Phi Sigma Alpha

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Phi Sigma Alpha
ΦΣΑ
Escudo Sigma.jpg
FoundedOctober 22, 1928; 90 years ago (1928-10-22)
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus
TypeSocial
ScopeInternational
MottoCaballeros Ante Todo
MaximOmne Rarum Carum
Colors     Azure
     Gules
     Or
FlagBandera SIGMA.JPG
PublicationAnuario Sigma
PhilanthropyFundación Sigma
HeadquartersCalle Méjico corner of Calle Chile
Hato Rey
Puerto Rico
Websitewww.fisigmaalfa.org

Phi Sigma Alpha commonly known as La Sigma is a Puerto Rican fraternity established originally as the Sigma Delta Alpha Fraternity (Sociedad de Amigos) on October 22, 1928, at the University of Puerto Rico by 12 students and a professor.[1] Phi Sigma Alpha can trace its roots back to 1898 to the Union Hispano Americana,[2] as well as to the first ever Greek letter Hispanic-oriented fraternity, Sigma Iota, established in 1912.[3] By 1998 there were over 4,376 members.[4]

History[edit]

Origins 1898-1928[edit]

Monument of Sigma Iota's birthplace on the former LSU Campus

Phi Sigma Alpha traces its origins to a number of organizations including Phi Lambda Alpha. Phi Lambda Alpha fraternity was founded at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1919. The fraternity was the result of a merger of three societies: Pi Delta Phi Fraternity at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), founded in 1916; Phi Lambda Alpha Fraternity, founded in 1919 at the University of California, Berkeley;[5][6] and the Unión Hispano Americana, founded in 1898, at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. This last one was the first Latin-American student society formed in the USA;[2] A group of Latin American students organized the Unión Hispano Americana (UHA) as a cultural and intellectual secret society based on the ideology of Pan-Americanism.[7]

Union Hispano Americana emblem

After ΦΛΑ was organized, other societies joined it: the "Club Latino-Americano", founded in 1919 at Colorado School of Mines; the "Federación Latino-Americana", founded in 1926 at Columbia University and which joined in 1928; the "Club Hispania" of Cornell University, founded in 1929, and which joined in 1931; the "Club Hispano-Americano" of Tri-State College in Angola, Indiana, founded in 1921, and which joined in 1929, and the Alfa Tenoxtitlan Militant chapter (founded in 1929) whose members had come from the former ΦΛΑ society in Mexico City, Mexico.[8]

Sigma Iota Fraternity was founded in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, on March 2, 1912, previously known as the Sociedad Hispano Americana, which was founded in the University of Louisiana in 1904. Between 1912 and 1925, Sigma Iota expanded rapidly in the United States, South America, and Europe. As a result of this, Sigma Iota became the first international Latin American-based fraternity.[9] Sigma Iota and Phi Lambda Alpha joined and became Phi Iota Alpha in 1931.[10] In 1932, Phi Iota Alpha reorganized and formed the Union Latino Americana (ULA) as its overall governing body, dividing their member fraternities in Latin America into zones according to the country they represented.[11]

The Sigma 1928-1934[edit]

Sigma History

Sigma Delta Alpha fraternity was established by 12 students and a professor on October 22, 1928, at the University of Puerto Rico at the Glorieta Fabián. The founding members included Santos P. Amadeo (professor of Law),[12] Juan Figueroa, Fernando Jiménez, Hugo D. Storer, Joaquin Velilla, Victor M. Sánchez, Adalberto Carrasquillo, Diego Guerrero Noble, Samuel L. Rodríguez, José Laracuente, Charles H. Juliá, Gilberto del Valle and Gilberto Alemar.[8]

Sigma founders and two of the first members to join

Originally the name Kappa Delta Alpha was considered but it was quickly changed to Sigma Delta Alpha. By December 5, 1928, they established their Chapter House where they began celebrating their meetings.[8]

For many years, Sigma Delta Alpha enjoyed a certain amount of notoriety not enjoyed by other student organizations at the University. Its membership included four of the most important student leadership positions at the university: the Yearbook editor, the senior class president, the Athletic Society president, and the ROTC Battalion Commander. Every activity sponsored by the school administration was consulted with the Sigma Delta Alpha chapter president at the University in Río Piedras.[8] In 1929, the Beta Chapter at the Colegio de Mayagüez (University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez) was established; thus the original chapter came to be known as Alpha.[13]

