Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are a family of protein toxins that are soluble in phenols that are produced by staphylococcus bacteria. In all species of Staphylococcus, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), they are encoded within the core genome and are an important virulence factor. As they are part of the core genome and not found on mobile genetic elements, all species of Staphylococcus carry these genes.
MRSA production of PSMs is thought to be a possible cause of severe infections. PSM production is higher in community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) than in healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), and consequently CA-MRSA associated osteomyelitis is more severe than HA-MRSA associated osteomyelitis.
Genetic analysis demonstrated that the PSM-alpha protein, product of the psm-alpha gene cluster, was associated with enhanced virulence and enhanced destruction of white blood cells, presumably the key to the higher infectivity. However, expression of the psm-alpha genes appeared to vary, dependent upon unknown factors specific to each particular infection.
- Berube, Bryan J.; Sampedro, Georgia R.; Otto, Michael; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane (2014-08-01). "The psmα locus regulates production of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin during infection". Infection and Immunity. 82 (8): 3350–3358. doi:10.1128/IAI.00089-14. ISSN 1098-5522. PMC . PMID 24866799.
- "Phenol-soluble modulins and staphylococcal infection" (PDF).
- Graves, S. F.; Kobayashi, S. D.; Deleo, F. R. (2010). "Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus immune evasion and virulence". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 88 (2): 109–114. doi:10.1007/s00109-009-0573-x. PMC . PMID 20049412.
- Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Ferry, Tristan; Diep, Binh An; Sapin, Anaïs; Lhoste, Yannick; Ranfaing, Jérémy; Badiou, Cédric; Benito, Yvonne (2013-01-01). "PSMs of hypervirulent Staphylococcus aureus act as intracellular toxins that kill infected osteoblasts". PLoS One. 8 (5): e63176. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063176. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 23690994.
- Wang, R.; Braughton, K. R.; Kretschmer, D.; Bach, T. H. L.; Queck, S. Y.; Li, M.; Kennedy, A. D.; Dorward, D. W.; Klebanoff, S. J.; Peschel, A.; Deleo, F. R.; Otto, M. (2007). "Identification of novel cytolytic peptides as key virulence determinants for community-associated MRSA". Nature Medicine. 13 (12): 1510–1514. doi:10.1038/nm1656. PMID 17994102.
|This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|