Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm

Coordinates: 11°34′N 108°59′E / 11.567°N 108.983°E / 11.567; 108.983
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Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City
Thành phố Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm (Vietnamese)
Panduranga (Cham)
Po Klong Garai Temple
Nickname: 
Land of the towers[1]
Map
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City is located in Vietnam
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City
Location of in Vietnam
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City is located in Southeast Asia
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City (Southeast Asia)
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City is located in Asia
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm City (Asia)
Coordinates: 11°34′N 108°59′E / 11.567°N 108.983°E / 11.567; 108.983
Country Vietnam
ProvinceNinh Thuận
RegionSouth Central Coast
HeadquarterNo. 6A, 21/8 Street, My Huong Ward
Founded813, as Panduranga city, by the Chams
Incorporated1917, as Phan Rang town, by Khải Định
Consolidated2007, as the City of Phan Rang - Tháp Chàm
Named forPanduranga and Po Klong Garai Temple
Subdivision15 wards, 1 commune
Area
 • City (Class-2)79.19 km2 (30.58 sq mi)
Elevation
9 m (29.53 ft)
Population
 (2019)
 • City (Class-2)167,394
 • Density2,114/km2 (5,480/sq mi)
 • Urban
157,942
 • Rural
9,452
 • Ethnicities
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Postal code
59000
Area code259
Vehicle registration85-B1
ClimateAw
Websiteprtc.ninhthuan.gov.vn

Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, commonly known as Phan Rang, is a city in Vietnam and the capital of Ninh Thuận Province. The community has a population of 167,394 (2019), of which 95,000 (2019) live in the main city.

Etymology[edit]

The name Phan Rang or Panrang (Cham: ꨝꩊ ꨚꩃꨕꨣꩃ Bal Pangdarang) is an indigenous Austronesianized form of the original Sanskrit Pāṇḍuraṅga (another epithet for the Hindu god Vithoba),[2] which first appeared on Cham inscriptions around the tenth century as Paṅrauṅ or Panrāṅ,[3] and after that, it has been Vietnamese transliterated into Phan Rang.[4] The name Tháp Chàm means "Cham Temple/Tower" and is named after the Po Klong Garai Temple in the northern part of the city.

History[edit]

What is now Phan Rang was formerly known as Panduranga, a principality of Champa kingdom.

In 813, Panduranga polity was founded in the Virapura region and the Champa king granted it local autonomy. From 1471 to 1693, it was the capital city of Champa kingdom. The Panduranga Principality was annexed by the Vietnamese in 1832, marking the fall of the last Champa Kingdom.

The town of Phan Rang was established in 1917 during the Nguyễn dynasty, by edict of Emperor Khải Định, and remained the provincial capital of Ninh Thuận Province until 1976, when the province merged with Bình Thuận Province to form Thuận Hải Province.

When the Japanese occupied the country in World War II, they established an airfield and it was later used by the French. During the Republic of Vietnam, Phan Rang was the site of the United States Air Force's Phan Rang Air Base in the Vietnam War.

The town was divided into Phan Rang in the east, which became part of Ninh Hải District and Tháp Chàm in the west, which became part of An Son district. The two were again combined in 1992 to become Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, the capital of Ninh Thuận Province, achieving city status in 2007.[5]

Geography[edit]

Phan Rang - Thap Cham city is located in the center of Ninh Thuan province, 1,380 km south of Hanoi, 330 km northeast of Ho Chi Minh City, 95 km south of Nha Trang, with geographical location:

Climate[edit]

Phan Rang has a tropical savanna climate (Aw). The average annual temperature ranges from 27 to 28 degrees Celsius, the average rainfall ranges from 700 to 800 mm and humidity is about 70-75%.

The city's climate is divided into two distinct seasons, which are the dry season from December to August of the following year and the rainy season from September to November. Although belonging to the tropical monsoon region, Phan Rang is among the cities with the least rainfall in the country, it is only about 1/3 of the national average.

Administration[edit]

Phan Rang - Thap Chàm city is divided into 16 commune-level administrative units, including 15 wards: Bảo An, Đài Sơn, Đạo Long, Đô Vinh, Đông Hải, Kinh Dinh, Mỹ Bình, Mỹ Đông, Mỹ Hải, Mỹ Hương, Phủ Hà, Phước Mỹ, Tấn Tài, Thanh Sơn, Văn Hải and 1 commune: Thành Hải.