The union 1934 - 1939[edit]

Phi Sigma Alpha had its first reorganization with the merger between the Alpha Boriquen Militant Chapter of Phi Iota Alpha and Sigma Delta Alpha of the University of Puerto Rico in 1934. The Puerto Rican zone came to be when the Alpha Boriquen Militant Chapter was founded in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on March 4, 1934, by former members of Phi Iota Alpha.[14]

External video
You may listen to the "Farola" and "Brindis Sigma" with an introduction by José Miguel Agrelot here.

Under the conditions stated above, a movement came about to unite Sigma Delta Alpha with the Alpha Boriquen Militant Chapter of Phi Iota Alpha. It was not an easy task since many of the Sigma Delta Alpha members did not want the change or to alter their history. But the decision was made and thus the Phi Sigma Alpha Zone of the Union Latino Americana came to be.[15][16] A "Zone Directive" was created and a constitution was drafted, since there was no central body to control the fraternity.

By 1937, the ULA had several well-established and functional zones including:[15]

ULA held its last Convention on January 7-8, 1938.[8] Delegates from the United States, Cuba and the Puerto Rico zones were present. At the Convention, agreement could not be reached over the ideals of the fraternity. After the convention, each zone considered the matter independently. The USA zone decided that the ideals of the ULA ought to be Pan-Americanism (the unification of Latin America by a system of confederacy) and led its members towards a position of pro-independence as it related to Puerto Rico, while the Cuban zone did not reach a decision on their own and ultimately decide to go along with the ideals conceptualized by the USA zone.[8]

The Puerto Rico zone rejected this decision because it considered the introduction of political issues to be detrimental to the fraternity. Thus on September 25, 1938, the Phi Sigma Alpha Zone withdrew from the Union Latino Americana.[18] The ULA dissolved shortly after.

The era of growth 1939 - 1964[edit]

Like the members of the Sigma, a majority of the members of the Chapter of Phi Iota Alpha of the University of Louisiana, disillusioned with character given to their brotherhood, withdrew from the Fraternity and, in April, 1939, founded Sigma Iota Alpha,[8] a fraternity composed of Latin students of that University. As it was to be expected this new grouping was received with distrust by the other Latin fraternal organizations at the university. Since Phi Sigma Alpha was organized in Puerto Rico with ideals similar to those of the Sigma Iota Alpha in Louisiana, and since both organizations were the product of almost identical former brotherhoods, negotiations were immediately started to merge the two brotherhoods into one. This was decided in a convention celebrated on September 10, 1939, at the University of Puerto Rico, organizing themselves as "Fraternidad Sigma" (Sigma Fraternity) with two ramifications: Phi Sigma Alpha Zone in Puerto Rico and Sigma Iota Alpha Zone in Louisiana (Later the USA Zone's name was changed to Phi Sigma Beta Zone and came to include other universities in north Louisiana).[8]

Phi Sigma Alpha Pin

The Phi Sigma Alpha Zone was organized by a board of directors of the zone, the Militant chapter Alpha Boriquén of San Juan, and two university chapters, one at U.P.R.-Río Piedras and another one at the U.P.R.-Mayagüez (then known as the Colegoi de Agricultura y Artes Mecanicas de Mayagüez (CAAM). Years later the militant chapters of Ponce and Mayagüez were also organized.[19]

The Sigma Iota Alpha Zone (Phi Sigma Beta) was made up of the Alpha chapter in the University of Louisiana. In 1941, the Beta chapter in the city of Baltimore, Maryland, was organized. It was composed of students of various nearby universities, including Georgetown, University of Maryland, University of Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, and George Washington University.[8]

With time it became increasingly more difficult to sustain a fully functional zone in the United States, while pretending it worked as well as the zone one in Puerto Rico. A reformist movement arose abroad that culminated in 1964 with the establishment of the Phi Sigma Alpha Fraternity composed of active and militant chapters that can be found in Puerto Rico, in the United States or abroad. Therefore, the model based on zones was abolished and eliminated.[8]

The era of progress and adaptations (1964)[edit]

