Philip Osipovich Paulucci
|Filippo Paulucci delle Roncole|
11 September 1779|
|Died||25 January 1849
|Allegiance||Kingdom of Sardinia (1785–93, 1829–49)
Kingdom of Italy (1806)
Russian Empire (1807–29)
Adjutant General (Russian Empire)
|Battles/wars||War of the Alps
Patriotic War of 1812
|Awards||Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Order of St. George, 3rd Class
Gold Sword for Bravery
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Anna
Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky
Filippo Paulucci delle Roncole (11 September 1779 – 25 January 1849), also known as Philip Osipovich Paulucci (Russian: Филипп Осипович Паулуччи), was an Italian marquis and army officer, later a general the services of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Russian Empire.
Filippo Paulucci delle Roncole father's family had held the feudal titles of Vignola, Cividale and Roncole since 1768. It moved from Perugia to Modena in 1753, and his mother, Claudia Scutellari, was the daughter of one of Parma noble families, with blood ties to the Spanish court. Filippo was the fifth of the eight sons of the couple, and after the death of his father Giuseppe in 1785, was admitted beyond the pages of the King of Sardinia, a position that granted him access to the military career. In 1792 the Kingdom entered the war against France, and in 1794 Paulucci, just appointed sublieutenant in the 2nd Battalion of the Gards, was sent to the front-line. Captured in action on 27 April, he was freed after a prisoner exchange on 7 May. He went on fighting the Frenchmen, until he was taken prisoner in Mondovì when the city surrendered to the French army, but subsequently freed after six days following the Armistice of Cherasco. After the occupation of the Turin Citadel he was convicted for challenging to a duel a French officer to defend the honour of the Piedmont. On the 19 November 1796, he was promoted to captain and removed by the king, who awarded him the Knight's Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.
In 1797 he was listed among the staff officers and aide-de-camp of the Cisalpine Army, probably as aide-de-camp of General Giuseppe Lahoz Ortiz. In 1799, in Mantua he passed in the Austrian service, taking on garrison duties in Passau until, in 1803, the city was given to the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1804, in Wien, he married Wilhelmina Franziska von Koskull, daughter of a noble Curlandian family, and, the following year, took no part in the war against Napoleon.
Service in the Russian Empire
He moved to the Russian service with the rank of colonel. On 7 May 1809 he was awarded the 4th class of the Order of St George "as a reward for prudent orders given whilst in the Finnish army, which helped to defeat the enemy". He took part in the war against the Turks in 1810 and was appointed quartermaster of the Caucasian Army in 1811, then governor of Georgia, where he simultaneously had to wage a war against the Turks (from Kars), against the Persians (Karabakh) and insurgents. Paulucci withstood this difficult situation and on 25 April 1812 was awarded the Order of St George 3rd class "as a reward for feats of courage and bravery in the Caucasus against the Persians". However, soon afterwards the preparations for war with Napoleon got underway and Paulucci was summoned to Saint Petersburg to be appointed Army Chief of Staff. However, after a few days, probably due to the opposition of Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, he received the post as governor general of Governorate of Livonia. In 1829 he left the Russian army and went to Italy, where he took command of the army of Piedmont.
Return to service in the Kingdom of Sardinia
Back in Italy, he was called in Piedmont by king Carlo Felice. When, after the constitutional revolution in 1821, the Austrian Empire has made political manouvres to exclude Carlo Alberto from the succession line, in hope to substitute him with Francesco IV d'Asburgo-Este, Paulucci encountered, during one of his Italian licence periods, Carlo Felice in Turin, and his later efforts at the Russian court were essential to stopping the Austrian ambitions at the Verona's congress.
After the coup d'etat that, in France, brought Louis Philippe d’Orléans to power, Carlo Felice was eager to reinforce his army, and eventually called on Paulucci, giving him, on the 28 June 1830, the ranks of full general and Inspector general of Infantry and Cavalry. The following month, he was then put at the head of the Sardinian Army, with full authority, except for the Carabinieri and four generals with greater seniority. He was all but welcomed by the army and the officers, namely being "sevère [...] jusq'à la rudesse" (rigid to the bone).