List of administrative units under Phan Rang - Thap Chàm city
Tên Area (km2) Population (people) Density (people/km2)
Wards (15)
Bảo An 3,22 9.053 2.812
Đài Sơn 1,45 8.658 5.971
Đạo Long 2,09 7.909 3.784
Đô Vinh 30,31 13.257 437
Đông Hải 2,19 19.377 8.848
Kinh Dinh 0,41 5.452 13.298
Mỹ Bình 4,45 8.800 1.980
Mỹ Đông 2,51 12.263 4.887
Tên Area (km2) Population (people) Density (people/km2)
Mỹ Hải 2,70 6.048 2.240
Mỹ Hương 0,45 3.150 7.000
Phủ Hà 1,30 10.153 7.810
Phước Mỹ 5,99 18.419 3.075
Tấn Tài 2,64 10.110 3.830
Thanh Sơn 1,04 8.518 8.190
Văn Hải 9,24 16.775 1.816
Commune (1)
Thành Hải 9,23 9.452 1.024

Economy[edit]

Phan Rang - Thap Cham city has a very large contribution rate to the socio-economic development of Ninh Thuan province. Economic development reached a growth rate of 9.6%; Total social investment capital is over 4,515 billion VND.[6]

Trade and Services[edit]

Trade - services is a key industry, with a total production value of over 20,700 billion VND, an increase of 9.6%, accounting for 62.3%. The city continues to promote Resolution No. 03-NQ/TU of the Standing Committee of the City Party Committee on the development of the trade and service industry. Total retail sales of goods and service revenue are estimated at over 29,026 billion VND, an increase of 12.28%; Of which retail revenue of goods was over 24,853 billion VND, accounting for 85.6%, an increase of 11.3%; Accommodation and food services were over VND 2,866 billion, an increase of 19.5%.

Industry and Construction[edit]

Industry grew at a relative speed. The city has implemented many high-value construction projects that have contributed to increasing the production value of the construction industry, with a production value of over 3,763 billion VND, an increase of 8.8%. For industry, the production value is over 6,862 billion VND. The main products are: Frozen shrimp, up 5.5%; dry cashews, up 31%; RS line, up 41.24%; Aloe vera jelly production, increased by 7.5%. In the city, there are Thap Cham Industrial Cluster and Thanh Hai Industrial Park.

Culture[edit]

Cham[edit]

Tháp Chàm and Phan Rang district has become a center for the maintenance of Cham culture. Much of the district is occupied by Cham people where they have rice paddies, orchards of grapes and peaches, flocks of goats and Brahman cattle.Their towers (the 'Thap') are beautiful memorials to their kings and queens. There are several Cham sites with dilapidated towers along the central coast of Vietnam and major sites in Mỹ Sơn and Nha Trang.

However, there are two sites in the Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm being maintained and culturally active. Two kilometers west of the Tháp Chàm Railway Station, there is excellent hilltop Cham tower complex dedicated to the king Po Klong Garai, the last reigning king; his likeness is depicted on a lingam in the sanctuary of the central tower. A second tower for the king Po Re Do is located about 20 km south west of Tháp Chàm, via Phu Quy to Phuoc Hou and the village Hau Sanh; this tower is undergoing extensive renovation (July 2012).

The towers are currently used for the very colorful Cham festivals, particularly "Kate festival" in October (Oct 15 in 2012) when they still sacrifice a bullock and other food offerings. Other ceremonies for Ramadan, a Rain Festival (as required), weddings and other celebrations are also held. Apart from the incorporation of Islam into their cultural and religious practice, another point of cultural difference is that their heredity line is maternal. The animist foundation of Cham culture, with fire motif on the towers, rustic traditions and very colorful ceremonial dress makes the Cham culture an ideal tourist resource for Vietnam, as yet poorly developed.

Entrance gate to Po Klong Garai temple during Kate festival (2023)

Architecturally, the towers are intricately built in small red bricks, almost dry stone construction with very fine mortar lines. The towers are topped by calyx like minarets, arches are rimmed by special bricks fired with tongue like extensions on the extremities to represent flames; it is very intricate brick work requiring sophisticated engineering to deal with the overhang.

Associated with the Po Klong Garai complex there is a cultural center, more functionally built with concrete, bricks, mortar and render, but at least with some of the line of the Cham architecture and housing a display of cultural and handi-works, and excellent photographs and paintings by Cham artists.

Phan Rang Look Out

Cuisine[edit]

Tourist attractions[edit]

  • Phan Rang Beach.

Sport[edit]

Ninh Thuan Stadium, also known as Phan Rang Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium located near Phủ Hà roundabout, Phước Mỹ ward. The stadium has a capacity of 16,000 spectators. This is also the home field of Ninh Thuan Football Club in 2012.