Puerto Rico felt economic boom of the post Second World War years, and this boom was also evident in its universities. Puerto Rican youth registered in Puerto Rican universities in record numbers, and the Fraternity, which acted as the suppliers of the union between its young people and an escape from arduous studies, also offered student housing. During the next two decades, Sigma enjoyed extensive enrollment in the original chapters as well as the new ones that were beginning to develop. While the baby boom effect declined dramatically in the late 1970s /early 1980s, it resurged at the end of the 1980s, and continuing until the beginnings of the 1990s.[8]

"Un Sigma es ante todo un caballero"

Phi Sigma Alpha Creed

The 1990s brought an era of mandated accountability of fraternities, partly resulting from the deaths of two young cadets of the quasi-fraternal group the "Panthers" of the ROTC in the CAAM,[20] and also a damages lawsuit perpetrated against another island fraternity. This brought forth a law, which can be found in Article 125 of the New Puerto Rico Penal Code, to control the initiation processes or "hazing" and to protect candidates.[21] The Sigma Brotherhood, which since 1959 had prohibited in its processes the use of the "Pledge Paddle", achieved another "first" from its prohibition of acts against the physical and mental dignity of the neophyte even before Article 125 was enacted.

The Sigma has continued its emphasis throughout the years on the areas of community and social work by its active and militant chapters which regularly take part in blood drives and fund-raising activities for different organizations. The "Beca Sigma" (Sigma Scholarship) program has been re-established and promises to offer young Puerto Ricans of scarce resources the opportunity to receive a University education.[1]

Organization[edit]

The fraternity's highest administrative body is the "Junta de Directores", or Board of Directors. This body is composed of two groups. The first is the "Comité Ejecutivo Central" (Central Executive Committee) which includes the fraternity president, vice president and others. The second group is composed of the regional presidents, and the presidents and secretaries of all the fraternity chapters, alumni and active members.[22] All members have an equal vote. The Board of Directors meets several times a year, as convened by the fraternity president. As of 2010, there were six regions, with the ones in Puerto Rico named after their main city: San Juan Region, Guayama Region, Ponce Region, Arecibo Region, Mayagüez Region, and the USA Region, based in Florida.[22]

Headquarters[edit]

Casa Club Sigma's main entrance

Phi Sigma Alpha's main headquarters are located at the corner of Calle Mejico and Calle Chile in Hato Rey, Puerto Rico.[1] The offices are located in the Alpha Boriquen Chapter's clubhouse, known as Casa Club Sigma. Its restaurant has operated uninterrupted since 1968.[23] Its activity halls are rented out for meetings and events held by many organizations.[24] The clubhouse has two main activity halls and two smaller ones, which can all be opened up to create one big room, or used individually.

There is also a bar and restaurant area, called Vale's Place, reserved for fraternity members and their guest. In the back of the Casa Club Sigma is a basketball court. There used to be a swimming pool as well, but it has been paved over to provide additional parking area. The main offices of the fraternity are on the second floor of the building. On the back is the Pub Sigma, which is used by the Alfa Omega Activo chapter for their meetings and social events.

Sigma Foundation[edit]

Sigma Foundation

The "Fundación Sigma" (Sigma Foundation) is a non profit organization, established to offer Puerto Rican youth of limited resources and those of outstanding academical records the opportunity to cover part of their university expenses. Through different fraternity activities, carried out to raise funds, the organization seeks to be fiscally responsible as the basis to fulfill its philanthropic goals.[25]

The fraternity collaborates and contributes to different organizations, mainly to the "Fondita de Jesus", the American Red Cross, American Cancer Society and "Centro Espibi" in Mayagüez.[1] Various golf tournaments are held to raise funds for charities. The Beta Boriquen chapter coordinates one such tournament with the Mayagüez Rotary Club.[26]

Chapters[edit]

The fraternity has both university and alumni chapters. The university chapters are named by a Greek letter (depending on their order of founding), followed by the word "activo" (active). The alumni chapters follow the same nomenclature, except that instead "activo" they are called "boriquén". Brothers in active chapters are called "activos" and alumni Brothers are called "militantes" (militants). Yet all Brothers call each other "Sigmas".

