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Phantom Blood

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Phantom Blood
The cover art shows two young men – Dio, a blond man carrying a stone mask and a dagger, and Jonathan, a dark-haired man wearing a scarf – along with the dog Danny, against a blue nighttime background with the silhouettes of a building and trees in the distance.
Cover of Weekly Shōnen Jump #1–2 of 1987, depicting (left to right) Dio Brando, Jonathan Joestar and his dog Danny
ファントムブラッド
(Fantomu Buraddo)
GenreAdventure, fantasy, supernatural[1]
Manga
Written byHirohiko Araki
Published byShueisha
English publisher
DemographicShōnen
ImprintJump Comics
MagazineWeekly Shōnen Jump
Original runJanuary 1, 1987October 26, 1987
Volumes5 (List of volumes)
Other media
Wikipe-tan face.svg Anime and Manga portal

Phantom Blood (Japanese: ファントムブラッド, Hepburn: Fantomu Buraddo) is a 1987 manga series created by Hirohiko Araki, and the first part of the larger JoJo's Bizarre Adventure series. The manga was originally serialized by Shueisha in Weekly Shōnen Jump under the title JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Part 1 Jonathan Joestar: His Youth,[a] and was collected in five volumes; a three-volume collection was released by Shueisha in Japan in 2002, and by Viz Media in North America in 2014.

The story is set in England in 1880, and follows Jonathan Joestar, the heir of the wealthy Joestar family, and his adoptive brother Dio Brando, who wishes to take the Joestar fortune for himself. Using an ancient stone mask, Dio transforms himself into a vampire, and Jonathan learns the sunlight-based martial arts technique of Hamon to fight him. Araki described the themes of the story as "being alive" and "an affirmation that humanity is wonderful", with characters growing and overcoming problems through their own actions.

The series received reviews ranging from negative to positive, with critics frequently criticizing the anatomy and character posing in Araki's artwork, and Araki was often told during the serialization that Phantom Blood was the one series that did not fit in with the "best of the best" that were published at the same time, like Dragon Ball and Fist of the North Star. The series has seen two anime adaptations, in the form of a 2007 film by A.P.P.P., and as part of the first season of David Production's 2012 JoJo's Bizarre Adventure TV series, and was adapted into a 2006 video game by Bandai.

Plot[edit]

In 19th-century England, a youth named Dio Brando is adopted by the wealthy George Joestar to repay Dio's father for seemingly saving his life. Jonathan Joestar, who aspires to become a gentleman, finds himself shunned by his family and friends as part of Dio's plot to take the Joestar fortune for himself. But after Jonathan overpowers Dio in a battle, the latter decides to bide his time. Meanwhile, Jonathan develops an interest in a mysterious stone mask that belonged to his mother, a relic activated by blood that grants the wearer immortality.

Despite how friendly the two seem to become as they grow up, Jonathan learns seven years later that Dio has been poisoning his father. Jonathan's search for an antidote takes him to London's dodgy Ogre Street, earning the friendship of a bowler-wearing mugger named Robert E. O. Speedwagon. Speedwagon leads him to Dio's accomplice: a black market apothecary named Wang Chan. At the same time, Dio intends to arrange a freak accident to kill Jonathan with the stone mask, testing the mask on a drunkard. However, the mask instead turns the drunk into a powerful vampire who nearly kills Dio before being destroyed by sunlight. Returning to the mansion and finding his scheme exposed, Dio attempts to kill Jonathan and use his blood with the mask to become a vampire. Though George takes the fatal wound, Dio succeeds in his plan to transcend humanity. Jonathan eventually defeats Dio after being forced to set the family's mansion ablaze.

