This biographical article is written like a résumé. (September 2022)
Russell Wendell Simmons
October 4, 1957
|Occupation(s)||Entrepreneur, writer, record executive|
(m. 1998; div. 2009)
|Relatives||Joseph Simmons (brother)|
Danny Simmons (brother)
Russell Wendell Simmons (born October 4, 1957) is an American entrepreneur, writer and record executive. He co-founded the hip-hop label Def Jam Recordings, and created the clothing fashion lines Phat Farm, Argyleculture, and Tantris. Simmons' net worth was estimated at $340 million in 2011.
After producing or managing artists such as Kurtis Blow, Run DMC, Whodini, and Jimmy Spicer, Simmons joined forces with producer Rick Rubin to found Def Jam Recordings. Under Simmons' leadership as chairman, Def Jam signed acts including Beastie Boys, Public Enemy, LL Cool J, Jay Z, DMX, and Kanye West. From 1992 to 1997, he also produced the Def Comedy Jam television program.
Simmons has promoted veganism and a yogic lifestyle. He also published books about healthy lifestyle and entrepreneurship. In 2017, Simmons was publicly accused of sexual assault by multiple women; he denied the allegations. Following these allegations, Simmons stepped down from his various business roles and charities, including his position at Def Jam.
Russell Wendell Simmons was born in the Hollis neighborhood of New York City's Queens borough on October 4, 1957. His father was a public school administrator and his mother was a park administrator for the New York City Parks and Recreation Department. His brothers are painter Daniel Simmons Jr. and Joseph Simmons (better known as Rev Run of Run-DMC fame). In 1975, after graduating from August Martin High School, Simmons briefly attended the City College of New York in Harlem where he met a young DJ/Bboy, Kurt Walker, who influenced him to participate in the hip hop phenomenon. Upon hearing Eddie Cheeba perform in Harlem in 1977, Simmons knew that hip hop would be his career. Simmons stated, "Hearing Cheeba in '77 made me feel like I had just witnessed the invention of the wheel."
Simmons co-founded Def Jam in 1984 with Rick Rubin, who sold his share of the company for $120 million to Universal Music Group in 1996. In 1985, Simmons co-produced and appeared in the film Krush Groove. Simmons' company, Rush Communications Inc., includes over ten businesses and three non-profits. Simmons, with his partner Stan Lathan, has also produced television hits HBO's Def Comedy Jam and Def Poetry Jam, and currently has a development deal with HBO. In 1996, Simmons co-produced the hit film The Nutty Professor, starring Eddie Murphy. In 1997, Simmons co-produced the film Def Jam's How to Be a Player, starring Bill Bellamy. In 2003, Simmons co-founded RushCard, a prepaid debit card provider.
In 1992, Simmons launched the clothing line Phat Fashions LLC using the Phat Farm and Baby Phat labels. When Simmons first created Phat Fashions LLC, the clothing line was sold in a shop in the SoHo district of Manhattan. Simmons's connections with well known rap artists helped to promote the clothing line to a wide audience. The influence of designers such as Ralph Lauren and Tommy Hilfiger gave the clothing line a classic look and feel. Phat Fashions encompassed hip hop clothing for women and children, as well as men, and grew into a lifestyle brand with the addition of jewelry, perfume, and other merchandise. Phat Fashions LLC sold merchandise in two stores in New York and Montreal, as well as online at www.phatfarm.com. In addition, the clothing line was carried by some 3,000 retailers in the United States.
In 2001, "Hip-Hop Minister", and former Nation of Islam Minister, Conrad Tillard feuded with Simmons, accusing him of stoking violence by allowing the frequent use of words such as "nigga" and "bitch" in rap lyrics. Tillard then organized a summit in Harlem over what he viewed as negative imagery in hip hop. Simmons organized a counter-summit, urging the public not to "support open and aggressive critics of the hip-hop community".
In 2004, Simmons sold Phat Farm and Baby Phat to the Kellwood Company for $140 million.
Simmons and his brothers founded the Rush Philanthropic Arts Foundation in 1995. The purpose of the Foundation is to provide art education and support to under-serviced youth by helping people of color access the arts and by providing exhibition opportunities. The Foundation serves about 3,000 students annually and maintains two galleries. The Rush Arts Gallery in Chelsea, Manhattan and the Corridor Gallery in Clinton Hill, Brooklyn exhibit the work of more than 100 community and emerging artists.