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Alfa-Omega Activo [Notes] University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras
Alfa Boriquén San Juan
Beta Activo[27] University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez
Beta Boriquén Mayagüez
Delta Activo[28] Inter American University at San Germán
Delta Boriquén Arecibo
Epsilon Activo [Notes] Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico
Épsilon Boriquén Guayama
Tau Boriquén Caguas
Omicrón Activo University of Puerto Rico at Aguadilla
Omicrón Boriquén Aguadilla
Gamma Activo[29] Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico
Gamma Boriquén Ponce
Zeta Activo University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo / UIPR Arecibo Campus[30]
Omega Boriquén San Germán
Ýpsilon Boriquén Yauco

Notes^

* ΑΩ-Activo Chapter was originally two chapters located in SJ, PR; Α-Activo at UPR Río Piedras and Ω-Activo at Inter American U at SJ; the chapters merged.
* Epsilon Activo Chapter was originally at UPR, Medical Sciences Campus, but after years of inactivity it was re-opened in 2007 at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico.
United States and Mexico
United States Mexico
Alpha Columbia Boriquen Washington, D.C.
Epsilon Columbia Activo Miami, Florida
Epsilon Columbia Boriquén Miami, Florida
Omega Columbia Activo Orlando, Florida
Omega Columbia Boriquén Orlando, Florida
Alfa Azteca Activo Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara

Notable members[edit]

Don Luis A. Ferré (left)
Raymond Arrieta
William Navas
Raul Julia

The group has had among its members many respected Puerto Ricans and Latin Americans.[1]

