Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters

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Philadelphia Toboggan Company, Inc.
Private
Industry Manufacturing
Founded 1904 (1904)
Headquarters Hatfield, Pennsylvania, United States
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Tom Rebbie (President/CEO)
Products Amusement rides, roller coasters
Owner Tom Rebbie
Website Official website

Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters, commonly referred to as PTC, is one of the oldest existing roller coaster manufacturing companies in the world. Based in Hatfield, Pennsylvania, it was established in 1904 by Henry Auchey and Chester Albright under the name Philadelphia Toboggan Company. The company manufactured carousels, wooden roller coasters, toboggans (roller coaster cars) and later, roller coaster trains.

History[edit]

The Philadelphia Toboggan Company was incorporated January 20, 1904.[1] It built and designed roller coasters until 1979. Notable designers included Joe McKee, John A. Miller, Herbert Schmeck, Frank Hoover, and John C. Allen. When Allen retired as president in 1976, the company stopped designing roller coasters but continued to work on coaster projects until 1979 when it exited the coaster-construction industry for good.[2]

The company manufactured carousels which were known for their elaborate carvings and decorations. Lead carvers included Daniel Carl Muller, Leo Zoller, John Zalar and Frank Caretta.[3] Examples of the company's carousels (manufactured 1904–1934) exist throughout the United States.

The Philadelphia Toboggan Company built the Rollo Coaster at Idlewild Park in 1938, and the carousel for the same amusement park in 1931. The company manufactured Skee Ball games from 1946-1977.[4] In 1926, PTC was granted a trademark on a new name, Philtobco.[citation needed]

Flying Turns[edit]

Developed by J. Norman Bartlett and John Miller, the Flying Turns coasters came to the attention of PTC. Recognizing the ride's potential, PTC signed a licensing agreement with Bartlett and Miller to market the ride in North America—with the exception of the state of California.[5] With the arrival of the Great Depression, PTC built only one in 1931, at Rocky Point Amusement Park. The coaster was engineered by Herbert Schmeck, but experienced problems. The ride opened late in the summer and Schmeck stayed on site for some time before he was able to get the ride operating consistently. The ride was damaged beyond repair by a storm on September 21, 1938.[5]

Schmeck engineered a second Flying Turns for Hershey Park in August 1941. Due to the entry of the United States into World War II, and the resulting rationing of building materials, the roller coaster was never built. It would have been located in the park next to what is now the Wave Swinger, and part of where the Comet lift hill is located.[6] Though Bartlett and Miller went on to build several more Flying Turns-type coasters, PTC never proposed another.[5]

PTC Today[edit]

On November 27, 1991, Tom Rebbie and Bill Dauphinee purchased the Philadelphia Toboggan Company from its former owner, the late Sam High (1934–2011). They incorporated a new company, Philadelphia Toboggan Coaster, shortly thereafter.[7] Rebbie was appointed president of the company. Rebbie bought out Dauphinee in 2007 to become the sole owner and the name was slightly modified to Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters, Inc. (PTCI). The company continues to manufacture roller coaster trains, queue gates and fin brakes.[8]

List of roller coasters[edit]


As of 2018, Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters has built 126 roller coasters around the world.[9]

