Habib in Lebanon in December 1982
|9th Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs|
July 1, 1976 – April 1, 1978
Gerald Ford |
|Preceded by||Joseph J. Sisco|
|Succeeded by||David D. Newsom|
|12th Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs|
September 27, 1974 – June 30, 1976
|Preceded by||Robert S. Ingersoll|
|Succeeded by||Arthur W. Hummel Jr.|
|9th United States Ambassador to Korea|
October 10, 1971 – August 19, 1974
Richard Nixon |
|Preceded by||William J. Porter|
|Succeeded by||Richard Sneider|
Philip Charles Habib|
February 25, 1920
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
May 25, 1992 (aged 72)|
|Cause of death||Cardiac arrhythmia|
|Resting place||Golden Gate National Cemetery, San Bruno, California|
Marjorie W. Slightham|
(m.1943–1992, his death)
|Parents||Iskander (Alex) Habib Jamous & Miriam (Mary) Spiridon Habib|
University of Idaho (B.S.)|
University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D.)
|Known for||Shuttle diplomacy|
Medal of Freedom,|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1942-1946|
Philip Charles Habib (February 25, 1920 – May 25, 1992) was an American career diplomat. Called one of the "pre-eminent career diplomats in American post-war history", he was best known for his work as Ronald Reagan's special envoy to the Middle East 1981–83. In that role he averted an Israel-Syria war and an Israel-PLO war in 1981, then negotiated a peaceful end to Israel's 1982 siege of Beirut. In 1986 he was instrumental in ending Ferdinand Marcos's attempt to steal the 1986 presidential election in the Philippines. As U.S. special envoy to Central America in 1986–87, he helped Costa Rican president Oscar Arias shape and sell the peace plan that led to the end of the region's civil wars. He had come out of retirement to take each of those assignments. During his 30-year career as a Foreign Service officer, he had mostly specialized in Asia. In 1968, he was instrumental in halting the escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. After his death, The New York Times described him as "the outstanding professional diplomat of his generation in the United States."
Born in Brooklyn, New York, Habib was raised in a predominantly Jewish neighborhood of its Bensonhurst section by Lebanese Maronite Catholic parents. His father ran a grocery store. Habib graduated from New Utrecht High School in Brooklyn and worked as a shipping clerk before starting his undergraduate study in forestry out west at the University of Idaho in Moscow. As a college student on the Palouse, he was well-regarded by his peers and was an accomplished poker player. After graduating in 1942 from the UI's College of Forestry (now Natural Resources), he served in the U.S. Army during World War II and attained the rank of captain. Discharged from the service in 1946, Habib continued his education via the G.I. Bill in a doctoral program in agricultural economics at the University of California in Berkeley, and earned a Ph.D. in 1952. In 1947 recruiters for the American Foreign Service visited the Berkeley campus. They were particularly interested in candidates who did not fit the then-current mold of Ivy League blueblood WASPs. Though he had never given diplomacy a moment's thought, he enjoyed taking tests for intellectual challenge. He took the American Foreign Service exam and scored in the top 10% nationally.
Foreign service career
Beginning in 1949, his foreign service career took him to Canada, New Zealand, South Korea (twice), and South Vietnam. He held the State Department position of Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs from 1967–1969 and was chief of staff for the U.S. delegation to the Paris Peace Talks from 1968 to 1971. Habib acquired increasingly important posts, serving as Ambassador to South Korea (1971–1974), Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs (1974–1976), and Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (1976–1978). When South Korean opposition leader Kim Dae-jung was kidnapped in 1973 while Habib was U.S. ambassador to South Korea, Habib's discreet but firm intervention saved Kim's life. Kim later became the first opposition leader in South Korea to become president and also won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000 for his reconciliation efforts with North Korea.
A massive heart attack forced Habib to resign as Under Secretary, the top post for a career Foreign Service officer, in 1978. In 1981, President Ronald Reagan called him out of retirement to serve as special envoy to the Middle East. Habib negotiated a peace that allowed the PLO to evacuate from the besieged city of Beirut. In 1982, for his efforts he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom—the highest official honor given to a U.S. citizen by the U.S. government. He was also nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Senator Charles H. Percy, chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee.
Early in 1986, Reagan sent Habib to the Philippines to convince President Ferdinand Marcos to step down. In March 1986, Reagan appointed him as a special envoy to Central America with the intention of furthering U.S. interests in the conflict in Nicaragua. Administration hard-liners intended to use his fame and stature to advance a military solution, namely further funding of the Contras.
Deciding that the Contadora Plan had run its course, Óscar Arias, the newly elected president of Costa Rica, drew up a plan that focused on democratization. While he viewed the Arias plan as riddled with loopholes, Habib worked to help revise it. "Phillip Habib became my ambassador to the rest of the Central American presidents," said Arias.
On August 7, 1987, the five Central American presidents, much to the shock of the rest of the world, agreed in principle to the Arias plan. Because further negotiating would require Habib to meet directly with Nicaragua's president, Daniel Ortega, President Reagan forbade him to travel. Believing he no longer had the confidence of the president, Habib resigned.
Death and legacy
Former Secretary of State George Shultz spoke at his funeral in Belmont, California, and characterized Habib as "...a man who really made a difference." He was buried nearby at the Golden Gate National Cemetery in San Bruno, just south of San Francisco. Speakers at his memorial service in Washington at the National Cathedral the following week included two former Secretaries of State, Henry Kissinger and Cyrus Vance, and a future one, former colleague Lawrence Eagleburger.