In 2014, Claremont Lincoln University awarded Simmons an Honorary Doctorate Degree in Humane Letters for his work as chairman of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding and for promoting mindfulness, compassion and interreligious collaboration in the public sphere.
Simmons and model Kimora Lee met in November 1992. They married on December 20, 1998, on the island of Saint Barthélemy. They have two children. In March 2006, Simmons announced that he and Lee had ended their relationship; they officially divorced two years later.
Simmons has been a vegan since 1999, and describes himself as a Christian yogi with a love and respect for all religions. He practices Jivamukti Yoga, which encourages vegetarianism and social and environmental activism. He is also a practitioner of Transcendental Meditation (TM) and a supporter of the David Lynch Foundation for Consciousness-Based Education and World Peace, which was established to ensure that any child in America who wants to learn and practice TM can do so.
Simmons is an advocate of Ahimsa and veganism, citing animal rights along with the environmental and health benefits. He said he went vegan after watching the film Diet for a New America in the 1990s. He is a supporter of Farm Sanctuary, an organization working to end cruelty to farm animals. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals awarded him the 2001 PETA Humanitarian Award and the 2011 Person of the Year Award.
Simmons became chairman of the board of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding in 2002. In May 2009, he was appointed Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Slavery Memorial at the United Nations to honor the victims of slavery and the transatlantic slave trade by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. In a similar vein, Simmons is a supporter of the Somaly Mam Foundation, and was honored at their 2011 gala dinner. Simmons officially endorses the second Muslim Jewish Conference 2011. Together with Rabbi Marc Schneier he served as the official patron of the conference held July 2011 in Kyiv, Ukraine. In 2011, he took part in the Occupy Wall Street protests, visiting the protesters at Zuccotti Park often and for many consecutive days.
Simmons is a longtime supporter of gay rights, and he encourages marriage equality. In 2011, when the retail corporation Lowe's withdrew funding from the show All-American Muslim, Simmons promised to pay the Learning Channel for any revenue lost.
In 2012, Simmons supported Ohio congressman Dennis Kucinich's re-election campaign, appearing with the politician at various speaking events. In November 2013, he pledged support for New York's mayoral candidate Bill de Blasio in recognition of his support for animal rights.
Harriet Tubman sex tape controversy
In August 2013, Simmons launched the controversial "Harriet Tubman Sex Tape" parody video on his YouTube channel, All Def Digital, which led to public outrage and many critics demanding an apology. The video featured an actress portraying the abolitionist Harriet Tubman (1822–1913) having sex with her slave owner with the intent of filming the act and blackmailing him to convince him to work on the Underground Railroad. People from his own community, such as filmmaker Spike Lee, were offended by the controversial comedy sketch.
Rolling Stone published Simmons' apology for the parody in which he said:
I'm a very liberal person with thick skin. My first impression of the Harriet Tubman piece was that it was about what one of actors said in the video, that 162 years later, there's still tremendous injustice," Simmons wrote. "And with Harriet Tubman outwitting the slave master? I thought it was politically correct. Silly me. I can now understand why so many people are upset. I would never condone violence against women in any form, and for all of those I offended, I am sincerely sorry."
Sexual misconduct, assault and rape allegations
In November 2017, model Keri Claussen Khalighi accused Simmons of raping her in 1991, when she was 17. Simmons and Brett Ratner, whom Khalighi accused of watching them without intervening when she asked for his help, both deny that the encounter was non-consensual.
As the allegation was covered in the press, Terry Crews accused Simmons of attempting to influence him to take back sexual assault allegations that Crews had recently brought up against film executive Adam Venit, asking that Crews "give him a pass ... ask that he be reinstated." Crews posted on his Twitter account a screenshot of the alleged e-mail he had received from Simmons.
On November 30, 2017, writer Jenny Lumet claimed that Simmons had raped her in 1991. In response, Simmons said he would step down from his positions with his businesses. On the same day, HBO announced that they would be removing Simmons' name and likeness from his stand-up comedy specials starting with the December 1 episode.
On December 13, 2017, The Los Angeles Times published an investigative report in which five women accused Simmons of sexual misconduct, including another alleged rape. On the same day, The New York Times published the accounts of four other women who accused Simmons of inappropriate conduct, including three more alleged rapes. In response to the allegations, Simmons stated he "never had a sexual encounter that was not consensual or lawful. Ever."
