Philadelphia International Records
|Philadelphia International Records|
|Parent company||Sony Music Entertainment|
|Founded||1971 (50 years ago)|
|Founder||Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff|
|Distributor(s)||Legacy Recordings (re-issues)|
|Country of origin||United States|
Philadelphia International Records (PIR) was an American record label that is based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1971 by the songwriting and production duo, Kenneth Gamble and Leon Huff, along with their long time collaborator Thom Bell. It was known for showcasing the Philadelphia soul music genre (also known as Philly soul) that was founded on the gospel, doo-wop, and soul music of the time. This 'Philly Soul' sound later became a prominent and distinct era within the R&B genre itself. During the 1970s, the label released a string of worldwide hits which emphasized lavish orchestral instrumentation, heavy bass, and driving percussion.
Some of their most popular and best selling acts during their career included The O'Jays, Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes, Teddy Pendergrass, MFSB, Billy Paul, Patti LaBelle and Lou Rawls. Between 1971 and the early 1980s, the label received over 170 gold and platinum records.
Philadelphia International Records had been mostly defunct since 1987, and finally shut down in 2001. As of 2007, Sony Music Entertainment owns all rights to the Philadelphia International Records catalogue.
Beginning and success
Kenneth Gamble and Leon Huff, the founders of Philadelphia International Records, met in 1964 while they were both playing as session musicians for various labels, including Philadelphia based Cameo-Parkway Records, whose building would later become home to Philadelphia International Records recording studio. In 1965, Huff joined Gamble's band, The Romeos, a popular moniker at the time, by replacing future Philadelphia International Records producer and arranger Thom Bell on piano. Kenny Gamble and The Romeos had seen little success up to that point playing for their label, Arctic Records, and split up soon after.
When the Romeos disbanded, Gamble and Huff went on to start one of the first iterations of Philadelphia International Records (which they named Excel and Gamble) after a visit to Motown Records in Detroit, to scope out the Motown setup. The success of their biggest signing, The Intruders, brought attention to Gamble and Huff, which allowed them to create Neptune Records in 1969. Neptune Records, a more ambitious project for the duo, was financed by Chess Records, and allowed them to sign later Philadelphia International Records artists The O'Jays and The Three Degrees. When Chess Records changed ownership in 1969, Neptune Records folded. With the collapse of Neptune Records, Gamble and Huff transferred their signed artists onto a new project, Philadelphia International Records. Looking to attract new black acts to their label, but without the in-house know-how, Columbia Records was convinced to sign an exclusive production contract with Gamble and Huff's new Philadelphia International Records.
The label was set up in connection with Mighty Three/Assorted Music, the music publishing company run by Gamble, Huff and another Philadelphia producer, Thom Bell, to showcase their songs.
The label's major hits included: "TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)" by MFSB, featuring The Three Degrees, 1974 (which was later used as one of the theme tunes for the TV dance-music show Soul Train); "Ain't No Stoppin' Us Now" by McFadden & Whitehead (writers and producers with the label), 1979; "Back Stabbers" and "Love Train" by The O'Jays, 1972/3; "If You Don't Know Me By Now" and "The Love I Lost" by Harold Melvin & The Blue Notes, 1972/3; "Me and Mrs. Jones" by Billy Paul, 1972; "When Will I See You Again" by The Three Degrees, 1974; and "You'll Never Find Another Love Like Mine" by Lou Rawls, 1976.
The label had a distribution deal with CBS Records until 1984. Distribution of the catalog from 1976 onwards was then taken over by EMI Records, but CBS continued to distribute material recorded up to 1976. In 2007, Sony's Legacy Recordings regained the rights to Philadelphia International's full catalog and the following year, PIR/Legacy released a box set titled Love Train: The Sound of Philadelphia.
Most of the music released by the label was recorded and produced at Sigma Sound Studios in Philadelphia, with chief engineer and later studio owner Joe Tarsia recording many of the sessions. More than 30 resident studio musicians, known collectively as MFSB "Mother Father Sister Brother", were based at this studio and backed up most of these recordings. Some of these musicians also acted as arrangers, writers or producers for Philadelphia International as well as for other labels recording in the city. They included Bobby Martin, Norman Harris, Thom Bell, Ronnie Baker, Vince Montana and later, Jack Faith and John Usry.
