Pharmacy in China
Unaffordable medications are a hole in the Chinese safety net. This forces workers to save as much as possible in order to weather family medical emergencies, which acts to depress domestic consumption, leaving no alternative to the traditional unsustainable export and investment driven economic model.
China has implemented a National Essential Drug Policy.
Pharmacy schools and programs
There are three universities in mainland China specializing in the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmaceutical industry:
- China Pharmaceutical University
- Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
- Guangdong Pharmaceutical University
There are major difficulties for patients accessing expensive pharmaceuticals which encourage smuggling and even home manufacture. The state healthcare system does not cover many drugs, and for those that are covered there is a 30% copayment. The approval process is slow and bureaucratic. Only 100 new drugs were approved between 2001 and 2016 by the China Food and Drug Administration. Once approved, drugs have to be included in the National Reimbursement Drug List to qualify for coverage. Prices are much higher than in other Asian countries. 
Online and mail-order pharmacies
Online pharmacies were first established in China in 2005. By the end of 2008, only 10 online pharmacies had obtained permission to sell over-the-counter drugs, a figure that had increased to 639 by January, 2017. Online sales increased in line with the number of pharmacies. The China Food and Drug Administration conducted a pilot reform to admit three businesses using their third-party platform to retail drugs online to consumers from 2013 until August 2016, accounting for to some extent difficulty in its regulation.
- The Museum of Huqingyutang Chinese Pharmacy
- Chinese Pharmaceutical Association
- Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines
- Collaborating Centre on International Drug Monitoring in Uppsala
- Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines
- Evidence-based pharmacy in developing countries
- Essential medicines
- Good pharmacy practice
- India's National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research
- List of pharmacy associations
- List of World Health Organization Essential Medicines
- Pharmaceutical industry in China
- State Food and Drug Administration
- Public health in China
- Pharmaceutical policy, national pharmaceuticals policy
- Pharmacies of Norway, for a country comparison
- Pharmacy Council of India
- National Formulary
- Universities Allied for Essential Medicines
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- GPHF NEWS II / 2003
- "In China, Desperate Patients Smuggle Drugs. Or Make Their Own". New York Times. 11 November 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "国家食品药品监督管理局：企业查询 (in Chinese)".
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- A History of Pharmacy in Pictures College of Pharmacy, Washington State University
- China World List of Pharmacy Schools, International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)
- Reaching China's Middle Class Through Retail Pharmacies - China Business Review, 2001
- Zhu, Yi-Zhun., Zhou, FangMing., Lu, Wei-Yue., Ye, DeYong. and ZHENG, HaiAn. "A Comparison Study between Independent and University-affiliated Pharmacy Schools in China -- Does University Setting Benefit Pharmacy Education?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California, USA, Jul 05, 2006.
- HC Wang, LY Chen, and AH Lau. "Pharmacy practice and education in the People's Republic of China". 1993 The Annals of Pharmacotherapy: Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 1278–1282.
- GJ Liu. Hospital pharmacy practice in the People's Republic of China. (1982) American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Vol 39, Issue 9, 1487–1490
- Chen Zongmin. "The development of higher pharmaceutical education in China's reform", Institute of Pharmaceutical Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Spring 1998.
- Qian Cai, J. Warren Salmon. "What Role May Pharmacoeconomics Play in Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement in China?" Journal of Pharmaceutical Finance, Economics & Policy (Volume 4 Number 1, 2005)
- Professional Code or Legal Sanctions: Pharmacy in China by Du Liping, University of Melbourne (Health & History, 2004. 6/1: 87–96)
- Pharmacy in Hong Kong The Pharmaceutical Journal Vol 267 No 7179 p911-936; 22–29 December 2001
- Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) in Developing Countries[permanent dead link]
- Public health development of China, Shandong Statistical Bureau
- An important task of the 21st century: Strengthening international exchange and cooperation in pharmaceutical education Zongmin, Chen, Na, Li, Taikang, Huang. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Vol. 64, No. 2 (2000)
- Integrating R&D with Manufacturing and Pharmaceutical Education in China Wang Qiang, Shi Zhixiang, and Chen Zongmin. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Vol. 64, No. 4 (2000)
- The Teaching Contents and Methods of International Pharmaceutical Business Ma Aixia. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Vol. 65, No. 3 (2001)
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- Wang Yue et al. Regional pharmacovigilance practice in China The International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine Volume 20, Number 1-2 / 2008 pp. 51–56
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- Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research in China, Professor Shanlian Hu. MD. MSc., School of Public Health, Fudan University, ISPOR 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference, March 6, 2006.
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- Liu Bao Peng; Chong Qing Tan; Xiao Min Wan; Cui, Wei. "Cost-Utility Analysis in China: Differences and Difficulties Compared with Developed Countries". PharmacoEconomics, Volume 25, Number 7, 2007, pp. 619–619(1)
- China Association of Chain Drug Stores
- Chinese Pharmaceutical Association Committee on Professional Hospital Pharmacy
- Clinical Pharmacy Network in China
- China Pharmacy Network
- Chinese Pharmacy Network
- China: Where East Meets West China's pharmacy chain drug stores, RCVA Group
- Modernized Chinese Medicine International Association (MCMIA)
- BeiJing WEIBIAO Center For Drug Standard Research Development
- China to Improve Standards of Pharmacy Degrees for Overseas Students (Xinhua; July 26, 2007)
- The quality and safety of traditional Chinese medicines (Aust Prescr 2003;26:128-30)
- Fake Anti-malarials found in Yunnan Province, China USP, Drug Quality and Information Program
- Chinese pharmaceutical policy
- Chinese Pharmaceutical Policy Studies - WHO Health Systems and Services, Medicines and Health Technologies
- International conferences
- The 7th Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy[permanent dead link] July 2007, Shanghai
- 67th International Congress of FIP World Congress of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Industrial Pharmacy section
- Pharmaceutical Curriculum Development: An evolutionary or a revolutionary process? Pre-PSWC2007 Workshop (April 21, 2007)
- CELEBRATED BRIDGE–BUILDER PASSES ON, BUT LIFE WORK CONTINUES Guo-jie John Liu, MSPharm'50: January 9, 1915 – March 21, 2006 (University of Michigan College of Pharmacy)
- White paper: 150,000 people in China obtain pharmacist's qualifications Xinhua 2008-07-18
- Comparative study