Phasianinae

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Phasianinae
Pheasant.jpg
Mongolian ringneck-type common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) cock
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Subfamily: Phasianinae
Horsfield, 1821
Type species
Phasianus colchicus
Genera

See text

The Phasianinae (Horsfield, 1821) are a subfamily of the pheasant family (Phasianidae) of landfowl, the order Galliformes. The subfamily includes true pheasants, tragopans, grouse, turkey and similar birds.[1] Although this subfamily was considered monophyletic and separated from the partridges, francolins, and Old World quails (Perdicinae) till the early 1990s,[1][2] molecular phylogenies have shown that this placement is paraphyletic. For example, some partridges (genus Perdix) are more closely affiliated to pheasants, whereas Old World quails and partridges from the genus Alectoris are closer to junglefowls.[3][4] Due to this, Phasianinae was redefined in 2021 as containing all genera more closely allied to Phasianus than to Pavoninae or Rollulinae; several groups formerly included in Phasianinae, such as peafowl and junglefowl, were placed into Pavoninae.[5][6] Phasianinae is believed to have diverged from Pavoninae during the early Oligocene, about 30 million years ago.[7]

The Phasianinae are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments, such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young. They typically eat seeds and some insects.

Genera in taxonomic order[edit]

This list is ordered to show presumed relationships between species.[5][7]

Image Tribe Genera
SnowPartridgeAtTungnathUttarakhandIndia.jpg Lerwini
Blood Pheasant (26935101897).jpg Ithaginini
Temminck Tragopan.jpg Lophophorini
勺鸡.jpg Pucrasiini
Wild turkey eastern us.jpg Meleagridini
Tetrao urogallus Richard Bartz.jpg Tetraonini
Rhizothera longirostris.jpg Rhizotherini
Swinhoe's Pheasant 0673.jpg Phasianini

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Johnsgard, P. A. (1986). The Pheasants of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Johnsgard, P. A. (1988). The Quails, Partridges, and Francolins of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ Kimball, R. T.; Braun, E. L.; Zwartjes, P. W.; Crowe, T. M.; Ligon, J. D. (1999). "A molecular phylogeny of the pheasants and partridges suggests that these lineages are not monophyletic". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 11 (1): 38–54. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0562. PMID 10082609.
  4. ^ Kimball, Rebecca T.; Braun, Edward L. (2014). "Does more sequence data improve estimates of galliform phylogeny? Analyses of a rapid radiation using a complete data matrix". PeerJ. 2: e361. doi:10.7717/peerj.361. PMC 4006227. PMID 24795852.
  5. ^ a b "A phylogenomic supermatrix of Galliformes (Landfowl) reveals biased branch lengths". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 158: 107091. 2021-05-01. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107091. ISSN 1055-7903.
  6. ^ "Taxonomic Updates – IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  7. ^ a b "Galliformes". bird-phylogeny (in German). Retrieved 2021-08-01.