Gamble and Huff worked as independent producers with a series of artists in the late 1960s and early 1970s, including Jerry Butler, Wilson Pickett and Dusty Springfield. They also produced The Jacksons' first two albums for Epic/CBS after the group had left Motown in 1976. The first, titled The Jacksons featured the platinum-selling single "Enjoy Yourself", and a second album, Goin' Places followed in 1977. Although on CBS subsidiary Epic, both albums and the singles also carried a Philadelphia International logo.
In 1965, Gamble and Huff started an independent label, Excel Records. It was soon renamed Gamble Records and in 1972, was folded into Philadelphia International as a subsidiary. In 1974, the subsidiary's name was changed to TSOP Records, from the aforementioned 1974 hit single, "TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)". Artists for Excel/Gamble/TSOP included Dee Dee Sharp, Archie Bell & the Drells, and The People's Choice, who had a top 10 single on TSOP in 1976 with "Do It Any Way You Wanna." Later signings to the Philly International roster in the 1980s and 1990s, included Patti Labelle, The Stylistics, Phyllis Hyman, and The Dells.
Between 1973 and 1975, Gamble and Huff also distributed a boutique label called Golden Fleece, set up by musicians Norman Harris, Ronnie Baker and Earl Young, which released the second album by The Trammps. G & H also had a short-lived subsidiary called Thunder Records. Created by Thom Bell, it only had two singles from Derek & Cyndi (You Bring Out the Best in Me/I'll Do the Impossible for You) who were produced by Bell, and Fatback Band member Michael Walker whose single "I Got the Notion, You Got the Motion" was produced by his brother and The Spinners' member Philippe Wynne.
By the mid 1980s, Philadelphia International Records ended their distribution deal with Columbia, who they had worked with since their inception. The label was soon after picked up by Capitol/EMI records. They continued to make hits, including Shirley Jones' "Do You Get Enough Love," but their most successful years were behind them.
In the 1990s, Philadelphia International launched a new subsidiary, Uncensored Records. Featuring Damon and No Question, this label releases hip hop music. Philadelphia International now largely concentrates on licensing its music catalog worldwide and has issued few new recordings since the mid-80s, when Gamble and Huff wound down their studio work together.
In 1989, Gamble and Huff were awarded their first Grammy Award. Simply Red's cover of "If You Don't Know Me By Now," written by Gamble and Huff, won the Grammy Award for Best R&B Song. 10 years later in 1999, Gamble and Huff were awarded the Lifetime Achievement Grammy from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. In 2008, the duo were inducted in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in the non-performer category, joining their band the O'Jays who were inducted in 2005.
In November, 2009, PBS aired the two-part special, Love Train: The Sound of Philadelphia, which celebrates the legacy of Gamble & Huff and the family of Philadelphia International Records artists. The concert was shot in front of a live audience on Saturday, June 7, 2008 at the Borgata Hotel and Casino in Atlantic City, and showcased TSOP artists.
In February 2010, Gamble and Huff suffered a setback when fire swept through parts of their offices on Philadelphia's Broad Street. The building was previously the home of another iconic part of the city's musical heritage, Cameo-Parkway Records, based there during the 1950s and 1960s, and has become a tourist attraction. The fire was started deliberately by a man who had broken into the offices while so intoxicated by alcohol (in excess of four times the legal limit for driving a vehicle) that he had no recollection of the crime afterward.
In August 2011, in honor of the 40th anniversary of the company, Philadelphia International Records launched TSOP Soul Radio, an online radio station that allows fans from all around the world the chance to tune in and listen to music and interviews from the legendary Gamble and Huff catalog.
The building that housed Philadelphia International Records located on Broad & Spruce Street was damaged by arson in 2010 and was effectively shut down. It was sold to local developer Dranoff Properties in 2014. On Saturday April 18, 2015 demolition started on the building. The new owners Dranoff Properties plan to build an SLS International Hotel at the site of the building which plans to open in Fall 2017.
