|Synonyms||Acute sore throat|
|Viral pharyngitis. Note the redness.|
|Symptoms||Sore throat, fever, runny nose, cough, headache, hoarse voice|
|Complications||Sinusitis, acute otitis media|
|Causes||Usually viral infection|
|Diagnostic method||Based on symptoms, rapid antigen detection test, throat swab|
|Similar conditions||Epiglottitis, thyroiditis, retropharyngeal abscess|
|Frequency||~7.5% of people in any 3-month period|
Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat, known as the pharynx. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, a hoarse voice. Symptoms usually last three to five days. Complications can include sinusitis and acute otitis media. Pharyngitis is typically a type of respiratory tract infection.
Most cases are caused by a viral infection. Strep throat is the cause in about 25% of children and 10% of adults. Uncommon causes include other bacteria such as gonorrhea, fungus, irritants such as smoke, allergies, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Specific testing is not recommended in people who have clear symptoms of a viral infection such as a cold. Otherwise a rapid antigen detection test (RAPD) or throat swab is recommended. Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include epiglottitis, thyroiditis, retropharyngeal abscess, and occasionally heart disease.
NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, can be used to help with the pain. Topical lidocaine may also help. Strep throat is typically treated with antibiotics, such as either penicillin or amoxicillin. It is unclear if steroids are useful in acute pharyngitis, other than possibly in severe cases.
About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period. Two to three episodes in a year is not uncommon. This resulted in 15 million physician visits in the United States in 2007. Pharyngitis is the most common cause of a sore throat. The word comes from the Greek word pharynx meaning "throat" and the suffix -itis meaning "inflammation".
Pharyngitis is a type of inflammation, most commonly caused by an upper respiratory tract infection. It may be classified as acute or chronic. Acute pharyngitis may be catarrhal, purulent or ulcerative, depending on the causative agent and the immune capacity of the affected individual. Chronic pharyngitis may be catarrhal, hypertrophic or atrophic.
Tonsillitis is a sub type of pharyngitis. If the inflammation includes both the tonsils and other parts of the throat, it may be called pharyngotonsillitis. Another sub classification is nasopharyngitis (the common cold).
The majority of cases are due to an infectious organism acquired from close contact with an infected individual.
- Adenovirus – the most common of the viral causes. Typically the degree of neck lymph node enlargement is modest and the throat often does not appear red, although it is painful.
- Orthomyxoviridae which cause influenza – present with rapid onset high temperature, headache and generalized ache. A sore throat may be associated.
- Infectious mononucleosis ("glandular fever") caused by the Epstein–Barr virus. This may cause significant lymph gland swelling and an exudative tonsillitis with marked redness and swelling of the throat. The heterophile test can be used if this is suspected.
- Herpes simplex virus can cause multiple mouth ulcers.
- Common cold: rhinovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus can cause infection of the throat, ear, and lungs causing standard cold-like symptoms and often pain.
A number of different bacteria can infect the human throat. The most common is Group A streptococcus, but others include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
- Streptococcal pharyngitis
Streptococcal pharyngitis or strep throat is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). It is the most common bacterial cause of cases of pharyngitis (15–30%). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, and large lymph nodes. It is a contagious infection, spread by close contact with an infected individual. A definitive diagnosis is made based on the results of a throat culture. Antibiotics are useful to both prevent complications and speed recovery.
- Fusobacterium necrophorum
Diphtheria is a potentially life-threatening upper respiratory infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae which has been largely eradicated in developed nations since the introduction of childhood vaccination programs, but is still reported in the Third World and increasingly in some areas in Eastern Europe. Antibiotics are effective in the early stages, but recovery is generally slow.
A few other causes are rare, but possibly fatal, and include parapharyngeal space infections: peritonsillar abscess ("quinsy"), submandibular space infection (Ludwig's angina), and epiglottitis.
Pharyngitis may also be caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal irritation, for example cold air or acid reflux. Some medications may produce pharyngitis such as pramipexole and antipsychotics.
|Points||Probability of Strep||Management|
|1 or less||<10%||No antibiotic or culture needed|
|2||11–17%||Antibiotic based on culture or RAPD|
|4 or 5||52%||Empiric antibiotics|
One point is given for each of the criteria:
- Absence of a cough
- Swollen and tender cervical lymph nodes
- Temperature >38.0 °C (100.4 °F)
- Tonsillar exudate or swelling
- Age less than 15 (a point is subtracted if age >44)
The McIsaac criteria adds to the Centor:
- Age less than 15: add one point
- Age greater than 45: subtract one point
The Infectious Disease Society of America however recommends against empirical treatment and considers antibiotics only appropriate following positive testing. Testing is not needed in children under three as both group A strep and rheumatic fever are rare, except if they have a sibling with the disease.
The majority of time treatment is symptomatic. Specific treatments are effective for bacterial, fungal, and herpes simplex infections.
- Pain medication such as NSAIDs and acetaminophen (paracetamol) can help reduce the pain associated with a sore throat. Aspirin may be used in adults but is not recommended in children due to the risk of Reye syndrome.
- Steroids (such as dexamethasone) may be useful for severe pharyngitis. Their general use however is poorly supported.
- Viscous lidocaine relieves pain by numbing the mucus membranes.
- Antibiotics are useful if a bacterial infection is the cause of the sore throat. For viral infections, antibiotics have no effect. In the United States they are used in 25% of people before a bacterial infection has been detected.
- Oral analgesic solutions, the active ingredient usually being phenol, but also less commonly benzocaine, cetylpyridinium chloride and/or menthol. Chloraseptic and Cēpacol are two examples of brands of these kinds of analgesics.
Gargling salt water is often suggested but evidence looking at its usefulness is lacking. Alternative medicines are promoted and used for the treatment of sore throats. However, they are poorly supported by evidence.
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