Name Park Country Opened Status Ref
Shooting Star Wet 'n Wild Emerald Pointe
Lakeside Park
United States United States Unknown
1968 to 1986
Removed [10]
[11]
Toboggan Slide Elitch Gardens United States United States 1904 Removed [12]
Figure Eight Euclid Beach United States United States 1904 Removed [13]
Figure Eight Toboggan Pabst Park United States United States 1904 Removed [14]
Forest Toboggan Olentangy Park United States United States 1904 Removed [15]
Figure 8 White City United States United States 1904 Removed [16]
Toboggan Figure 8 Vinewood Park United States United States 1904 Removed [17]
Figure 8 Toboggan Pine Beach Park United States United States 1904 Removed [18]
Figure Eight Delmar Garden United States United States 1905 Removed [19]
Forest Coaster White City United States United States 1906 Removed [20]
Figure 8 Idlewood Amusement Park United States United States 1906 Removed [21]
Jack Rabbit
Formerly Forest Scenic Railway
Point Breeze Park United States United States 1912 Removed [22]
Jack Rabbit Willough Beach Park United States United States 1915 Removed [23]
North Wind Coaster
Formerly Jack Rabbit
Luna Park United States United States 1915 Removed [24]
Jack Rabbit Shellpot Park United States United States 1916 Removed [25]
Forest Ride Ross Grove United States United States 1917 Removed [26]
Jack Rabbit Rocky Springs Park United States United States 1918 Removed [27]
Jack Rabbit Clementon Park United States United States 1919 Removed [28]
Deep Dipper Carlin's Park United States United States 1919 Removed [29]
Forest Ride Six Gun Territory United States United States 1919 Removed [30]
Giant Coaster Rocky Glen United States United States 1920 Removed [31]
Dips Buckroe Beach Park United States United States 1920 Removed [32]
Racer Dip Bay Shore Park United States United States 1920 Removed [33]
Deep Dipper Frederick Road Park United States United States 1920 Removed [34]
Wildcat Merrimack Park United States United States 1921 Removed [35]
Wildcat
Formerly Thriller
Formerly Wasco Dips
Enna Jettick Park United States United States 1921 Removed [36]
Alpine Dips Sanatoga Park United States United States 1921 Removed [37]
Roller Coaster Woodlawn Park United States United States 1922 Removed [38]
Dips Schuylkill Park United States United States 1922 Removed [39]
Thunderhawk
Formerly Coaster
Dorney Park United States United States 1923 Operating [40]
Wildcat Frederick Road Park United States United States 1923 Removed [41]
Wildcat Hersheypark United States United States 1923 Removed [42]
Thriller Euclid Beach United States United States 1924 Removed [43]
Cyclone Parc Belmont Canada Canada 1924 Removed [44]
Ski Ride Broad Ripple Park United States United States 1924 Removed [45]
Big Roller Coaster Memorial Park United States United States 1924 Removed [46]
Wildcat Bertrand Island United States United States 1925 Removed [47]
Jet Star
Formerly Rocket
Formerly Jet
Formerly Jack Rabbit
Olympic Park United States United States 1925 Removed [48]
Junior Coaster Woodlawn Park United States United States 1925 Removed [49]
Wildcat Shellpot Park United States United States 1925 Removed [50]
Giant Roller Coaster Lakeside Park United States United States 1925 Removed [51]
Wildcat Shady Grove Park United States United States 1925 Removed [52]
Island Flyer Island Park United States United States 1925 Removed [53]
Sky Rocket Elitch Gardens United States United States 1926 Removed [54]
Wildcat Coney Island United States United States 1926 Removed [55]
Twister Coney Island United States United States 1926 Removed [56]
Wildcat Rocky Point Park United States United States 1926 Removed [57]
Wildcat Joyland Park United States United States 1926 Removed [58]
Coaster Laurel Park United States United States 1926 Removed [59]
Express Brandywine Picnic Park United States United States 1926 Removed [60]
Wild Cat Seabreeze Amusement Park United States United States 1926 Removed [61]
Wildcat Fernbrook Park United States United States 1926 Removed [62]
Wildcat Long Branch Park United States United States 1926 Removed [63]
Kids Coaster Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden United States United States 1926 Removed [64]
Wildcat Lake Compounce United States United States 1927 Operating [65]
Twister Hocus Pocus Park United States United States 1927 Removed [66]
Wild Cat Woodside Park United States United States 1927 Removed [67]
Tornado Woodside Park United States United States 1927 Removed [68]
Twister Croops Glen United States United States 1927 Removed [69]
Wildcat Edgewood Park United States United States 1927 Removed [70]
Wildcat Belvedere Beach Amusement Park United States United States 1927 Removed [71]
Twister Lakemont Park United States United States 1927 Removed [72]
Wildcat Rocky Springs Park United States United States 1928 Removed [73]
Wildcat Brady Lake Park United States United States 1928 Removed [74]
Zip White City United States United States 1928 Removed [75]
Baby Dipper Happyland Park Canada Canada 1928 Removed [76]
Bear Cat Sans Souci Park United States United States 1928 Removed [77]
Twister Warner Park United States United States 1928 Removed [78]
Wildcat Erie Beach Park Canada Canada 1928 Removed [79]
Twister McCullough Lake Park United States United States 1928 Removed [80]