Gamble and Huff have written over 3,000 songs throughout their careers, making them two of the most efficient and productive songwriters of all time. They continue to write songs together from their homes in South Philadelphia.
Philadelphia soul, or Philly soul, was a form of soul music that came out of Philadelphia during the mid 1960s. It provided a smoother alternative to the deep soul of the 60s while maintaining the soul and emotion of popular R&B of the time. Philadelphia International Records was one of the most successful labels to capitalize on this new genre, and took it to the international stage with acts like the O'Jays and Teddy Pendergrass.
Philly Soul is known for its incorporation of lush string arrangements along with penetrating brass, and often tells very personal and emotional stories. The world renowned Philadelphia Orchestra's string section was often employed to play on many of Philadelphia International Record's tracks. Philly Soul is often considered a producer's genre, the essence of the genre coming mostly out of Gamble, Huff, Bell, and the other producers within PIR. Philly Soul, with its driving rhythms, later became the inspiration from which the disco craze of the 70s was born.
Catalog numbers from 1971 to 1985 are part of CBS Records' overall numbering system, and therefore are discontinuous. Albums released from 1986-1990 were part of Capitol/EMI catalog numbering system. Catalog numbers for albums released after 1991 are from Philadelphia International's distribution deal with Zoo Entertainment.
|KZ 30580||Going East||Billy Paul||1971|
|KZ 31648||I Miss You||Harold Melvin & Blue Notes||1972|
|KZ 31712||Back Stabbers||O'Jays||1972|
|KZ 31793||360 Degrees of Billy Paul||Billy Paul||1972|
|KZ 31794||Dick Jensen||Dick Jensen||1973|
|ZX 31991||Save The Children||Intruders||1973|
|KZ 32118||Ebony Woman||Billy Paul||1973|
|KZ 32119||Feelin' Good At The Cadillac Club||Billy Paul||1973|
|KZ 32120||The O'Jays In Philadelphia (originally released in 1970 on Neptune Records)||O'Jays||1973|
|KZ 32131||Super Hits||Intruders||1973|
|KZ 32404||Spiritual Concept||Spiritual Concept||1973|
|KZ 32406||The Three Degrees||Three Degrees||1973|
|KZ/ZQ 32407||Black And Blue||Harold Melvin & Blue Notes||1973|
|KZ/PZ/PZQ 32408||Ship Ahoy||O'Jays||1973|
|KZ 32409||War Of The Gods||Billy Paul||1973|
|KZ 32419||The Ebonys||Ebonys||1973|
|KZ/ZQ 32707||Love is the Message||MFSB||1973|
|KZ 32713||The Sound Of Philadelphia '73||Various Artists||1973|
|KZ 32859||That's How I'll Be Loving You||Bunny Sigler||1974|
|KZ 32952||Live In Europe||Billy Paul||1974|
|KZ/PZQ 32953||The O'Jays Live In London||O'Jays||1974|
|KZ/PZ 33148||To Be True||Harold Melvin & Blue Notes||1975|
|KZ 33152||Potpourri||Thad Jones & Mel Lewis||1975|
|KZ 33153||Reality||Monk Montgomery||1974|
|KZ 33154||Boogie Down U.S.A.||People's Choice||1975|
|PZ 33157||Got My Head On Straight||Billy Paul||1975|
|PZ 33158||Universal Love||MFSB||1975|
|KZ 33162||International||Three Degrees||1975|
|KZ 33249||Keep Smilin'||Bunny Sigler||1975|
|PZ/PZQ 33807||Family Reunion||O'Jays||1975|
|PZ/PZQ 33808||Wake Up Everybody||Harold Melvin & Blue Notes||1975|
|PZ 33839||Happy 'Bout The Whole Thing||Dee Dee Sharp||1976|
|PZ 33840||The Three Degrees Live||Three Degrees||1975|