On February 9, 2018, Simmons denied the allegations to Rolling Stone, saying (in part), "I vehemently deny all the allegations made against me. They have shocked me to my core as I have never been abusive or violent in any way in my relations with women. I am blessed to have shared extraordinary relationships, whether through work or love, with many great women and I have enormous respect for the women's movement worldwide and their struggle for respect, dignity, equality and power. I am devastated by any reason I may have given to anyone to say or think of me in the ways that are currently being described. I have separated myself from my businesses and charities to not become a distraction."
On April 25, 2018, Jennifer Jarosik, a filmmaker who also alleged Simmons raped her, dropped her lawsuit. The suit was dismissed with prejudice, meaning Jarosik cannot refile allegations in court.
A number of women, some of whom were aged 17 at the time of the alleged incidents, have accused Simmons of sexual harassment, assault or rape:
Sexual harassment or assault
Women who said they had been sexually harassed or assaulted (including attempted rape) by Simmons include:
- Keri Claussen Khalighi, model
- Kelly Cutrone, publicist and author
- Luann de Lesseps, reality television personality
- Lisa Kirk, an acquaintance of Simmons'
- Toni Sallie, music journalist
- Amanda Seales, actor and comedian (verbal harassment)
- Natashia Williams-Blach, actress
Women who said they had been raped by Simmons include:
- Tina Baker, singer-turned-lawyer
- Drew Dixon, former music recording executive
- Sherri Hines, musician
- Jennifer Jarosik, filmmaker
- Jenny Lumet, screenwriter
- Sil Lai Abrams, writer and activist
After the third assault allegation was published in a guest column by Jenny Lumet in The Hollywood Reporter in November 2017, Simmons stepped down from his roles in the label Def Jam Records, his yoga lifestyle brand, CNNMoney, and other media properties. Lumet, who is the daughter of filmmaker Sidney Lumet and the granddaughter of singer and civil rights activist Lena Horne, wrote: "As a woman of color, I cannot express how wrenching it is to write this about a successful man of color. ... I feel a pang to protect your daughters. I don't think you are inclined to protect mine."
A documentary film about the sexual assault allegations against Simmons, On the Record, premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 25, 2020, and was released on HBO Max on May 27, 2020. Oprah Winfrey withdrew as executive producer of the film, after having been pressured by Simmons to cancel the release, eventually citing there were "inconsistencies" in Drew Dixon's story that "gave me pause". Winfrey has also said, however, that she believes the women who have accused Russell Simmons of sexual assault.
- Aquino, Joann Natalia (February 20, 2011). "Russell Simmons, "godfather of hip hop," comes to Seattle: Part of 20-city author tour". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- Padgett, Tania (April 26, 2011). "Russell Simmons: Getting rich is so simple". CNN. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2021.
- Huey, Steve. "Russell Simmons Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- Rose, Naeisha (December 8, 2017). "Hollis icon Russell Simmons resigns from business after sexual misconduct accusations". QNS.com. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Russell Simmons: Athletes leading our cultural awakening". Washington Blade. Washington DC: Window Media LLC. August 29, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Golus, Carrie (2012). Russell Simmons: From Def Jam to Super Rich. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Twenty-first Century Books. ISBN 978-0761381570.
- Fetterman, Mindy (May 23, 2007). "Today's Entrepreneur: Russell Simmons can't slow down". USA Today. Mclean, Virginia. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- "Executive Profile: Russell Simmons", Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Rachel Kranz, "Simmons, Russell", in African-American Business Leaders and Entrepreneurs, Facts On File, 2004, p. 252.
- Carrie Golus (January 1, 2012). Russell Simmons: From Def Jam to Super Rich. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7613-8157-0.
- "Krush Groove (1985) : Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
- Neate, Patrick (July 12, 2011). "Def Jam Records launched by Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
- Simmons, Russell; George, Nelson (2001). Life and Def: Sex, Drugs, Money, and God. New York City: Random House. ISBN 0609606077.
- Introduction: About Us. "RushCard Prepaid Visa Card". Retrieved March 4, 2017.
|author=has generic name (help)
- Toh, Michelle (August 29, 2016). "Russell Simmons' Prepaid Debit Card Is Adding New Security Features". Fortune Magazine. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "History of Phat Fashions LLC – FundingUniverse". fundinguniverse.com.
