Phenotypic switching

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Phenotypic switching is switching between multiple cellular morphologies. David R. Soll described two such systems: the first high frequency switching system between several morphological stages and a second high frequency switching system between opaque and white cells. The latter is an epigenetic switching system[1][2]

Phenotypic switching in Candida albicans is often used to refer to the epigenetic white to opaque switching system. C. albicans needs this switch for sexual mating.[3] Next to the two above mentioned switching systems many other switching systems are known in C. albicans.[4]

A second example occurs in Melanoma, where malignantly transformed pigment cells switch back-and-forth between phenotypes of proliferation and invasion in response to changing microenvironments, driving metastatic progression.[5][6][7]

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  1. ^ Zordan, R. E.; Galgoczy, D. J.; Johnson, A. D. (2006). "Epigenetic properties of white-opaque switching in Candida albicans are based on a self-sustaining transcriptional feedback loop". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (34): 12807. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605138103. 
  2. ^ Slutsky, B; Buffo, J; Soll, D. R. (1985). "High-frequency switching of colony morphology in Candida albicans". Science. 230 (4726): 666–9. PMID 3901258. doi:10.1126/science.3901258. 
  3. ^ Rikkerrink E, Magee B, Magee P (1988). "Opaque-white phenotype transition: a programmed morphological transition in Candida albicans". J. Bact. 170 (2): 895–899. PMC 210739Freely accessible. PMID 2828333. 
  4. ^ Soll DR (2014). "The role of phenotypic switching in the basic biology and pathogenesis of Candida albicans". J Oral Microbiol. 6 (2): 895–9. PMC 210739Freely accessible. PMID 2828333. doi:10.3402/jom.v6.22993. 
  5. ^ Hoek KS, Eichhoff OM, Schlegel NC, Dobbeling U, Kobert N, Schaerer L, Hemmi S, Dummer R (2008). "In vivo switching of human melanoma cells between proliferative and invasive states". Cancer Res. 68 (3): 650–6. PMID 18245463. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2491. 
  6. ^ Hoek KS, Goding CR (2010). "Cancer stem cells versus phenotype-switching in melanoma". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 23 (6): 746–59. PMID 20726948. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2010.00757.x. 
  7. ^ Saez-Ayala M, Montenegro MF, Sanchez-del-Campo L, Fernandez-Perez MP, Chazarra S, Freter R, Middleton M, Pinero-Madrona A, Cabezas-Herrera J, Goding CR, Rodriguez-Lopez JN (2013). "Directed phenotype switching as an effective antimelanoma strategy". Cancer Cell. 24 (1): 105–19. PMID 23792190. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2013.05.009. 

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