At the time of his death, Habib was one of the University of Idaho's most famous and respected graduates; he co-chaired the university's centennial fund-raising campaign several years earlier, as well as several class reunions. He moderated its Borah Symposium, an annual foreign affairs conference, in 1986, and received the university's highest honors for alumni in 1969, 1974, and 1983.
John Boykin's 2014 e-book "One Brief Miracle: The Diplomat, the Zealot, and the Wild Blundering Siege" told the story of how Habib negotiated a peaceful end to Israel's 1982 siege of Beirut. It was an updated, abridged version of his 2002 hardback edition, "Cursed Is the Peacemaker: The American Diplomat Versus the Israeli General, Beirut 1982."
In 2006, Habib was featured on a United States postage stamp, one of a block of six featuring prominent diplomats. In 2013, the city of Junieh, Lebanon, unveiled a bust of Habib among other "national heroes" in Friendship Square.
- "Profile - Philip Habib, Mideast envoy". Nashua Telegraph. UPI. May 8, 1981. p. 27.
- Avrech, Mira (August 10, 1981). "When Philip Habib talks peace—with his hands—Israel and the Arabs pay heed". People. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Habib awarded highest civilian medal". Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. September 8, 1982. p. 35.
- "Philip Habib; U.S. envoy, trouble-shooter". Los Angeles Times. staff and wire reports. May 27, 1992. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Holbrooke, Richard (19 Jun 1992). "Phillip Habib was a diplomat's diplomat". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "One Brief Miracle: The Diplomat, the Zealot, and the Wild Blundering Siege," chapters 1, 2; "Cursed Is the Peacemaker," Appendix C.
- Molotsky, Irvin (May 28, 1981). "Man in the News; Tireless trouble-shooter for the U.S." New York Times. p. 3. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Manegold, Catherine S. (May 27, 1992). "Philip C. Habib, a leading U.S. diplomat, dies at 72". New York Times. p. 21. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Habib remembered as a blunt diplomat who defied clichés". New York Times. June 11, 1992. p. 22. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Myers, Laura (June 2, 1992). "Habib 'really made a difference'". Moscow-Pullman Daily News. Associated Press. p. 1A.
- "Seniors". Gem of the Mountains, University of Idaho yearbook. 1942. p. 274.
- Watterson, Sylvia (August 9, 1982). "Habib always held his cards close to chest". Spokesman-Review. p. 6.
- "UI alum Habib dies at 72". Moscow-Pullman Daily News. May 26, 1992. p. 1A.
- Trillhaase, Marty (April 25, 1987). "Habib recalls 'poor and happy' UI days". Idahonian. Moscow, Idaho. p. 10.
- "Cursed Is the Peacemaker," p. 16
- "Habib's mark: quiet competence". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press. August 21, 1982. p. 3A.
- "One Brief Miracle," chapter 1
- Ranard, Donald A. (August 24, 2009). "Saving Kim Dae-jung: A tale of two dissident diplomats". The Boston Globe.
- "One Brief Miracle," chapters 1 and 2
- Feinsilber, Mike (August 22, 1982). "Habib plays it low-key, even in his hour of triumph". Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press. p. 3, part 1.
- "Habib's new stand is in Nicaragua". Milwaukee Sentinel. UPI. March 8, 1986. p. 3, part 1.
- Necessary illusions: thought control in democratic societies
- "Habib resigns; frustration on Latin talks cited". Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press, (Los Angeles Times). August 15, 1987. p. 3A.
- "Latin policy spat tied to Habib resignation". Pittsburgh Press. Associated Press. August 15, 1987. p. A1.
- "Habib resigns as special aide; rift is reported". Toledo Blade. (New York Times). August 15, 1987. p. 1.
- Rubin, Sydney (May 27, 1992). "Diplomat Philip Habib dies". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. p. 2A.
- "Golden Gate National Cemetery: Philip Habib". Interment.net. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Diplomatic trouble-shooter Philip Habib dies". Spokesman-Review. (New York Times). May 27, 1992. p. A2.
- "Philip Habib to chair Borah Symposium". Spokane Chronicle. November 20, 1985. p. A5.
- Devlin, Sherry (March 19, 1986). "Diplomat Philip Habib will moderate Borah Symposium". Spokane Chronicle. p. A3.
- "UI officials laud famous grad". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. May 27, 1992. p. 2A.
- "SIX DISTINGUISHED DIPLOMATS HONORED ON U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS" (Press release). United States Postal Service. 2006-05-30. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
Philip C. Habib (1920–1992) was renowned for his diplomacy in some of the world's most dangerous flashpoints. An authority on Southeast Asia, a peace negotiator in the Middle East, and a special envoy to Central America, Habib was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1982.
and ed. William J. Gicker (2006). "Distinguished American Diplomats 39¢". USA Philatelic (print). 11 (3): 14.
- "One Brief Miracle," chapter 16
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- U.S. Department of State – Philip Habib
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- One Brief Miracle: The Diplomat, the Zealot, and the Wild Blundering Siege
- Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training – Philip Habib
- University of Idaho Alumni Hall of Fame (1969)
- University of Idaho – Distinguished Idahoan (1983) – Philip Habib
- Philip Habib at Find a Grave
- on YouTube
William J. Porter
| United States Ambassador to South Korea
Richard L. Sneider
Robert S. Ingersoll
| Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
September 27, 1974 – June 30, 1976
Arthur W. Hummel, Jr.