Three days after the incident, Jonathan awakens to find himself in Erina's care, and the two rekindle their friendship. But an encounter with a strange Italian man named William Anthonio Zeppeli introduces Jonathan to sunlight-creating Hamon energy, and Jonathan agrees to learn to utilize it upon hearing of Dio's survival. Jonathan and Zeppeli travel to Windknight's Lot, finding Dio in the middle of creating an army of zombies from the abducted residents. Dio also uses his power to resurrect Queen Mary's protectors Bluford and Tarukus to fight Jonathan, the battle with the latter ending with Zeppeli's death. Joined by Zeppeli's fellow Hamon users, Jonathan confronts Dio and manages to send Hamon directly into him, dissolving his body. The Stone Mask is destroyed, and Dio's zombie army is defeated.

Soon after, Jonathan marries Erina, and they head off on a honeymoon cruise across the Atlantic Ocean. But to his horror, Jonathan learns that Dio survived by severing his head from his body, and intends to transplant himself onto Jonathan's body and continue his evil. Fatally wounded from his throat being damaged, Jonathan uses his remaining Hamon to cause the ship's engine to overload. While Jonathan traps Dio in his arms as they are dragged into the depths, Erina escapes alongside a dead passenger's baby girl in Dio's casket. Rescued near the Canary Islands a day later, and still bearing Jonathan's unborn child, Erina vows to pass on the truth of Jonathan's life to her child and the generations to follow.

Production[edit]

A photograph of the sculpture Apollo and Daphne, depicting one woman and one man.
The character posing was influenced by Bernini's sculpture Apollo and Daphne.

Phantom Blood was written and drawn by Hirohiko Araki.[2] Prior to working on the series, he created a manga that resembled the works of Hisashi Eguchi, an artist known for his art of female characters; Araki's editor, Ryōsuke Kabashima, angrily told Araki to never draw something as derivative again, which led him to take another direction with his art, and the creation of Phantom Blood.[3] Due to the popularity of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone at the time, Araki designed characters with muscular body types.[4] The character posing, which Araki considers is distinctive about his art, was influenced by a trip to Italy just before the serialization of Phantom Blood, where he went to the Galleria Borghese in Rome and saw Gian Lorenzo Bernini's sculpture Apollo and Daphne. Seeing it in person from different angles had a large influence on him; he described it as overwhelmingly beautiful and intense, and unlike sculptures in Japanese museums and the figure posing of most manga artists.[5]

Structure and themes[edit]

Phantom Blood was created using a ki-shō-ten-ketsu structure – introduction (ki), development (shō), twist (ten), and resolution (ketsu) – along with the rule of rising and falling, in which the hero must grow over time in relation to their starting point in the beginning of the story, and not stagnate or regress. Araki did however note that due to the weekly format of the series, Jonathan's initial regression when Dio turns Jonathan's happy life into hardships meant that Jonathan's growth remained in the negative for a few weeks after the series' premiere, leading to a negative feeling that Jonathan always loses. Araki implemented a similar growth curve for Dio, although with him rising towards evil.[6] Despite following the rule of the ever-progressing hero, Araki decided to bend the rule and have Jonathan die to save his wife and child: he acknowledged that dying is as far negative as a hero can go, and called it unthinkable to do such a thing in a shōnen manga, but said that since he wanted to pass down the Joestar family's lineage, he needed Jonathan to die, and for his blood and spirit to be passed to Joseph, the protagonist of Battle Tendency, the second part in the series. While calling it a gamble, he called this passing of the torch a positive that enables the extreme negative of killing the first protagonist.[7]

The themes of Phantom Blood were described by Araki as "being alive"[8] and "an affirmation that humanity is wonderful". He explained the latter as a description for humanity's ability to grow and overcome hardships through one's strength and spirit; this is a recurring theme that has been used in all following parts of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, portrayed through people succeeding in fights through their own actions, without relying on machines or gods.[4] This theme, along with the passing of the torch, was influenced by Araki's grandfather's death near the start of the serialization, and his thoughts about how people leave parts of themselves behind for the next generation when they die.[9]

Wanting readers to know that the stone mask and its powers would be what would drive the plot, Araki started the manga with a prologue involving the mask, focusing on communicating the mood, rather than the standard way of opening a manga with an introduction of the protagonist.[10] The concept of the Hamon power was created as he thought about how to create drawings that show the invisible; he came up with the idea of a character punching a frog, which was left unharmed, while the rock underneath cracked open, thus showing the supernatural power of the character's abilities.[11] It was also influenced by his love for karate manga, with the supernatural moves used within them.[12]

Creation of characters[edit]

A grayscale 1939 photograph of painter Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí's looks influenced the design of Zeppeli.