Mountain Flyer Mountain Park United States United States 1929 Removed [81]
Wildcat Pine Island Park United States United States 1929 Removed [82]
Cyclone Palacce Playland United States United States 1930 Removed [83]
Wildcat Lakeside Park United States United States 1930 Removed [84]
Wildcat Idora Park United States United States 1930 Removed [85]
Blue Flyer
Formerly Zipper Dipper
Blackpool Pleasure Beach United Kingdom United Kingdom 1934 Operating [86]
Teddy Bear Kennywood United States United States 1935 Removed [87]
Teddy Bear Coney Island United States United States 1935 Removed [88]
Whirlwind Dinosaur Beach United States United States 1935 Removed [89]
Yankee Cannonball
Formerly Greyhound
Formerly Roller Coaster
Canobie Lake Park
Lakewood Park
United States United States 1936
1930 to 1935
Operating [90]
[91]
Teddy Bear Elitch Gardens United States United States 1936 Removed [92]
Wildcat Elitch Gardens United States United States 1936 Removed [93]
Shooting Star
Formerly Clipper
Coney Island United States United States 1937 Removed [94]
Rollo Coaster Idlewild and Soak Zone United States United States 1938 Operating [95]
Thunderbolt
Formerly Cyclone
Six Flags New England
1939 New York World's Fair
United States United States 1941
1939 to 1940
Operating [96]
[97]
Comet Forest Park Highlands Amusement Park United States United States 1941 Removed [98]
Roller Coaster Bayside Park United States United States 1942 Removed [99]
Comet Pleasure Pier United States United States 1942 Removed [100]
Cyclone Palisades Amusement Park United States United States 1945 Removed [101]
Comet Hersheypark United States United States 1946 Operating [102]
Comet Meyer's Lake Park United States United States 1947 Removed [103]
Little Dipper Hoppyland United States United States 1949 Removed [104]
Nightmare
Formerly Roller Coaster
Joyland United States United States 1949 Removed [105]
Comet Waldameer United States United States 1951 Operating [106]
Comet Ghost Town on the River United States United States 1951 Removed [107]
Montaña Rusa Isla del Coco Cuba Cuba 1951 Removed [108]
Roller Coaster Funland United States United States 1954 Removed [109]
Junior Coaster Lincoln Beach United States United States 1955 Removed [110]
Little Dipper Belmont Park United States United States 1955 Removed [111]
Sea Dragon
Formerly Jet Flyer
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium United States United States 1956 Operating [112]
Valley Volcano Angela Park United States United States 1956 Removed [113]
Flyer Dinosaur Beach United States United States 1957 Removed [114]
Comet
Formerly Mighty Lightnin
Formerly Ghost Town Jet
Rocky Glen United States United States 1959 Removed [115]
Tornado Wedgewood Village United States United States 1961 Removed [116]
Blue Streak Cedar Point United States United States 1964 Operating [117]
Mr. Twister Elitch Gardens United States United States 1964 Removed [118]
Jetstream Riverview Park United States United States 1964 Removed [119]
Skyliner Fair Park United States United States 1965 Removed [120]
Swamp Fox Family Kingdom Amusement Park United States United States 1966 Operating [121]
Cannon Ball Lake Winnepesaukah United States United States 1967 Operating [122]
Zingo Bell's Amusement Park United States United States 1968 Removed [123]
Tornado Petticoat Junction United States United States 1970 Removed [124]
Racer Kings Island United States United States 1972 Operating [125]
Woodstock Express
Formerly Fairly Odd Coaster
Formerly Beastie
Formerly Scooby Doo
Kings Island United States United States 1972 Operating [126]
Great American Scream Machine Six Flags Over Georgia United States United States 1973 Operating [127]
Comet Funway Amusement Park United States United States 1973 Removed [128]
Woodstock Express
Formerly Ghoster Coaster
Formerly Scooby-Doo's Ghoster Coaster
FormerlyScooby Doo
Kings Dominion United States United States 1974 Operating [129]
Woodstock Express
Formerly Fairly Odd Coaster
Formerly Scooby Doo's Ghoster Coaster
Formerly Scooby Doo
Carowinds United States United States 1975 Operating [130]
Racer 75
Formerly Rebel Yell
Kings Dominion United States United States 1975 Operating [131]
Screamin' Eagle Six Flags St. Louis United States United States 1976 Operating [132]
Thunder Road Carowinds United States United States 1976 Removed [133]
Phoenix
Formerly Rocket
Knoebels Amusement Park & Resort
Playland Park
United States United States 1985
1948 to 1980
Operating [134]
[135]
Skyliner Lakemont Park
Roseland Park
United States United States 1987
1960 to 1985
Closed [136]
[137]
Comet Great Escape
Crystal Beach
United States United States 1994
1948 to 1989
Operating [138]
[139]
Meteor
Formerly Little Dipper
Little Amerricka
Hillcrest Park
Kiddytown
United States United States 2006
1967 to 2003
1953 to 1966
Operating [140]
[141]
[142]
Starliner Cypress Gardens
Miracle Strip Amusement Park
United States United States 2007
1963 to 2004
Removed [143]
[144]
Little Dipper Six Flags Great America
Kiddieland
United States United States 2010
1950 to 2009
Operating [145]
[146]
Black Diamond
Formerly Golden Nugget
Knoebels Amusement Park & Resort
Dinosaur Beach
United States United States 2011
1960 to 1998
Operating [147]
[148]