Paulucci reorganised the Kingdom's infantry, increasing the number of the troops, modifying the brigade system and facing both enthusiastic approval and bitter critic, especially from the heir to the throne, Prince Carlo Alberto. Carlo Felice died in march 1831, and Paulucci was eventually discharged of all his positions. The new king, to days later, suppressed the rank of full general in the Sardinian Army.
The name of Paulucci came back to the attention of the public in March 1848, along with that of General Latour, for the command of the Sardinian Army on the field, those being the only two generals of the entire force that had led troops in battle before. Both his age and bad health induced him to make a public refusal of the position, still never offered to him officially.
- Virgilio Ilari, Maurizio Lo Re, Tatiana Polo & Piero Crociani, Маркиз Паулуччи, Filippo Paulucci delle Roncole (1799–1849), Italian Military History Society (SISM), Rome, 2013, ISBN 978-88-908510-2-5
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg. 19–20
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg 20
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg 21
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg 22
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- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg 25 & ss.
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg 27
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg 29
- Levinson-Lessing, Ed. ed.; Krol, А.Е.; Semenov, K.M., The State Hermitage Museum. Western European paintings. Catalog, 2nd ed., revised and enlarged. L.: Art, 1981. – Т. 2. – T. 2. – С. 254, cat. № 7839. – 360 pp.
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pag 236
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pag 246
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pag 249
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pag 250
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pag 251–253
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pag 256
- Ilari et al., Filippo Paulucci... pg 288
- Allan Burns, Observations on some of the most frequent and important diseases of the heart, 1809, pp- 242–249 .
- Ulrich Einrich Gustav Freiherrn von Schlippenbach, Erinnerungen von einer Reise nach St. Petersburg im Jahre 1814, Hamburg, 1818, II, pp. 5, 88, 154–165, 178–180, 192, 202, 205, 220, 241–42 .
- Carl von Clausewitz, Der Feldzug von 1812 in Russland (Hinterlassene Werke, Band 7, ed. 1862, cc. 32–33, 165, 187) .
- Ferdinando Augusto Pinelli, Storia militare del Piemonte in continuazione di quella del Saluzzo, cioè dalla pace di Aquisgrana sino a’ dì nostri, 1748–1850, Torino, T. De Giorgis, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 653–55 e supplemento III pp. 31–33 ; vol. 3, pp. 203–204 .
- Joseph Lehmann, Paulucci und Carlo Alberto, Magazin für die Literatur des Auslandes, Bände 59–60, 1861, p. 284–286 .
- Julius von Eckardt, Garlieb Merkel, York und Paulucci: Aktenstücke und Beiträge zur Geschichte der Convention von Tauroggen, Leipzig, 1865 .
- Dr. W. von Gutzeit, “Urtheile über den Marquis Paulucci”, in Mittheilungen aus dem Gebiete der Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands, hgb von der Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Alterthumskunde der Ostsee-Provinzen Russlands, Riga, I, 1865, pp. 546–550.
- Василий Александрович Потто (1836–1911), Кавказская война. Том 1. От древнейших времен до Ермолова, 1887, Tom 1, cc. 466–488 (Maркиз ПАУЛУЧЧИ).
- Le Général Marquis Amilcar Paulucci Et Sa Famille, Padoue (1899).
- Le bocche di Cattaro nel 1810: con notizie sul Montenegro: relazione di Luigi Paulucci (1774–1844), delegato napoleonico, con altri documenti e appunti di storia "bocchese": biografie dei Marchesi Paulucci, nei loro legami dalmati, veneti, piemontesi e russi, a cura di Almerigo Apollonio, Istituto regionale per la cultura istriano-fiumano-dalmata, Trieste, Italo Svevo, 2005.
- Maurizio Lo Re, Filippo Paulucci. L'italiano che governò a Riga, Books & Company s.r.l., Livorno, 2006.