Phellodendron amurense

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Amur cork tree
Phellodendron amurense Morton.jpg
Phellodendron amurense
Morton Arboretum acc. 568-27*3
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Phellodendron
P. amurense
Binomial name
Phellodendron amurense
    • Phellodendron amurense var. molle (Nakai) S.H.Li & S.Z.Liou
    • Phellodendron insulare Nakai
    • Phellodendron japonicum Maxim.
    • Phellodendron kodamanum Makino
    • Phellodendron lavallei Dode
    • Phellodendron molle Nakai
    • Phellodendron nikkomontanum Makino
    • Phellodendron piriforme E.L.Wolf
    • Phellodendron sachalinense (F.Schmidt) Sarg.

Phellodendron amurense is a species of tree in the family Rutaceae, commonly called the Amur cork tree. It is a major source of huáng bò (Chinese: or ), one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Ainu people used this plant, called shikerebe-ni, as a painkiller.[3] It is known as hwangbyeok in Korean and (キハダ) kihada in Japanese.[4]

It is native to eastern Asia: northern China, northeast China, Korea, Ussuri,[clarification needed] Amur, and Japan, the Amur cork tree is considered invasive in many parts of North America. The State of Massachusetts lists it as a noxious weed.[5]

Autumn Foliage and Fruit

Medicinal use[edit]

Plant as used in Chinese herbology. Note the pictured is a photo of Licorice Root/ GanCao, not Phellodendron. (crude medicine)

It has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of meningitis, bacillary dysentery, pneumonia, tuberculosis, tumours, jaundice and liver cirrhosis.[6][7]

Used orally to treat abdominal pain, diarrhoea, gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections. Phellodendron amurense may protect cartilage against osteoarthritis progression.[8] It may prove to be a potentially important chemopreventive agent for lung cancer.[9]

Phellodendron amurense is able to inhibit prostatic contractility suggesting that it may be useful in the treatment of urological disorders caused by prostatic urethral obstruction such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).[10] Nexrutine (bark extract from Phellodendron amurense) may have potential to prevent prostate tumor development.[11]

Compounds in the leaves (quercetin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactoside and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside) demonstrated significant free radical scavenging activity comparable to vitamin E.[12]

The tree has both antibiotic and antimicrobial properties due to the alkaloids contained within the plant material. The major chemical constituents of its bark are the isoquinoline alkaloids, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, phellodendorine with berberine found within the leaves.[13] The indole alkaloid has also been found in the roots of the young dioecious trees.[citation needed]

Dye extracted from the bark was used historically across East Asia to color paper for sutras and other documents, including the Diamond Sutra. The yellow dye protected against insect damage.[4]


Amur cork tree fruit oil is a pressed oil extracted from the fruit of Phellodendron amurense. The bark of the tree is an important herbal medicine in China. The oil has insecticidal properties similar to pyrethrum.[14] The oil contains a variety of biologically active substances, including flavonoids (diosmin), alkaloids (berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine), saponins, and coumarins. Medicinal applications of the oil include treatment of pancreatitis, reduction of cholesterol and sugar in blood and the treatment of various skin diseases.[15]


Essential oils:[16]

Amurensin, a tert-amyl alcohol derivative of kaempferol 7-O-glucoside, can be found in P. amurense.[17]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Phellodendron amurense". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-02-11.
  2. ^ "Phellodendron amurense Rupr". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  3. ^ Batchelor, John; Miyabe, Kingo (1893). "Ainu economic plants". Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. R. Meiklejohn & Co. 51: 198–240. OCLC 903220997.
  4. ^ a b Cardon, Dominique (2007). Natural dyes : sources, tradition, technology and science. Archetype publications. ISBN 978-1-904982-00-5. OCLC 708321461.
  5. ^ Bruce Marlin: Phellodendron amurense
  6. ^ Hsu, K. J. (1996). Chinese Traditional Medicine. Beijing: Chinese Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Publication Co. p. 802.
  7. ^ Gray, Alexander I.; Bhandari, Prabha; Waterman, Peter G. (January 1988). "New protolimonoids from the fruits of Phellodendron chinense". Phytochemistry. 27 (6): 1805–1808. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)80448-5.
  8. ^ Kim, Joo-Hee; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Dong; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk (March 2011). "Effect of Phellodendron amurense in protecting human osteoarthritic cartilage and chondrocytes". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 134 (2): 234–242. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.005. PMID 21182922.
  9. ^ James, Michael A.; Fu, Huijing; Liu, Yan; Chen, Da-Ren; You, Ming (January 2011). "Dietary administration of berberine or Phellodendron amurense extract inhibits cell cycle progression and lung tumorigenesis". Molecular Carcinogenesis. 50 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1002/mc.20690. PMC 6004604. PMID 21061266.
  10. ^ Xu, Yuanhao; Ventura, Sabatino (January 2010). "Extracts of bark from the traditional Chinese herb Phellodendron amurense inhibit contractility of the isolated rat prostate gland". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 127 (1): 196–199. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.047. PMID 19799978.
  11. ^ Ghosh, Rita; Graham, Heather; Rivas, Paul; Tan, Xishi James; Crosby, Katherine; Bhaskaran, Shylesh; Schoolfield, John; Banu, Jameela; Fernandes, Gabriel; Yeh, I.-Tien; Kumar, Addanki P. (1 March 2010). "Phellodendron amurense Bark Extract Prevents Progression of Prostate Tumors in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate: Potential for Prostate Cancer Management". Anticancer Research. 30 (3): 857–865. PMID 20393007.
  12. ^ Leu, Chien-Hsing; Li, Chia-Ying; Yao, Xinsheng; Wu, Tian-Shung (2006). "Constituents from the Leaves of Phellodendron amurense and Their Antioxidant Activity". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 54 (9): 1308–1311. doi:10.1248/cpb.54.1308. PMID 16946541.
  13. ^ Neag, Maria A.; Mocan, Andrei; Echeverría, Javier; Pop, Raluca M.; Bocsan, Corina I.; Crişan, Gianina; Buzoianu, Anca D. (21 August 2018). "Berberine: Botanical Occurrence, Traditional Uses, Extraction Methods, and Relevance in Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Hepatic, and Renal Disorders". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9: 557. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00557. PMC 6111450. PMID 30186157.
  14. ^ R.W. Schery (1952). Plants of Man. New York, Prentice-Hall. Cited in Plants for a Future:Phellodendron amurense
  15. ^ "Food and health: Amur cork tree fruit oil". Archived from the original on 2006-07-21.
  16. ^ Lis A.; Boczek E.; Gora J. (2004). "Chemical composition of the essential oils from fruits, leaves and flowers of the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.)". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 19 (6): 549–553. doi:10.1002/ffj.1349.
  17. ^ Masao Hasegawa & Teruo Shirato (1953). "Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75 (22): 5507–5511. doi:10.1021/ja01118a013.

External links[edit]