Phalangodidae

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Phalangodidae
Bishopella laciniosa.jpg
Bishopella laciniosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Opiliones
Suborder: Laniatores
Infraorder: Grassatores
Superfamily: Phalangodoidea
Family: Phalangodidae
Simon, 1879
Synonyms
  • Paralolidae Kratochvíl, 1958
  • Lolinae Kratochvíl, 1958

The Phalangodidae are a family of harvestmen with about 20 genera and more than 100 described species, distributed in the Holarctic region.

It is not to be confused with the harvestman family Phalangiidae, which is in the suborder Eupnoi.

Name[edit]

The name of the type genus Phalangodes is derived from Ancient Greek φάλαγξ (phalanx), a line of soldiers in formation. This probably refers to the rows of pedipalpal spines.[1]

Description[edit]

Body length ranges from less than 1 mm to about 3 mm (0.12 in). The pedipalps are armed with large spines. While some species have legs eight times the body length, others have shorter legs around twice the body length. Most species are yellowish to orange brown. Troglobitic (cave-dwelling) species are depigmented.[1]

Distribution[edit]

More than two-thirds of the species occur in the western Nearctic, especially in California] with about 50 species in four endemic genera. About 10 species are known from the eastern Nearctic. Few occur in the Palearctic, with one species each in the Canary Islands and Japan, and about 20 species in the Mediterranean region.[1]

Relationships[edit]

The family seems to be largely monophyletic, with the exceptions of a few genera such as Guerrobunus and Glennhuntia. Although the relationship of the Phalangodidae to other Grassatores is currently unresolved, the family seems relatively basal inside the Grassatores.[1]

Genera[edit]

The family Phalangodidae contains these genera:[2]

  • Ausobskya Martens, 1972Greece (four species)
  • Banksula Roewer, 1949California (10 species)
  • Bishopella Roewer, 1927 — southeastern US (two species)
  • Calicina Ubick & Briggs, 1989 — California (25 species)
  • Crosbyella Roewer, 1927 — southeastern US (five species)
  • Glennhuntia Shear, 2001 — western Australia (one species; probably misplaced)
  • Guerrobunus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1945Mexico (three species, probably misplaced)
  • Haasus Roewer, 1949
  • Lola Kratochvíl, 1937 — Israel (one species)
  • Maiorerus Rambla, 1993Canary Islands (one species)
  • Microcina Briggs & Ubick, 1989 — California (six species)
  • Paralola Kratochvíl, Balat & Pelikan, 1958 — Bulgaria (one species)
  • Phalangodes Tellkampf, 1844 — Kentucky, Cuba? (two species; one species possibly misplaced)
  • Phalangomma Roewer, 1949 — Virginia (one species; probably misplaced)
  • Proscotolemon Roewer, 1916Japan (one species)
  • Ptychosoma Sørensen, 1873 — Spain, Italy, North Africa (two species)
  • Scotolemon Lucas, 1860 — Mediterranean (13 species)
  • Sitalcina Banks, 1911 — California (9 species)
  • Texella Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 — Texas, California, Oregon, New Mexico (28 species)
  • Tolus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 — Tennessee (one species)
  • Undulus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 — Alabama (one species)
  • Wespus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 — Arkansas (one species)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Darrell Ubick (2007). "Phalangodidae Simon, 1879". In R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet. Harvestmen - The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press. pp. 217–221. ISBN 0-674-02343-9. 
  2. ^ Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog: Phalangodidae