- "Will "Hiphop Minister" Conrad Muhammad Go from N.O.I. to G.O.P.?". New York Press. February 16, 2015.
- Feuer, Alan (June 16, 2003). "Keeping the Faith, Differently; A Harlem Firebrand Quietly Returns to Christianity". The New York Times.
- Yvonne Bynoe (2006). Encyclopedia of Rap and Hip-hop Culture
- David M. Newman, Jodi O'Brien (2008). Sociology; Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life Readings.
- George, Robert (May 8, 2001). "THE NEW HIP-HOP FEUD: BATTLE LINES ARE BEING DRAWN IN THE EFFORT TO CLEAN UP RAP". The New York Post. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- Porter, Nia (January 11, 2016). "Where Did These Hip-Hop Clothing Labels Go?". Racked.
- "About Us". Rush Philanthropic Arts Foundation.
- Wes Woods, "Russell Simmons keynote speaker for Claremont Lincoln University", Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, May 18, 2014.
- "Russell Simmons Launches NFT "Masterminds of Hip Hop" Collection to Help Artists Earn Cash". Black Enterprise. August 10, 2021. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
- Mozée, Carla. "Music mogul Russell Simmons is diving into NFTs with a "Masterminds of Hip Hop" project curated with Snoop Dogg". Business Insider. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (March 31, 2006). "Russell, Kimora Lee Simmons Split". People. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- "Kimora Lee Files for Divorce from Russell Simmons". People. New York City: Meredith Corporation. March 26, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- "Russell Simmons on his vegan diet, Obama and yoga" at Youtube.
- Marikar, Sheila (November 16, 2016). "Russell Simmons, the Yoga King of Los Angeles". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Valiente, Alexa (April 26, 2017). "Russell Simmons on how meditation changed his life, his relationship with Donald Trump". ABC News. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Simmons, Russell (February 24, 2010). "Why I meditate". HuffPost. New York City: Huffington Post Media Group. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- "The Happy Vegan: Mogul Russell Simmons on How His Lifestyle Fuels His Success". Forks Over Knives. January 25, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- "Thanksgiving getting a remake courtesy of Russell Simmons". USA Today. November 13, 2009.
- Cookie Lommell, Russell Simmons Infobase Publishing 2007.
- Calvin Stovall, "Russell Simmons Honored by PETA", BET, December 19, 2011.
- AbduSalaam, Ismael (March 25, 2009). "Russell Simmons Leads NY Protest Against Rockefeller Drug Laws". allhiphop.com. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- Ramirez, Anthony (April 13, 2008). "Backstage With Six Rabbis, Six Imams and No "Kumbaya"". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- "Secretary-General pledges to fill gap in knowledge about causes, effects of transatlantic slave trade". United Nations.
- "Russell Simmons Got A Joyful Hamptons' Social Life, Hosts Somaly Mam Foundation Benefit". Global Grind. August 15, 2011. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
- "2011 East Coast Gala". Somaly Mam Foundation. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "Russell Simmons, gay marriage and Maryland". The Washington Post.
- Samuel G. Freedman (December 16, 2011). "Waging a One-Man War on American Muslims". The New York Times.
- "Hip hop mogul Russell Simmons to appear with Kucinich". Toledo Blade.
- "proud to support @deBlasioNYC to be NYC's next mayor as I know he supports animal rights and will stop abuse of the horses in Central Park", Monday, November 1, 2013.
- "Philanthropists & Social Entrepreneurs Top 200: From Elon Musk to Melinda Gates, These Are the Most Influential Do-Gooders in the World". Richtopia. Archived from the original on March 30, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- "200 most influential philanthropists in the world". Naij. March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Axworthy, Nicole. "How This Black-Owned Vegan Burger Brand Nearly Quadrupled Its Reach in One Year". VegNews.com. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
- "Russell Simmons and the Harriet Tubman Sex Tape". The Young Turks. San Bruno, California. August 15, 2013. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2017 – via YouTube.
- Robinson, Melia (August 15, 2013). "Spike Lee Slams Russell Simmons For Producing Mock Harriet Tubman Sex Tape". Business Insider. New York City: Axel Springer SE. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Foster, Kimberly (August 16, 2013). "Russell Simmons, you defamed not just Harriet Tubman but all black women". The Guardian.