As part of the creation of each character, Araki wrote down a fictional history for the character, to prevent inconsistencies; while not all information he writes in these are used directly in the manga, it helps him determine how the character should act and react in different situations.[13] Jonathan and Dio, the protagonist and antagonist, were created with the duality of light and shadow in mind, with the intention to have them contrast against each other: Dio was depicted as an embodiment of evil, and Jonathan as "fundamentally virtuous" and just. Araki also made use of black and white in his art to further contrast the two.[14] Jonathan was designed to be a symbol for the story and setting, something Araki would continue doing with later protagonists in the series.[4] Because Araki wanted the series to move on with new characters in the Joestar family, Jonathan was specifically written as "the first Joestar" that would function as a symbol of purity and dignity, and not as a unique character. This limited what Jonathan could do; in retrospect, Araki considered him passive and "a bit boring".[12]

From the start of the planning of the manga, Araki intended to depict Dio as a "cool" character who descends into villainy. Thinking that it could be difficult to create an evil antagonist that readers would empathize with, Araki wrote Dio as coming from a poor family with a father "with no redeeming qualities whatsoever", giving Dio motivation to acquire power and get revenge on the world even if it led him to do immoral and illegal things. Araki also noted that a character who acts without regard for morals and laws can give readers a feeling of catharsis due to exhibiting the same "ugly feelings" people hold but cannot show, making Dio more easily relatable than a character who only does good.[15] Dio's name was taken directly from the Italian word for "god", and was chosen to sound good together with the name "JoJo".[16]

The main supporting character of Phantom Blood, Zeppeli, was created as a "silly teacher" in the style of the martial art masters from Jackie Chan's films and The Karate Kid, with a charm in the contrast between how they appear and who they are inside. Araki designed him with a mustache, drawing inspiration from the appearances of the painter Salvador Dalí and the Osomatsu-kun character Iyami; this was considered a gamble, as mustachioed characters in shōnen magazines were considered to appear old and untrusthworthy, potentially turning readers off. His name comes from the rock band Led Zeppelin, and was chosen to balance out the large amount of names in the series beginning with "J"; the character Speedwagon was given his name for the same reason.[17]

Release[edit]

Phantom Blood was originally serialized in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump under the title JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Part 1 Jonathan Joestar: His Youth. It ran from January 1 to October 26, 1987 for a total of 44 chapters, and was later collected in five tankōbon volumes.[18][19][20] It was also collected in a three-volume bunkoban collection on February 15, 2002,[21][22][23] and a single volume sōshūhen edition in 2012.[24] Another three-volume collection with new cover art by Araki was released from December 4, 2013 to January 4, 2014 as part of the JoJonium line, along with the second and third part of the series, Battle Tendency and Stardust Crusaders.[25][26][27] This version was released in North America by Viz Media, beginning digitally in 2014 and in print in 2015.[28] A digitally colored version of the complete manga was released digitally for smartphones and tablet computers in Japan on July 13, 2012.[29]

To celebrate the series' anniversary, a video game adaptation was released in 2006 by Bandai for the PlayStation 2, and a Phantom Blood anime film adaptation, JoJo's Bizarre Adventure: Phantom Blood, was produced by A.P.P.P. and released in Japanese theaters in 2007.[30][31] Phantom Blood was again adapted into anime in 2012, as part of the first season of David Production's JoJo's Bizarre Adventure TV anime series.[32]