Name Notability
Raúl Juliá[31] Professional actor
Raúl M. Arias-Marxuach United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico.
Luis A. Ferré[31][32] Governor of Puerto Rico, Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient, Puerto Rico state senator[33]
Ramón Torres Braschi[31] Superintendent of the Puerto Rico Police Department[34]
Eudaldo Báez Galib[35] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature[36]
Carlos Contreras Aponte Current Secretary of the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works
Noel Estrada[31] Composer of "En mi viejo San Juan"
José Izquierdo Stella[32] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature[32]
Carlos Irizarry Yunque[37] Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
José Miguel Agrelot[31] Comedian and Guinness record holder
Raymond Arrieta[38][39] Comedian
David Cruz Vélez[32] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature[32] and former Ombudsman for Persons with Disabilities of Puerto Rico
Manuel Abreu Castillo[40] President of the Puerto Rico Bar Association; writer
William Navas[41] Sub-Secretary of the United States Navy; General
José Victor Oliver Ledesma Owner of P.R. Distillers
Luis Somoza Debayle[31] President of Nicaragua
Marco Rigau Gaztambide[42] Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
Marco Rigau Jiménez[32] Puerto Rican senator for the Popular Democratic Party[32]
Juan A. Rivero[43] Biologist, author, founder of Dr. Juan A. Rivero Zoo; has discovered previously unidentified animals
Arturo L. Carrión Muñoz Former executive vice president of the Puerto Rico Bankers Association
Charles Cuprill Oppenheimer[44] Major General, Puerto Rico National Guard; Dean of the Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico School of Law
Oscar A. San Antonio Mendoza[32] Member of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico[32] and Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives
Hiram Rafael Cancio[1] District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico
Luis Stefani[31] Long time Chancellor of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez
Santos P. Amadeo[31][32] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature;[33] constitutional law scholar; first president of the fraternity
José L. Purcell[31] Judge in the Superior Court of Puerto Rico; founded the Puerto Rico Volleyball Federation
Guillermo A. Baralt Author, historian
Rafael Pont Flores[31] Well known radio (WKAQ) sports commentator in the 1950s; sports columnist for the El Mundo newspaper
César Benito Cabrera Former US Ambassador to the island nations of Mauritius and the Seychelles
Mario Rubén García Palmieri[12] Secretary of Health of Puerto Rico[45]
Manuel Rodríguez Ramos[46] Puerto Rican writer, law professor and Secretary of Justice of Puerto Rico
William Riefkohl[47] Executive Director of the Puerto Rico Manufacturers Association
Adán Nigaglioni Loyola Dean of UPRCM School of Medicine
Enrique Pérez Santiago[48] Secretary of Health of Puerto Rico
José M. Saldaña President of the University of Puerto Rico
Jaime Frontera Olympic basketball player, flag bearer for Puerto Rico in the 1968 Summer Olympics
Eugenio Fernández Cerra[32] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature[33]
Herminio Brau del Toro[49] Lawyer, engineer, professor, writer, president of P.R. Distillers
Reinaldo Rampolla-Selles Co-director of the Lung Transplants Services and transplant pulmonologist at Oschner Medical Center in New Orleans
Justo A. Méndez Rodriguez[32][50] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature;[33] ex-Secretary of Agriculture of Puerto Rico
José Menéndez Monroig[32][50] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature[33]
Enrique A. Vicéns[32] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature[33]
Lionel Fernández Méndez[32] Senator in the Puerto Rico legislature[33]
Gaspar Rivera Cestero[31] Member of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico
Ubaldino Ramírez de Arellano[32][50] Member of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico
Eduardo Zavála Vázquez[32] Member of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico[32]
Eduardo Bhatia Gautier[51] Current Speaker of the Senate of Puerto Rico
Hugo David Storer Tavarez[50] Director of Promotion of the Puerto Rico Economic Development Administration, also known as "Fomento"
Eugenio S. Belaval[32][50] Member of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico[32]
Hernán Padilla[32] Member of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico; two-term Mayor of San Juan
Santiago Polanco Abreu[32][50] Speaker of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives; Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico
Adolfo L. Monserrate Anselmi[32][50] Member of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico
Isidro A. Negrón Irizarry[52] Mayor of the city of San German
Charles H. Juliá[32][53] Three-time member of the Senate of Puerto Rico
Lester Martínez López Physician; Major General; first Hispanic to head the US Army Medical and Research Command
Antonio Colorado[32] Secretary of State of Puerto Rico; Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico
José Rodríguez Quiles Former member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives
Agustín F. Carbó Lugo Former executive director of the Puerto Rico Solid Waste Management Authority; Chairman of PR Energy Commission[54]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Shokooh Valle, Firuzeh (2005-03-14). "Fraternidad con fin social y sin violencia" (in Spanish). PRIMERA HORA. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  2. ^ a b Ricketts, Palmer C. (1934). A History of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1824-1934. New York, New York: Wiley Publishing Company.
  3. ^ Brown, Tamara L.; Gregory S. Parks; Clarenda M. Phillips (2005). African American Fraternities And Sororities: The Legacy And The Vision. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 59. ISBN 0-8131-2344-5.
  4. ^ Bhatia, Eduardo (August 12, 1998). "R. del S. 1718" (in Spanish). Senate of Puerto Rico: 1–2. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  5. ^ University of California Berkeley Blue & Gold Yearbook. Berkeley, California: University of California Berkeley. 1922. p. 600.
