperatures, thriving in temperatures around 20 to 35 °C (68–95 °F), but are adaptable to conditions more comfortable for human habitation in temperate zones (15 to 30 °C or 59–86 °F); at temperatures below 18 °C (64.4 °F) overwatering causes root rot. Phalaenopsis requires high humidity (60–70%) and low light of 12,000 to 20,000 lux. However, Phalaenopsis orchids can adapt to the lower humidity found in most homes. They are also typically hardier than other species of orchids, and this makes them particularly popular among first-time orchid growers.[17]

The flower spikes appear from the pockets near the base of each leaf. The first sign is a light green "mitten-like" object that protrudes from the basal leaf tissue. Over approximately three months the spike elongates until it begins to swell fat buds that will bloom.

It previously was believed that flowering is triggered by a night-time drop in temperature of around 5 to 6 degrees over two to four consecutive weeks, usually in the fall, and a day-time drop in temperature to below 29 °C (84 °F). Using two Phalaenopsis clones, Matthew G. Blanchard and Erik S. Runkle (2006) established that, other culture conditions being optimal, flower initiation is controlled by daytime temperatures declining below 27 °C (81 °F), with a definite inhibition of flowering at temperatures exceeding 29 °C (84 °F). The long-held belief that reduced evening temperatures control flower initiation in Phalaenopsis was shown to be false. Rather, lower daytime temperatures influence flowering, while night time temperatures do not appear to have any effect.[18]

The effect of fertilizer source and medium composition on vegetative growth and mineral nutrition has been studied.[19]


In cultivation in the UK, the following have been awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:


  1. ^ a b c "Phalaenopsis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  2. ^ a b Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 440. ISBN 978-1877069123.
  3. ^ Chen, Xinqi; Wood, Jeffrey James. "Phalaenopsis". Flora of China. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  4. ^ Jones D.L.; et al. (2006). "Phalaenopsis". Australian Tropical Rainforest Orchids. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  5. ^ "Genus Phalaenopsis". Orchids of New Guinea. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Phalaenopsis Page". Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia. Jay Pfahl. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  7. ^ Blume, Carl Ludwig (1825). Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië (Part 7). Batavia. p. 294. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  8. ^ a b Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  9. ^ Coombes, Allen J. (1994). Dictionary of Plant Names. London: Hamlyn Books. ISBN 978-0-600-58187-1. p. 140
  10. ^ "Alphabetical list of standard abbreviations of all generic names occurring in current use in orchid hybrid registration as at 31st December 2007" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society.
  11. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  12. ^ Flora of China v 25 p 448, 羽唇兰属 yu chun lan shu, Ornithochilus (Wallich ex Lindley) Bentham & J. D. Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3: 478, 581. 1883.
  13. ^ Wouter G. van Doorn (October 2005). "Plant programmed cell death and the point of no return". Trends in Plant Science. 10 (10): 478–483. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2005.08.003. PMID 16153879.
  14. ^ Mohammad Babar Ali, Serida Khatun, Eun-Joo Hahn and Kee-Yoeup Paek,, 2006. "Enhancement of phenylpropanoid enzymes and lignin in Phalaenopsis orchid and their influence on plant acclimatisation at different levels of photosynthetic photon flux". Plant Growth Regulation volume 49, Numbers 2-3, pages 137-146, doi:10.1007/s10725-006-9003-z
  15. ^ Stockton, Josh (20 January 2013). "Complete Care Guide to Phalaenopsis Orchid Care". Orchids Plus. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  16. ^ "How to Care for Orchids: A Comprehensive Organic Guide".
  17. ^ Growing Conditions for Phalaenopsis Orchids, Accessed 11/11/2012 Archived 2013-01-14 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Blanchard, Matthew G; Runkle, Erik S (2006). "Temperature during the day, but not during the night, controls flowering of Phalaenopsis orchids". Journal of Experimental Botany. 57 (15): 4043–4050. doi:10.1093/jxb/erl176. PMID 17075080.
  19. ^ Wang, Yin-Tung; Konow, Elise A. (2002). "Fertilizer Source and Medium Composition Affect Vegetative Growth and Mineral Nutrition of a Hybrid Moth Orchid". American Society for Horticultural Science. 127 (3): 442–447. doi:10.21273/JASHS.127.3.442. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  20. ^ "Phalaenopsis Brother Pico Sweetheart gx". RHS. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  21. ^ "Phalaenopsis amabilis". RHS. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  22. ^ "Phalaenopsis Yellow Lightning gx". RHS. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  • Seon Kim; Clifford W. Morden; Yoneo Sagawa & Jae -Young Kim (2003). "The Phylogeny of Phalaenopsis Species". Proceedings of NIOC2003, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Olaf Gruss & Manfred Wolf - Phalaenopsis ; Edition Ulmer, ISBN 3-8001-6551-1 (in German)
  • Eric A. Christenson - Phalaenopsis: a Monograph ; ISBN 0-88192-494-6
  • Harper, Tom (February 2004). Phalaenopsis Culture: Advice for Growing 20 Species. Orchids Magazine 73 (2). Delray Beach, FL: American Orchid Society, 2004
  • Leroy-Terquem, Gerald and Jean Parisot. 1991. Orchids: Care and Cultivation. London: Cassel Publishers Ltd.
  • Schoser, Gustav. 1993. Orchid Growing Basics. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.
  • White, Judy. 1996. Taylor’s Guide to Orchids. Frances Tenenbaum, Series Editor. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, ISBN 0395677262

External links[edit]