Reception[edit]

Phantom Blood was met with reviews ranging from critical to positive.[33] According to Araki, he was often told during the original serialization of the manga that it was the one series that did not fit in with the "best of the best" that were serialized at the same time, such as Dragon Ball, Fist of the North Star, Captain Tsubasa, Ultimate Muscle and Saint Seiya.[34] Weekly Shōnen Jump readers were critical of the first few chapters, finding Jonathan unlikable as he kept losing against Dio at that point.[6] The series was included in Anime News Network's list of the best and most memorable manga of 2015, as the winner in the "WTF Did I Just Read?!" category.[35]

Joseph Luster at Otaku USA called Phantom Blood "a treat" for both new and old readers of the JoJo's Bizarre Adventure series, but thought that it feels slow-paced compared to Stardust Crusaders.[36] Ziah Grace and Clair Napier of ComicsAlliance were very critical of the series, calling it "meaningless junk" that should not have been republished in 2015, and recommended readers to read a plot summary of Phantom Blood and start with Battle Tendency instead. They criticized the series' depiction of animal cruelty, and the "bad or non-existent" female roles in the story.[37] Anime News Network's Rebecca Silverman appreciated the realism in how Dio appears perfectly mannered to George while also being sadistically cruel, and how the series uses a mix between Aztec mythology and vampire lore, but thought that the story could be too cruel for some readers, citing the animal cruelty as an example.[2] She liked how the story escalates in intensity and weirdness,[38] but criticized it for telling more often than showing, and using exclamation marks too much.[2]

Several reviewers criticized the artwork in Phantom Blood for the characters' anatomy and posing;[2][37][36] Silverman described it as featuring impossible poses and characters appearing to have disproportionally small heads atop large, muscled bodies.[2] She additionally criticized the art for being crowded and hard to read.[38] ComicsAlliance disliked how the art felt derivative of Fist of the North Star.[37] Takato at Manga-News thought that the anatomy and posing, while fitting the tone of the story, were unlikely and badly drawn.[39] Luster thought that the art was not nearly as good as Araki's later works, but that it was charming and worked despite the "twisted proportions" due to its high intensity and stylization.[36] Kory Cerjak at The Fandom Post enjoyed the artwork, however, calling it "straight out of the 80s", giving the series a similar feeling to watching a good action film from that time period.[40]

The box set for the three-volume JoJonium release of the series was the 47th best selling comic in Japan during its debut week according to Oricon, selling an estimated 19,374 copies.[41] The three English volumes all charted on The New York Times Manga Best Seller list for three weeks in a row;[42][43][44] volume 1 premiered in first place,[45] and both volume 2 and 3 debuted in second place, after The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past and Naruto volume 71, respectively.[46][47]

Volumes[edit]

Original release[edit]

