Philidor (Filidor) or Danican Philidor was a family of musicians that served as court musicians to the French kings. The original name of the family was Danican (D'Anican) and was of Scottish origin (Duncan). Philidor was a later addition to the family name, given first to Michel the elder by Louis XIII because his oboe playing reminded the king of an Italian virtuoso oboist named Filidori. Both Michel the younger and Jean played in the Grande Écurie (literally, the Great Stable; figuratively, the Military Band) in Paris. Later members of the family were known as composers as well. One of them (François-André Danican Philidor) was a chess master.
- Michel Danican Philidor the elder (1580–1651)
- Michel Danican Philidor the younger (c. 1610–1659)
- Jean Danican Philidor (c. 1620–1679), the first whose name appears as Danican dit Philidor, father of the next generation
- André Danican Philidor (André I, "l'aîné") (c. 1652–1730), son of Jean, composer of the Marche française (Marche royale) (1679)
- François Danican Philidor (c. 1680-1730), son of André l'aîné, half brother of Anne
- Anne Danican Philidor (1681–1728), son (not daughter) of André
- Michel Danican Philidor III (1683–1723), son of André
- François-André Danican Philidor (André II) (1726–1795), very late son of André, opera composer (notably Tom Jones),and the strongest chess master in the 18th century. He is considered by many to be one of the strongest players in chess history. His name is renowned among all chess players and there are two important chess terms named for his innovations:
- Jacques Danican Philidor ("le cadet") (1657–1708), son of Jean, composer of the Marche à quatre timbales pour le Carrousel de Monseigneur (1685)
- Pierre Danican Philidor (1681–1731), son of Jacques le cadet
- Rebecca Harris-Warrick and Julian Rushton. "Philidor." In Grove Music Online.