|IPA Number||423, 428|
|Unicode (hex)||U+02E4 U+0334|
|Places of articulation|
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pharyngealization can be indicated by one of two methods:
- A tilde or swung dash through the letter indicates velarization, uvularization or pharyngealization, as in [ᵶ], the pharyngealized equivalent of [z].
- The symbol ⟨ˤ⟩ (a superscript variant of ⟨ʕ⟩, the voiced pharyngeal approximant; graphically a reversed glottal stop) after the letter standing for the pharyngealized consonant, as in [tˤ] (the pharyngealized equivalent of [t]).
The swung dash or combining tilde diacritic (U+0334) was originally intended to combine with other letters to represent pharyngealization. However, precomposed letters are required for proper display in most IPA fonts. They are available only for labial consonants ⟨ᵱ ᵬ ᵮ ᵯ⟩ and coronal consonants ⟨ᵵ ᵭ ᵴ ᵶ ᵰ ᵲ ᵳ ɫ⟩.
The Unicode characters ⟨ˤ⟩ (U+02E4 modifier letter small reversed glottal stop) and ⟨ˁ⟩ (U+02C1 modifier letter reversed glottal stop) look graphically similar. The IPA Handbook lists the former, U+02E4 (IPA Number 423), as the only unambiguous pharyngealization marker. The superimposed tilde (U+0334, IPA Number 428) denotes either velarization or pharyngealization, and the IPA Handbook does not mention U+02C1 at all.
Ubykh, an extinct Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Russia and Turkey, used pharyngealization in 14 pharyngealized consonants. Chilcotin has pharyngealized consonants that trigger pharyngealization of vowels. Many languages (such as Salishan, Sahaptian) in the Plateau culture area of North America also have pharyngealization processes that are triggered by pharyngeal or pharyngealized consonants, which affect vowels.
The Khoisan language Taa (or !Xóõ) has pharyngealized vowels that contrast phonemically with voiced, breathy and epiglottalized vowels. That feature is represented in the orthography by a tilde under the respective pharyngealized vowel. In Tuu languages, epiglottalized vowels are phonemic.
For many languages, pharyngealization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants. Dark l tends to be dental or denti-alveolar, but clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.
Examples of pharyngealized consonants
(Uvularized consonants are not distinguished.)
- pharyngealized voiceless alveolar stop [tˤ] (in Arabic, Berber, Mizrahi and Classical Hebrew)
- pharyngealized voiced alveolar stop [dˤ] (in Berber, Arabic)
- pharyngealized voiceless bilabial stop [pˤ] (in Ubykh)
- pharyngealized voiced bilabial stop [bˤ] (in Ubykh and Damascus Arabic, allophonic in Adyghe and Kabardian)
- pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop [qˤ] (in Ubykh, Tsakhur, Archi, Arabic, Classical Hebrew)
- pharyngealized voiced uvular stop [ɢˤ] (in Tsakhur)
- pharyngealized voiceless alveolar sibilant [sˤ] (in Arabic, Mizrahi Hebrew, Modern Northern Berber)
- pharyngealized voiceless alveolar affricate [tsˤ] (in Classical Hebrew)
- pharyngealized voiced alveolar sibilant [zˤ] (in Berber and Damascus Arabic)
- pharyngealized voiceless dental fricative [θˤ]
- pharyngealized voiced dental fricative [ðˤ] (in Arabic)
- pharyngealized voiced alveolar lateral fricative [ɮˤ] (in Classical Arabic)
- pharyngealized voiceless labiodental fricative [fˤ]
- pharyngealized voiced labiodental fricative [vˤ] (in Ubykh)
- pharyngealized voiceless uvular fricative [χˤ] (in Ubykh, Tsakhur, Archi, Bzyb Abkhaz)
- pharyngealized voiced uvular fricative [ʁˤ] (in Ubykh, Tsakhur, Archi)
- pharyngealized voiceless glottal fricative [hˤ] (in Tsakhur)
- pharyngealized labialized velar approximant [wˤ] (in Ubykh)
- pharyngealized alveolar lateral approximant [lˤ] (in Northern Standard Dutch and Arabic)
- pharyngealized labialized postalveolar approximant [ɹ̠ˤʷ] (help·info) (in American English)
Examples of pharyngealized vowels
- pharyngealized near-close back rounded vowel [ʊˤ] (in Chemnitz German)
- pharyngealized non-syllabic close-mid back unrounded vowel [ɤ̯ˤ] (a result of l-vocalization in some Northern Dutch varieties)
- pharyngealized close-mid back rounded vowel [oˤ] (in Chemnitz German)
- pharyngealized mid back unrounded vowel [ʌ̝ˤ] (in Chemnitz German)
- pharyngealized open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔˤ] (in Northern Standard Dutch and in Chemnitz German)
- pharyngealized near-open front unrounded vowel [æˤ] (in Chemnitz German)
- pharyngealized non-syllabic open back rounded vowel [ɒ̯ˤ] (in Chemnitz German)
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell.
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005). "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878.
- International Phonetic Association, ed. (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press.