No.TitleJapanese release dateJapanese ISBN
1Dio the Invader
Shinryakusha Dio (侵略者ディオ)
August 10, 1987[48]ISBN 978-4-08-851126-9
  1. "Dio the Invader" (侵略者ディオ, Shinryakusha Dio)
  2. "A New Friend!" (新しき友人!, Atarashiki Yūjin!)
  3. "Beloved Erina" (愛しのエリナ, Itoshi no Erina)
  4. "A Fight I Mustn't Lose" (負けられない戦い, Makerarenai Tatakai)
  1. "Danny in Flames" (炎のダニー, Honō no Danī)
  2. "A Letter from the Past" (過去からの手紙, Kako kara no Tegami)
  3. "A Vow to Father" (父への誓い, Chichi e no Chikai)
  4. "Battle on Ogre Street" (食屍鬼街オウガーストリートの戦い, Ougā Sutorīto no Tatakai)
2The Thirst for Blood!
Chi no Kawaki! (血の渇き!)
January 8, 1988[49]ISBN 978-4-08-851127-6
  1. "The Live Subject Test of the Mask" (仮面の人体実験, Kamen no Jintai Jikken)
  2. "The Thirst For Blood!" (血の渇き!, Chi no Kawaki!)
  3. "Transcend Humanity!" (人間を超越する!, Ningen o Chōetsu Suru!)
  4. "The Two Rings" (一組ふたつ指輪リング, Futatsu no Ringu)
  5. "Undying Monster" (不死の怪物, Fushi no Kaibutsu)
  1. "Attack of the Living Dead" (生ける死者リビング・デッドの襲撃, Ribingu Deddo no Shūgeki)
  2. "Settling a Youth With Dio!" (ディオとの青春に決着!, Dio to no Seishun ni Ketchaku!)
  3. "Statue of the Goddess of Love" (慈愛の女神像, Jiai no Megamizō)
  4. "A Nostalgic Face" (懐しき面影, Natsukashiki Omokage)
3The Dark Knights
Ankoku no Kishi-tachi (暗黒の騎士達)
April 8, 1988[50]ISBN 978-4-08-851128-3
  1. "Jack the Villain and Zeppeli the Eccentric" (凶人ジャック&奇人ツェペリ, Kyōjin Jakku to Kijin Tseperi)
  2. "The Miracle Energy" (奇跡のエネルギー, Kiseki no Enerugī)
  3. "The Tragedy at Sea" (洋上の惨劇, Yōjō no Sangeki)
  4. "Cursed Town" (呪われた町, Norowareta Machi)
  5. "Make Fear Yours" (恐怖を我が物とせよ, Kyōfu o Wagamono to Seyo)
  1. "Northern Wind and Vikings" (北風とバイキング, Kitakaze to Baikingu)
  2. "Invitation to a Trap" (罠への招待, Wana e no Shōtai)
  3. "The Power of the Blood-Freezing Mask" (血も凍る仮面パワー, Chi mo Kōru Kamen Pawā)
  4. "The Dark Knights" (暗黒の騎士達, Ankoku no Kishi-tachi)
  5. "Vengeance Demon from the Past" (過去からの復讐鬼, Kako kara no Fukushūki)
4Chamber of the Two-Headed Dragon
Sōshuryū no Ma e (双首竜の間へ)
June 10, 1988[51]ISBN 978-4-08-851129-0
  1. "The Hero of the 77 Rings" (77輝輪リングの勇者, Nana Jū Nana Ringu no Yūsha)
  2. "Curse of the Black Knight" (黒騎士の呪縛, Kurokishi no Jubaku)
  3. "Sleep as a Hero" (英雄として瞑る, Eiyū Toshite Nemuru)
  4. "Ruins of the Knights" (騎士たちの遺跡, Kishi-tachi no Iseki)
  5. "Chamber of the Two-Headed Dragon" (双首竜の間へ, Sōshuryū no Ma e)
  1. "Tomorrow's Courage" (あしたの勇気, Ashita no Yūki)
  2. "The Elder's Prophecy" (老師の予言, Rōshi no Yogen)
  3. "Blast Him With Rage!" (怒りをたたきこめ!, Ikari o Tatakikome!)
  4. "The Three from a Far-off Land" (遙かな国からの3人, Haruka na Kuni kara no Sannin)
  5. "Doobie the Monster" (怪人ドゥービー, Kaijin Dūbī)
5The Final Hamon!
Saigo no Hamon! (最後の波紋!)
August 10, 1988[52]ISBN 978-4-08-851130-6
  1. "Thunder Cross Split Attack" (稲妻十字空烈刃サンダークロススプリットアタック, Sandā Kurosu Supuritto Atakku)
  2. "Blood Battle! JoJo & Dio" (血戦!JoJoジョジョ&Dioディオ, Kessen! JoJo to Dio)
  3. "Fire & Ice!" (ファイヤー&アンドアイス, Faiyā Ando Aisu!)
  4. "A Demon's End!" (悪鬼の最期!, Akki no Saigo!)
  5. "Prelude to the Storm" (恐嵐への序曲, Kyōran e no Jokyoku)
  1. "The Final Hamon!" (最後の波紋!, Saigo no Hamon!)
  2. "Into Oblivion" (忘却の彼方へ, Bōkyaku no Kanata e)
  3. "New York's JoJo" (ニューヨークのジョジョ, Nyū Yōku no JoJo)[b]
  4. "The Living Statue" (生きた彫像, Ikita Chōzō)[b]
  5. "Painful News" (悲痛なしらせ, Hitsū na Shirase)[b]