  6. ^ "Beta Chapter Phi Iota Alpha Fraternity: Fraternal history". Stony Brook University. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  7. ^ "Universities and world affairs". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 1952. ISSN 0502-6393.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Sigma History" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2008-05-01.
  9. ^ Anson, Jack L.; Robert F. Marchesani, Jr. (1991). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. Menasha, Wisconsin: Banta Publishing Company. VIII–22. ISBN 0-9637159-0-9.
  10. ^ Staff writer (1932-01-08). "Phi Lambda Alpha and Sigma Iota To Unite" (PDF). The Tech. MIT. p. 1. Retrieved 2005-12-03.
  11. ^ "Phi Iota Alpha: History". University At Albany. Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  12. ^ a b "Phi Sigma Alpha Presidents". fisigmaalfa.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
  13. ^ "Beta Activo History" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  14. ^ "FIA History" (in Spanish). Fi Iota Alfa: Fraternidad Latino Americana. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  15. ^ a b Baily, Harold J. (1949). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. Menasha, Wisconsin: Banta Publishing Company. p. 315. OCLC 1353909.
  16. ^ Johnson, Clyde Sanfred (1972). Fraternities in our colleges. New York, New York: National Interfraternity Foundation. pp. 42–43.
  17. ^ Baird, William Raimond (1940). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. G. Banta Pub. Co. p. 260.
  18. ^ "Historia Fraternal" (in Spanish). Fi Iota Alfa: Fraternidad Latino Americana. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  19. ^ "Sigma History" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  20. ^ Firuzeh Shokooh Valle (2005-03-07). "Una tradición bélica". ZONAi. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  21. ^ House of Representatives of Puerto Rico (2004-04-27). "ANEJO 1, Informe de la Cámara" (PDF). Rama Judicial del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  22. ^ a b "Junta de Directores" (in Spanish). Fraternidad Fi Sigma Alfa. 2 January 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  23. ^ http://www.sal.pr/hatoreycriolla/casaclubsigma.html
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2010-06-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ "Fi Sigma Alfa" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2007-08-14.
  26. ^ "Rotary and Sigma Open" (in Spanish). Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  27. ^ "UPRM" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-01-16.
  28. ^ Baird, William Raimond; John Robson (1977). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities, Issue 19. G. Banta Co. p. 120.
  29. ^ "PUCPR" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  30. ^ "Organizaciones Estudiantiles" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-08-21.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Capitulo Eterno". fisigmaalfa.org. Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Hernández, Rosario (July 20, 1993). "R. de la C. 1310" (PDF) (in Spanish). House of Representatives of Puerto Rico: 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g "PR Senators" (PDF). senadopr.us. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
  34. ^ William Anderson, Robert (1973). Gobierno y partidos políticos en Puerto Rico: seguido de un estudio sobre el plebiscito de 1967 y las elecciones de 1968 (in Spanish). Editorial Tecnos. p. 64.
  35. ^ Duprey Salgado, Nestor R. (August 18, 2003). "R. de la C. 7336" (in Spanish). House of Representatives of Puerto Rico: 2. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  36. ^ Prensa Asociada (August 29, 2008). "Ilegales las acciones de Cintron, segun Baez Galib". Primera Hora (in Spanish). Primera Hora. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  37. ^ Irizarry Yunque, Carlos J. (May 2008). "VIVENCIAS Y OPINIONES DE UN ABOGADO" (in Spanish). 42 Rev. Jur. U.I.P.R. 425.
  38. ^ Celebrando 81 años de Hermandad. Puerto Rico: Fi Sigma Alfa. October 2009. p. 21.
  39. ^ Marrero, Rosalina; Patricia Vargas (June 7, 2013). "Mañana será un gran día". El Nuevo Dia (in Spanish). Puerto Rico: GFR Media. pp. 62–63. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  40. ^ Who's who in finance and industry. Marquis Who's Who. 1963. p. 3.
  41. ^ Celebrando 81 años de Hermandad. Puerto Rico: Fi Sigma Alfa. October 2009. p. 35.
  42. ^ "Semblanzas de lo Jueces del Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico". Revista Juridica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico. 47: 343. 1978.
  43. ^ Celebrando 81 años de Hermandad. Puerto Rico: Fi Sigma Alfa. October 2009. p. 134.
  44. ^ "Phi Sigma Alpha Presidents". fisigmaalfa.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
  45. ^ "Historia de la regionalización". Galenus (in Spanish). Galenus. 03. 2003. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  46. ^ "Phi Sigma Alpha Presidents". fisigmaalfa.org. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
  47. ^ 82 Sigma Convención. Puerto Rico: Fi Sigma Alfa. October 2010. p. 7.
  48. ^ "Capitulo Eterno". fisigmaalfa.org. Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
  49. ^ Aurelio, Martínez (2004). Cabo Rojo: historia y personalidad de un pueblo (in Spanish). Indiana University: Ediciones Chriscela. p. 189. ISBN 1596080396.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g "Capitulo Eterno". fisigmaalfa.org. Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
  51. ^ Stewart Sotomayor, John A. (September 9, 2009). "Ponencia Sigma" (PDF) (in Spanish). Senate of Puerto Rico: 1–4. Retrieved January 11, 2011
  52. ^ Celebrando 81 años de Hermandad. Puerto Rico: Fi Sigma Alfa. October 2009. p. 107.
  53. ^ "Phi Sigma Alpha Presidents". fisigmaalfa.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2007-09-17.
  54. ^ "Designan presidente de la Comisión Reguladora de Energía". www.noticel.com. Retrieved 2016-04-26.

External links[edit]