Carousels[edit]

Most PTC carousels were numbered, so they are easily identified. Most have been moved from their original opening locations. PTC carousels that are still operating or in restoration:

PTC # Owner City, State Year Built Notes Ref(s)
6 Kit Carson Co. Fairgrounds Burlington, Colorado
1905
Originally built for Elitch Gardens in 1905, it was removed and sold to Kit Carson County in 1928 in favor of the new, more modern PTC#51. [149]
9 Carousel of Pottstown Pottstown, Pennsylvania
1905
Restoration completed November 2016
15 Palisades Center Mall West Nyack, New York
1907
Removed 2009 [150]
17 Six Flags Over Georgia Atlanta, Georgia
1908
18 Destiny USA Syracuse, New York
1909
19 Western Reserve Historical Society Cleveland, Ohio
1910
Formerly Euclid Beach Park (1910–1969); Palace Playland (1970s–1996); returned to Ohio in 1996 and restoration completed November 2014
21 Six Flags Magic Mountain Valencia, California
1912
30 Luna Park, Melbourne St Kilda, Melbourne Australia
1913
33 Como Park St. Paul, Minnesota
1914
35 Six Flags St. Louis Eureka, Missouri
1915
39 Lake Winnepesaukah Rossville, Georgia
1916
43 Washington State Fair Puyallup, Washington
1917
44 Kings Dominion Doswell, Virginia
1917
45 Woodland Park Zoo Seattle, Washington
1918
46 Magic Kingdom Bay Lake, Florida
1917
Prince Charming Regal Carrousel
47 Hersheypark Hershey, Pennsylvania
1919
[151][152]
49 Louisville Zoo Louisville, Kentucky
1919
[153]
50 City of Hampton Hampton, Virginia
1920
51 Elitch Gardens Denver, Colorado
1925–1928
Built for the original northwest location of Elitch Gardens to replace PTC#6, it, along with many of Elitch Gardens' original rides, were moved to the park's Downtown Denver location in 1995. [154]
53 Charles N. Walker Griffin, Georgia
1920
[155]
54 Battleship Cove Fall River, Massachusetts
1920
59 Peddler's Village Lahaska, Pennsylvania
1922
[1]
61 David and Jane Walentas Brooklyn, New York
1922
62 Santa Monica Pier Santa Monica, California
1922
67 Carowinds Charlotte, North Carolina
1923
72 Sonny's Place Somers, Connecticut
1925
Formerly Kiddieland Amusement Park, Melrose Place, Ill. (1952–2009)[156]
75 Gillians Wonderland Pier and Island Waterpark Ocean City, New Jersey
1926
76 Valleyfair Shakopee, Minnesota
1925
79 Kings Island Mason, Ohio
1926
Formerly Coney Island, Cincinnati (1926–1971)
80 Holyoke Heritage State Park Holyoke, Massachusetts
1927–1929
83 Idlewild Park Ligonier, Pennsylvania
1931
84 Canada's Wonderland Vaughan, Ontario, Canada
1928
85 Carousel Station (formerly part of Paragon Park) Hull, Massachusetts
1928
87 Family Kingdom Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
1929
Mechanism only - Horses Replaced - formerly Asbury Park, NJ, Casino