|PZ 33841||Could It Be Magic||Anthony White||1976|
|PZ 33843||When Love Is New||Billy Paul||1975|
|PZ/PZQ 33845||Philadelphia Freedom||MFSB||1975|
|PZ 33957||All Things in Time||Lou Rawls||1976|
|PZ 33958||Travelin' In Heavy Traffic||Don Covay||1976|
|PZ 34079||Life On Mars||Dexter Wansel||1976|
|PZ 34122||From North Philly (Live)||Dap 'Sugar' Willie||1976|
|PZ 34123||Unemployment Blues||Force Of Nature||1976|
|JE/PE 34229||The Jacksons||Jacksons||1976|
|PZ 34232||Collectors' Item: All Their Greatest Hits!||Harold Melvin & Blue Notes||1976|
|PZ 34245||Message in the Music||O'Jays||1976|
|PZ 34267||My Music||Bunny Sigler||1976|
|PZ 34323||Where Will You Go When The Party's Over||Archie Bell & the Drells||1976|
|PZ 34346||Bicentennial Poet||Jean-Claude T.||1976|
|PZ 34358||Get Down With The Philly Jump||Instant Funk||1976|
|PZ 34389||Let 'Em In||Billy Paul||1976|
|JZ34390||Teddy Pendergrass||Teddy Pendergrass||1977|
|PZ 34394||Jean Carn||Jean Carn||1977|
|PZ 34437||What Color Is Love||Dee Dee Sharp||1977|
|PZ 34487||What the World Is Coming To||Dexter Wansel||1977|
|PZ 34488||Unmistakably Lou||Lou Rawls||1977|
|PZ 34658||End Of Phase I||MFSB||1977|
|PZ 34659||Let's Clean Up The Ghetto||Various Artists||1977|
|PZ 34684||Travelin' at the Speed of Thought||O'Jays||1977|
|ZX 34728||Disco Champs||Trammps||1977|
|JE/PE 34835||Goin' Places||Jacksons||1977|
|PZ 34855||Hard Not To Like It||Archie Bell & the Drells||1977|
|PZ 34923||Only The Strong Survive||Billy Paul||1977|
|PZ 34940||Philadelphia Classics||Various Artists||1977|
|PZ 34985||Voyager||Dexter Wansel||1978|
|PZ 34986||Happy To Be With You||Jean Carn||1978|
|PGZ 35024/Z 2-35024||The O'Jays: Collectors' Items||O'Jays||1977|
|JZ35036||When You Hear Lou, You've Heard It All||Lou Rawls||1977|
|JZ35095||Life Is a Song Worth Singing||Teddy Pendergrass||1978|
|JZ/PZ 35355||So Full of Love||O'Jays||1978|
|JZ35363||Turn Me Loose||People's Choice||1978|
|JZ35458||Past, Present And The Futures||Futures||1978|
|JZ35509||Rush Hour||Bobby Rush||1978|
|JZ35510||Nothing Says I Love You Like I Love You||Jerry Butler||1978|
|JZ35516||MFSB: The Gamble & Huff Orchestra||MFSB||1978|
|PZ 2-35517||Live||Lou Rawls||1978|
|JZ35756||First Class||Billy Paul||1979|
|JZ35757||The Jones Girls||Jones Girls||1979|
|JZ35758||Edwin Birdsong||Edwin Birdsong||1979|
|JZ35800||McFadden & Whitehead||McFadden & Whitehead||1979|
|JZ/PZ 36006||Let Me Be Good to You||Lou Rawls||1979|
|JZ36007||Michael Pedicin Jr.||Michael Pedicin Jr.||1979|
|JZ36024||Time Is Slipping Away||Dexter Wansel||1979|
|JZ36096||Strategy||Archie Bell & the Drells||1979|
|JZ36196||When I Find You Love||Jean Carn||1979|
|JZ36294||Live! Coast to Coast||Teddy Pendergrass||1979|
|JZ/PZ 36304||Sit Down and Talk to Me||Lou Rawls||1979|
|JZ36313||The Harris Machine||Norman Harris||1980|
|Z 2-36314||Best Of Billy Paul||Billy Paul||1980|
|JZ36370||Dee Dee||Dee Dee Sharp||1980|
|JZ36413||The Best Love||Jerry Butler||1980|
|JZ36414||Greetings Of Peace||Futures||1981|
|JZ36758||Here to Create Music||Leon Huff||1980|
|JZ36767||At Peace with Woman||Jones Girls||1980|
|JZ36774||Shades of Blue||Lou Rawls||1980|
|FZ/PZ 37380||The Spirit's in It||Patti Labelle||1981|
|FZ37491||It's Time for Love||Teddy Pendergrass||1981|
|FZ37627||Get as Much Love as You Can||Jones Girls||1981|