2002 release[edit]

No.TitleJapanese release dateJapanese ISBN
1Part 1: Phantom Blood 1
Part 1 Fantomu Buraddo 1 (Part1 ファントムブラッド1)
February 15, 2002[21]ISBN 4-08-617784-6
  • 1. "Prologue" (プロローグ, Purorōgu)
  • 2-5. "Dio Brando the Invader (1-4)" (侵略者ディオ・ブランドー その①〜④, Shinryakusha Dio Burandō Sono 1-4)
  • 6-7. "A Letter from the Past (1-2)" (過去からの手紙 その①〜②, Kako kara no Tegami Sono 1-2)
  • 8-11. "The Stone Mask (1-4)" (石仮面 その①〜④, Ishi Kamen Sono 1-4)
  • 12-14. "Youth with Dio (1-3)" (ディオとの青春 その①〜③, Dio to no Seishun Sono 1-3)
2Part 1: Phantom Blood 2
Part 1 Fantomu Buraddo 2 (Part1 ファントムブラッド2)
February 15, 2002[22]ISBN 4-08-617785-4
  • 15-16. "Youth with Dio (4-5)" (ディオとの青春 その④〜⑤, Dio to no Seishun Sono 4-5)
  • 17. "The Birth of DIO" (DIOディオの誕生, DIO no Tanjō)
  • 18-22. "Jack the Ripper and Zeppeli the Strange (1-5)" (切り裂きジャックと奇人ツェペリ その①〜⑤, Kirisaki Jakku to Kijin Tseperi Sono 1-5)
  • 23-25. "Ripple Overdrive (1-3)" (波紋疾走ハモン・オーバードライブその①〜③, Hamon Ōbādoraibu Sono 1-3)
  • 26-29. "Tarkus and the Dark Knight Bruford (1-4)" (タルカスと黒騎士ブラフォード その①〜④, Tarukasu to Kurokishi Burafōdo Sono 1-4)
3Part 1: Phantom Blood 3
Part 1 Fantomu Buraddo 3 (Part1 ファントムブラッド3)
February 15, 2002[23]ISBN 4-08-617786-2
  • 30. "Sleep as a Hero" (英雄としてねむ, Eiyū toshite Nemuru)
  • 31. "The Knights' Ruins" (騎士たちの遺跡, Kishitachi no Iseki)
  • 32. "The Medieval Knights' Training Ground for Murder" (中世騎士殺人修練場, Chūsei Kishi Satsujin Shūren Jō)
  • 33-35. "Pluck for Tomorrow and the Successor (1-3)" (あしたの勇気・うけ継ぐ者 その①〜③, Ashita no Yūki Uketsugumono Sono 1-3)
  • 36-38. "The Three from a Faraway Land (1-3)" (遥かな国からの3人 その①〜③, Harukana Kuni kara no 3nin Sono 1-3)
  • 39-44. "Fire and Ice, Jonathan and Dio (1-6)" (ファイヤーアイス ジョナサンとディオ その①〜⑥, Faiyā to Aisu Jonasan to Dio Sono 1-6)

2012 release[edit]