- Cubarrubia, RJ (August 15, 2013). "Russell Simmons Apologizes for Harriet Tubman 'Sex Tape'". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- StraightFromTheA1 (YouTube) (August 15, 2013). "Harriet Tubman Sex Tape Controversy (Funny? Or Disrespectful?)". Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2017 – via YouTube.
- Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (November 20, 2017). "Russell Simmons accused of sexual assault alongside Brett Ratner". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Kelley, Soniya (November 19, 2017). "Terry Crews says Russell Simmons asked him to give target of sexual-assault allegations 'a pass'". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Mumford, Gwilym (October 11, 2017). "Actor Terry Crews: I was sexually assaulted by Hollywood executive". The Guardian. London, England. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- "Brooklyn Nine-Nine actor claims groping". bbc.co.uk. London, England: BBC News. October 11, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Perez, Lexy (November 15, 2017). "Terry Crews Details Alleged Sexual Assault by WME's Adam Venit". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Valence Media. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
- Lumet, Jenny (November 30, 2017). "Writer Jenny Lumet: Russell Simmons Sexually Violated Me (Guest Column)". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Valence Media. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Miller, Daniel; Kaufman, Amy (December 14, 2017). "NYPD opens investigation into Russell Simmons as more sexual assault allegations surface". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Leight, Elias (February 9, 2018). "Russell Simmons Sexual Assault Allegations: A Timeline". Rolling Stone. New York City: Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- "Russell Simmons scores a win, accuser Jennifer Jarosik drops lawsuit". USA Today. McLean, Virginia: Gannett. Associated Press. April 25, 2018. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Miller, Daniel; Kaufman, Amy; Kim, Victoria (November 19, 2017). "Russell Simmons and Brett Ratner face new allegations of sexual misconduct". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Lewis, Rebecca (October 16, 2017). "Strike actor says Harvey Weinstein 'offered sex in return for furthering career'". Metro. London, England: DMG Media. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Pasquini, Maria (April 8, 2018). "Luann de Lesseps Accuses Russell Simmons of Groping Her in an Elevator: 'He Was Just a Pig'". People. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- Wright, Tolly (December 14, 2017). "5 Additional Women Accuse Russell Simmons of Sexual Misconduct and Assault". Vulture.com. New York City: New York Media. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
- Coscarelli, Joe; Ryzik, Melena (December 13, 2017). "Music Mogul Russell Simmons Is Accused of Rape by 3 Women". The New York Times.
- Chiu, Melody (March 26, 2018). "13 Women Total Accuse Music Producer Russell Simmons of Sexual Misconduct – Everything They've Said". People. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Tsioulcas, Anastasia (January 25, 2018). "Russell Simmons Publicly Accused Of Rape by a 6th Woman". Washington DC: NPR. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Marcin, Tim (November 30, 2017). "Who Is Jenny Lumet? Russell Simmons Resigns After Screenwriter Alleges Sexual Misconduct".
- Real, Evan (June 10, 2020). "Russell Simmons Accuser Sil Lai Abrams Criticizes "Breakfast Club" for Giving Him a Platform".
- Victor, Daniel (November 30, 2017). "Russell Simmons Steps Down From Businesses After Sexual Misconduct Report". The New York Times. New York City. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Lumet, Jenny (November 30, 2017). "Writer Jenny Lumet: Russell Simmons Sexually Violated Me (Guest Column)". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries.
- Melas, Chloe (November 30, 2017). "Russell Simmons steps down after sexual assault allegation". CNNMoney. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Ross, Martha (November 30, 2017). "HBO cuts ties with Russell Simmons after third assault allegation". The Mercury News. San Jose, California: Bay Area News Group. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Gleiberman, Owen (January 26, 2020). "'On the Record': Film Review". Variety. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Lattanzio, Ryan (January 17, 2020). "Oprah Says Russell Simmons Tried to Pressure Her to Drop Sex-Abuse Doc Headed for Sundance". IndieWire. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Keegan, Rebecca; Siegel, Tatiana (January 22, 2020). "Oprah's Russell Simmons Doc Withdrawal Rattles Accusers and Angers Activists". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries.
- Sisario, Ben; Sperling, Nicole (January 17, 2020). "Pressured by Simmons Over Exposé, Oprah Winfrey Faced a Big Decision". The New York Times.