Funhouse items[edit]

Beginning before World War II, PTC was involved with the booming dark ride and funhouse business. It spawned the company Funni-Frite Industries of Lancaster, Columbus, and (later) Pickerington, Ohio, which ceased manufacturing operations in 2000.[157]

  • Laffing Sal - automated funhouse character/amusement device

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pennsylvania Department of State, "Philadelphia Toboggan Company"; accessed 2017.08.01.
  2. ^ Rutherford, Scott. The American Roller Coaster, MBI Publishing, 2000, p. 12
  3. ^ McDevitt, Barbara. "Holyoke Carousel". carousels.com. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  4. ^ Cooper, Thaddeus O.; Kreitman, Kevin B. (2016). Seeking Redemption: The Real Story of the Beautiful Game of Skee-Ball. NoMoreBoxes LLC. p. 366. ISBN 9780998389707.
  5. ^ a b c Rutherford, Scott (2004). "PTC built one Flying Turns at Rocky Point; Hershey's ride was designed, but never built". Amusement Today. 8 (8.2). p. 23.
  6. ^ Jenkins Jr., Torrence (2006). Herbert P. Schmeck: The Forgotten Legacy. Knepper Press. pp. 91–93.
  7. ^ Pennsylvania Department of State, "Philadelphia Toboggan Coaster, Inc."; accessed 2017.08.01.
  8. ^ Seifert, Jeffrey. "This Month in History," Amusement Today, Volume 15, Issue 8.2, p. 3
  9. ^ Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters - rcdb.com
  10. ^ Marden, Duane. "Shooting Star  (Wet 'n Wild Emerald Pointe)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  11. ^ Marden, Duane. "Shooting Star  (Lakeside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  12. ^ Marden, Duane. "Toboggan Slide  (Elitch Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  13. ^ Marden, Duane. "Figure Eight  (Euclid Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  14. ^ Marden, Duane. "Figure Eight Toboggan  (Pabst Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  15. ^ Marden, Duane. "Forest Toboggan  (Olentangy Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  16. ^ Marden, Duane. "Figure 8  (White City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  17. ^ Marden, Duane. "Toboggan Figure 8  (Vinewood Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  18. ^ Marden, Duane. "Figure 8 Toboggan  (Pine Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  19. ^ Marden, Duane. "Figure Eight  (Delmar Garden)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  20. ^ Marden, Duane. "Forest Coaster  (White City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  21. ^ Marden, Duane. "Figure 8  (Idlewood Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  22. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Point Breeze Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  23. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Willough Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  24. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Luna Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  25. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Shellpot Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  26. ^ Marden, Duane. "Forest Ride  (Ross Grove)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  27. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Rocky Springs Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  28. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Clementon Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  29. ^ Marden, Duane. "Deep Dipper  (Carlin's Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  30. ^ Marden, Duane. "Forest Ride  (Six Gun Territory)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  31. ^ Marden, Duane. "Giant Coaster  (Rocky Glen)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  32. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dips  (Buckroe Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  33. ^ Marden, Duane. "Racer Dip  (Bay Shore Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  34. ^ Marden, Duane. "Deep Dipper  (Frederick Road Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  35. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Merrimack Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  36. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Enna Jettick Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "Alpine Dips  (Sanatoga Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster  (Woodlawn Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  39. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dips  (Schuylkill Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderhawk  (Dorney Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Frederick Road Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  42. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Hersheypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  43. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thriller  (Euclid Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  44. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cyclone  (Parc Belmont)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  45. ^ Marden, Duane. "Ski Ride  (Broad Ripple Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  46. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Roller Coaster  (Memorial Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  47. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Bertrand Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  48. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jet Star  (Olympic Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  49. ^ Marden, Duane. "Junior Coaster  (Woodlawn Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  50. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Shellpot Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  51. ^ Marden, Duane. "Giant Roller Coaster  (Lakeside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  52. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Shady Grove Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  53. ^ Marden, Duane. "Island Flyer  (Island Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  54. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sky Rocket  (Elitch Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  55. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Coney Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  56. ^ Marden, Duane. "Twister  (Coney Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  57. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Rocky Point Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  58. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Joyland Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  59. ^ Marden, Duane. "Coaster  (Laurel Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  60. ^ Marden, Duane. "Express  (Brandywine Picnic Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  61. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Cat  (Seabreeze Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  62. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Fernbrook Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  63. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Long Branch Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  64. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kids Coaster  (Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  65. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Lake Compounce)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  66. ^ Marden, Duane. "Twister  (Hocus Pocus Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  67. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Cat  (Woodside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  68. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tornado  (Woodside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  69. ^ Marden, Duane. "Twister  (Croops Glen)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  70. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Edgewood Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  71. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Belvedere Beach Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  72. ^ Marden, Duane. "Twister  (Lakemont Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  73. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Rocky Springs Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  74. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Brady Lake Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  75. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zip  (White City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  76. ^ Marden, Duane. "Baby Dipper  (Happtland Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  77. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bear Cat  (Sans Souci Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  78. ^ Marden, Duane. "Twister  (Warner Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  79. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Erie Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  80. ^ Marden, Duane. "Twister  (McCullough Lake Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  81. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mountain Flyer  (Mountain Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  82. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Pine Island Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  83. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cyclone  (Palace Playland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  84. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Lakeside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  85. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Idora Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  86. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blue Flyer  (Blackpool Pleasure Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  87. ^ Marden, Duane. "Teddy Bear  (Kennywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  88. ^ Marden, Duane. "Teddy Bear  (Coney Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  89. ^ Marden, Duane. "Whirlwind  (Dinosaur Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  90. ^ Marden, Duane. "Yankee Cannonball  (Canobie Lake Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  91. ^ Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster  (Lakewood Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  92. ^ Marden, Duane. "Teddy Bear  (Elitch Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  93. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildcat  (Elitch Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  94. ^ Marden, Duane. "Shooting Star  (Coney Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  95. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rollo Coaster  (Idlewild Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
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  97. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cyclone  (1939 New York World's Fair)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
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  101. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cyclone  (Palisades Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  102. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Herseypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  103. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Meyer's Lake Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
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  105. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nightmare  (Joyland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
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  107. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Ghost Town on the River)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  108. ^ Marden, Duane. "Montaña Rusa  (Isla del Coco)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  109. ^ Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster  (Funland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  110. ^ Marden, Duane. "Junior Coaster  (Lincoln Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  111. ^ Marden, Duane. "Little Dipper  (Belmont Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  112. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sea Dragon  (Columbus Zoo and Aquarium)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  113. ^ Marden, Duane. "Valley Volcano  (Angela Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  114. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flyer  (Dinosaur Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  115. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Rocky Glen)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  116. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tornado  (Wedgewood Village)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  117. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blue Streak  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  118. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mr. Twister  (Elitch Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  119. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jetstream  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  120. ^ Marden, Duane. "Skyliner  (Fair Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  121. ^ Marden, Duane. "Swamp Fox  (Family Kingdom Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  122. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cannon Ball  (Lake Winnepesaukah)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  123. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zingo  (Bell's Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  124. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tornado  (Petticoat Junction)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  125. ^ Marden, Duane. "Racer  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  126. ^ Marden, Duane. "Woodstock Express  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  127. ^ Marden, Duane. "Great American Scream Machine  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  128. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Funway Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  129. ^ Marden, Duane. "Woodstock Express  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  130. ^ Marden, Duane. "Woodstock Express  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  131. ^ Marden, Duane. "Racer 75  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  132. ^ Marden, Duane. "Screamin' Eagle  (Six Flags St. Louis)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  133. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunder Road  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  134. ^ Marden, Duane. "Phoenix  (Knoebels Amusement Park & Resort)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  135. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rocket  (Playland Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  136. ^ Marden, Duane. "Skyliner  (Lakemont Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  137. ^ Marden, Duane. "Skyliner  (Roseland Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  138. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Great Escape)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  139. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Crystal Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  140. ^ Marden, Duane. "Meteor  (Little Amerricka)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  141. ^ Marden, Duane. "Little Dipper  (Hillcrest Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  142. ^ Marden, Duane. "Little Dipper  (Kiddytown)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  143. ^ Marden, Duane. "Starliner  (Cypress Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  144. ^ Marden, Duane. "Starliner  (Miracle Strip Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  145. ^ Marden, Duane. "Little Dipper  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  146. ^ Marden, Duane. "Little Dipper  (Kiddieland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  147. ^ Marden, Duane. "Black Diamond  (Knoebels Amusement Park & Resort)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  148. ^ Marden, Duane. "Golden Nugget  (Dinosaur Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
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