|FZ37683||Live On Stage||Various Artists||1982|
|FZ37684||Best Of Philadelphia International||Various Artists||1982|
|FZ37999||My Favorite Person||O'Jays||1982|
|FZ38118||This One's For You||Teddy Pendergrass||1982|
|FZ/PZ 38518||When Will I See You Again||O'Jays||1983|
|FZ38539||I'm in Love Again||Patti Labelle||1983|
|FZ38555||Keep It Comin'||Jones Girls||1984|
|FZ38646||Heaven Only Knows||Teddy Pendergrass||1983|
|FZ39252||Greatest Hits||Teddy Pendergrass||1984|
|PZ 39254||Philadelphia International Dance Classics, Vol. I||Various Artists||1984|
|PZ 39255||Philly Ballads, Volume I||Various Artists||1984|
|FZ39367||Love And More||O'Jays||1984|
|ST-53015||Love Fever||The O'Jays||1985|
|ST-53028||The Whitehead Brothers||Kenny & Johnny||1986|
|ST-53029||Living All Alone||Phyllis Hyman||1986|
|ST-53031||Always In The Mood||Shirley Jones||1986|
|ST-53036||Let Me Touch You||O'Jays||1987|
|11006-1||Prime of My Life||Phyllis Hyman||1991|
|11023-1||I Salute You||The Dells||1992|
|11040-1||I Refuse to Be Lonely||Phyllis Hyman||1995|
|30902||Forever with You||Phyllis Hyman||1998|
- "Starter: Philadelphia International Records". Pitchfork. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
- Hardy, Charles. "Recording Industry | Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia". philadelphiaencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
- Neal, Mark. "Who Owns the (Philadelphia) Soul of Black Music?". The Root. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
- Hardy, Phil (2001). "The faber companion to 20th century popular music". Faber and Faber.
- Morrison, Jim. "Forty Years of Philadelphia Sound". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
- Seay, Toby (1 June 2012). "Capturing That Philadelphia Sound: A Technical Exploration Of Sigma Sound Studios". Journal on the Art of Record Production (6). Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- http://www.soultracks.com/story-bobby-martin-dies Bobby Martin obituary
- Bobby Martin discography at Discogs
- "Thunder (2)".
- "Past Winners Search". The GRAMMYs. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
- "The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". rockhall.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
- Philly.com (Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News website) article on conviction of arsonist Retrieved 2011-06-09
- Vince Lattanzio: Iconic Philadelphia International Records Building Being Demolished, April 18, 2015, NBC10.com.
- "Kenneth Gamble". www.gamble-huffmusic.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
- "Philly Soul | Music Highlights | AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
- Freeland, David (2001). "[Part Three: Introduction]". Ladies of Soul. University Press of Mississippi. pp. 103–105. ISBN 9781578063314. JSTOR j.ctt2tv6sv.11.
- Gamble-Huff Music
- Kenny Gamble interview by Pete Lewis, 'Blues & Soul' December 2011
- Leon Huff Audio Interview, Soulinterviews.com 2012
- Love Train: The Sound of Philadelphia, audio feature on the Philly Sound, Jan 31, 2009.
- Keith Phipps: Philadelphia Soul, avclub.com.
- Nate Patrin: Philadelphia International Records, pitchfork.com.
- NAMM Oral History Interview with Bobby Martin March 9, 2011