No.TitleJapanese release dateJapanese ISBN
1Part 1: Phantom Blood Digest Edition
Dai Ichi Bu Fantomu Buraddo Sōshūhen (第1部 ファントムブラッド 総集編)
October 5, 2012[24]ISBN 978-4-08-111057-5
  • Chapters 1–44

2013 release[edit]

No.TitleJapanese releaseEnglish release
1Part 1: Phantom Blood 01
JoJonium 1
December 4, 2013[53]
ISBN 978-4-08-782832-0
September 2, 2014 (digital)[1]
February 24, 2015 (physical)[54]
ISBN 978-1421578798
  • Chapters 1–11
2Part 1: Phantom Blood 02
JoJonium 2
December 4, 2013[55]
ISBN 978-4-08-782833-7
November 4, 2014 (digital)[56]
May 5, 2015 (physical)[57]
ISBN 978-1421578804
  • Chapters 12–27
3Part 1: Phantom Blood 03
JoJonium 3
January 4, 2014[58]
ISBN 978-4-08-782834-4
February 3, 2015 (digital)[59]
August 4, 2015 (physical)[60]
ISBN 978-1421578811
  • Chapters 28–44

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Part 1 Jonathan Joestar: His Youth (Japanese: ジョジョの奇妙な冒険 第一部 ジョナサン·ジョースター ―その青春―, Hepburn: JoJo no Kimyō na Bōken Dai Ichi Bu Jonasan Jōsutā -Sono Seishun-)
  2. ^ a b c Chapters 45–47 are part of Battle Tendency.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "JoJo's Bizarre Adventure: Part 1--Phantom Blood, Vol. 1". Viz Media. Archived from the original on 2017-10-15. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  2. ^ a b c d e Silverman, Rebecca (2015-01-27). "JoJo's Bizarre Adventure: Part 1 GN 1 - Review". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on 2015-11-07. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  3. ^ Whalen, Amanda (2017-09-13). "JoJo, Fist of the North Star Creators Discuss Their Manga, Influences". Anime News Network. 2017-09-13. Archived from the original on 2017-09-14. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  4. ^ a b c Mitchem, Casey Lee; Silverman, Rebecca (2017-06-29). "Interview: Jojo's Bizarre Adventure Creator Hirohiko Araki". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on 2017-07-08. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  5. ^ Araki, Hirohiko (2017). Manga in Theory and Practice: The Craft of Creating Manga. Translated by Collins, Nathan A. Viz Media. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-1-4215-9407-1.
  6. ^ a b Araki, Hirohiko (2017). Manga in Theory and Practice: The Craft of Creating Manga. Translated by Collins, Nathan A. Viz Media. pp. 86–92. ISBN 978-1-4215-9407-1.
  7. ^ Araki, Hirohiko (2017). Manga in Theory and Practice: The Craft of Creating Manga. Translated by Collins, Nathan A. Viz Media. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-1-4215-9407-1.
  8. ^ Araki, Hirohiko (1987). JoJo no Kimyō na Bōken 1: Shinryakusha Dio (in Japanese). Shueisha. Dust jacket. ISBN 978-4-08-851126-9.
  9. ^ Araki, Hirohiko (2017). Manga in Theory and Practice: The Craft of Creating Manga. Translated by Collins, Nathan A. Viz Media. pp. 170–171. ISBN 978-1-4215-9407-1.
  10. ^ Araki, Hirohiko (2017). Manga in Theory and Practice: The Craft of Creating Manga. Translated by Collins, Nathan A. Viz Media. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4215-9407-1.
  11. ^ Araki, Hirohiko (2017). Manga in Theory and Practice: The Craft of Creating Manga. Translated by Collins, Nathan A. Viz Media. pp. 141–143. ISBN 978-1-4215-9407-1.
  12. ^ a b Araki, Hirohiko (2015). JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, Part 1: Phantom Blood. 1. Translated by Galloway, Evan. Viz Media. pp. 249–250. ISBN 978-1-4215-7879-8.
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