Transport[edit]

Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm is located at the junction of National Routes 1A and 27; the former connects the town to Hanoi towards the north and Ho Chi Minh City to the south-west, while the latter crosses into the Central Highlands towards Buôn Ma Thuột.[8]

The city is connected to the North–South Railway at Tháp Chàm Railway Station; express passenger trains (SE1/2, SE5/6) stop regularly at the station.[9] Getting to or from the Tháp Chàm Station 21 Thang 8 connects Tháp Chàm to Phan Rang. Local buses go west(7 km ride) to Phan Rang bus terminal, near the Phan Rang market. The Phan Rang terminal is the hub for local and distance buses. Local buses go to Phu Quy and Phouc Hou (12 km) for the Po Re Do tower or the beach resorts (5 km). Taking the opposite direction (west) on 21 Thang 8, 1 km gets to the Po Klong Garai towers and cultural center. Mini-buses to Da Lat (2.5hr. trip) pick up passengers from a Tháp Chàm booking office on 21 Thang 8 between the intersection and railway crossing, however, passengers can more reliably get seats at the Phan Rang terminus.

Đà Lạt–Tháp Chàm Railway[edit]

The station once served as a terminus for the Đà Lạt–Tháp Chàm Railway, a rack railway which opened in 1932. The railway was abandoned during the Vietnam War and dismantled after the North Vietnamese victory in 1975, to provide materials for the restoration of the heavily damaged north–south line.[10] A proposed renewal project, backed by provincial and local governments, aims to restore the entire Đà Lạt–Tháp Chàm railway to handle both passenger and cargo transportation.[11]

Healthcare[edit]

  • Phan Rang - Thap Cham City Medical Center.
  • Saigon Phan Rang General Hospital.
  • Ninh Thuan Provincial General Hospital.
  • Ninh Thuan Provincial Eye Hospital.
  • Thai Hoa General Hospital.
    Ninh Thuan Provincial General Hospital in Van Hai Ward

Education[edit]

In the city, there are 155 educational establishments from preschool to lower secondary school level.[12] There are 7 high schools.

College, university[edit]

  • Ninh Thuan Medical Intermediate School.
  • Ninh Thuan Vocational College.
  • Water Resources University - Central Institute of Training and Applied Science.

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Introducing the magic of Phan Rang — Vietnam's 'land of the towers'". 8 October 2020.
  2. ^ Dokras, Dr Uday (2022-01-01). "The Ancient City of PANDURANGA in Vietnam". Indo Nordic Author's Collective.
  3. ^ Griffiths, Arlo; Lepoutre, Amandine; Southworth, William A.; Phần, Thành (2009). "Études du corpus des inscriptions du Campa III, Épigraphie du Campa 2009-2010. Prospection sur le terrain, production d'estampages, supplément à l'inventaire" (PDF). Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient (in French). 95–96: 435–497. doi:10.3406/befeo.2008.6118.
  4. ^ Nguyễn, Nhân Thống (2001). "Nguồn gốc các Địa danh Đà Nẵng – Hội An – Nha Trang – Phan Rang". Tạp chí Ngôn ngữ và Đời sống (in Vietnamese). 4 (66): 17&40.
  5. ^ "Brief history of Phan Rang - Thap Cham City". prtc.ninhthuan.gov.vn. Retrieved 2023-11-03.
  6. ^ NTO. "NTO - Tp. Phan Rang - Tháp Chàm: Đẩy mạnh phát triển kinh tế - xã hội". baoninhthuan.com.vn (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2024-03-07.
  7. ^ VnExpress. "Bánh căn - 'linh hồn' của ẩm thực đất Ninh Thuận". vnexpress.net (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2024-03-07.
  8. ^ "Cơ sở hạ tầng -". prtc.ninhthuan.gov.vn. Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  9. ^ Getting to or from the Tháp Chàm Station 21 Thang 8 connects Tháp Chàm to Phan Rang. Local buses go west(7 km ride) to Phan Rang bus terminal, near the Phan Rang market. The Phan Rang terminal is the hub for local and distance buses. Local buses go to Phu Quy and Phouc Hou (12km) for the Po Re Do tower or the beach resorts (5km). Taking the opposite direction (west) on 21 Thang 8, 1km gets to the Po Klong Garai towers and cultural center. Mini-buses to Da Lat (2.5hr. trip) pick up passengers from a Tháp Chàm booking office on 21 Thang 8 between the intersection and railway crossing, however, passengers can more reliably get seats at the Phan Rang terminus.
  10. ^ Nick Ray; Yu-Mei Balasingamchow; Iain Stewart (2009). Vietnam. Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781742203898. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
  11. ^ "1928 Thap Cham-Da Lat Railway returns". Vietnamnet. Vietnam News Agency. 2007-10-07. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  12. ^ NTO. "NTO - Ngành Giáo dục và Đào tạo Tp. Phan Rang – Tháp Chàm: Hướng đến nâng cao chất lượng giáo dục toàn diện". baoninhthuan.com.vn (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2024-03-07.
  13. ^ "Al Hoang" (Archive). Interview by Quynh Le (Houston Asian American Archives at Rice University Woodson Research Center). Published by Rice University Chao Center for Asian Studies Houston Asian American Archive. p. 1/19. Retrieved on August 7, 2014.

External links[edit]

11°34′N 108°59′E / 11.567°N 108.983°E / 11.567; 108.983