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Phanerochaete velutina
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Phanerochaetaceae
Genus: Phanerochaete
P.Karst (1889)
Type species
Phanerochaete alnea
(Fr.) P.Karst. (1889)
  • Corticium Fr. (1835)
  • Xerocarpus P.Karst. (1881)
  • Grandiniella P.Karst. (1895)
  • Membranicium J.Erikss. (1958)

Phanerochaete is a genus of crust fungi in the family Phanerochaetaceae.


The genus was circumscribed by Finnish mycologist Petter Karsten in 1889.[2] Marinus Anton Donk redefined the limits of the genus in two publications in 1957 and 1962.[3][4] Phanerochaete has traditionally been delimited based on the overall morphology of the fruit body, as well as microscopic characteristics including the nature of the hyphal structure, cystidia, and spores. Molecular analysis published in 2010 demonstrates that the genus is polyphyletic, containing members placed throughout the phlebioid clade of the Polyporales.[5]

The genus name is derived from the Greek words φανεφός ("distinct") and χαίτη ("hair").[3]


Phanerochaete includes white rot fungi that are able to degrade the woody polymer lignin to carbon dioxide. This is achieved, in part, by lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases. These peroxidases are also able to mediate oxidation of a wide variety of organic pollutants. The genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was sequenced and shows the genetic potential to make over 100 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.[6] White rot fungi have been used in bioremediation efforts to break down potentially harmful chemicals in soil and in water.[7] For example, phenol-formaldehyde is degraded by P. chrysosporium,[8] while P. sordida breaks down the neonicotinoid pesticide clothianidin.[9]


As of December 2016, Index Fungorum accepts 92 species of Phanerochaete:[10]


  1. ^ "Phanerochaete P. Karst. 1889". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  2. ^ Karsten, Petter (1889). "Kritisk öfversigt af Finlands Basidsvampar (Basidiomycetes; Gastero- & Hymenomycetes)". Bidrag till Kännedom of Finlands Natur Folk (in Finnish). 48: 1–470 (see p. 426). 
  3. ^ a b Donk, M.A. (1957). "The proposed names for Hymenomycetes. VII: "Thelephoraceae" (Conclusion)". Taxon. 6 (4): 106–123. doi:10.2307/1217754. 
  4. ^ Donk, M.A. (1962). "Notes on resupinate Hymenomycetes-VI". Persoonia. 2: 217–238. 
  5. ^ Wu, Sheng-Hua; Nilsson, Henrik R.; Chen, Cheng-Tao; Yu, Shi-Yi; Hallenberg, Nils (2010). "The white-rotting genus Phanerochaete is polyphyletic and distributed throughout the phleboid clade of the Polyporales (Basidiomycota)". Fungal Diversity. 42 (1): 107–118. doi:10.1007/s13225-010-0031-7. 
  6. ^ Martinez, Diego; Larrondo, Luis F.; Putnam, Nik; Gelpke, Maarten D Sollewijn; Huang, Katherine; Chapman, Jarrod; Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Ramaiya, Preethi; Detter, J. Chris; Larimer, Frank; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan; Rokhsar, Daniel (2004). "Genome sequence of the lignocellulose degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain RP78". Nature Biotechnology. 22 (6): 695–700. PMID 15122302. doi:10.1038/nbt967. 
  7. ^ Syed, K.; Yadav, J.S. (2012). "P450 monooxygenases (P450ome) of the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 38 (4): 339–363. PMID 22624627. doi:10.3109/1040841X.2012.682050. 
  8. ^ Gusse, A.C.; Miller, P.D.; Volk, T.J. (2006). "White-rot fungi demonstrate first biodegradation of phenolic resin". Environmental Science and Technology. 40: 4196–9. PMID 16856735. doi:10.1021/es060408h. 
  9. ^ Mori, T.; Wang, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Nagai, K.; Kawagishi, H.; Hirai, H. "Bioremediation of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 321: 586–590. PMID 27694022. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.09.049. 
  10. ^ Kirk PM. "Species Fungorum (version 29th November 2016). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life". Retrieved 2016-12-01. 
  11. ^ a b c d Burdsall, H.H. Jr.; Gilbertson, R.L. (1974). "Three new species of Phanerochaete (Aphyllophorales, Corticiaceae)". Mycologia. 66: 780–790. doi:10.2307/3758198. 
  12. ^ a b Wu, S.H. (2000). "Six new species of Phanerochaete from Taiwan". Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica (Taipei). 41: 165–174. 
  13. ^ Ghobad-Nejhad, Masoomeh; Liu, Shi-Liang; Dai, Yu-Cheng (2015). "Molecular and morphological evidence reveal a new non-cystidiate species belonging to the core Phanerochaete (Polyporales)". Mycological Progress. 14: 69. doi:10.1007/s11557-015-1072-9. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Floudas, D; Hibbett, D.S. (2015). "Revisiting the taxonomy of Phanerochaete (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) using a four gene dataset and extensive ITS sampling". Fungal Biology. 119: 679–719. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2015.04.003. 
  15. ^ Hjortstam, K.; Ryvarden, L. (2004). "Some new tropical genera and species of corticioid fungi (Basidiomycotina, Aphyllophorales)". Synopsis Fungorum. 18: 20–32. 
  16. ^ Liu, S.L.; He, S.H. (2016). "Phanerochaete porostereoides, a new species in the core clade with brown generative hyphae from China" (PDF). Mycosphere. 7 (5): 648–655. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/7/5/10. 

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