Philip of Poitou
|Philip of Poitou|
|Bishop of Durham|
|Predecessor||Hugh de Puiset|
|Other posts||Archdeacon of Canterbury|
|Ordination||15 June 1196|
|Consecration||20 April 1197
by Pope Innocent III
|Died||22 April 1208|
Philip's origins and early life are unknown, although it is believed he may have had a university education. The first records of him are in 1191, when he was accompanying Richard I on the Third Crusade, in documents relating to Richard's marriage on Cyprus. Philip was with Richard's party when the king was captured in Germany. He was appointed Archdeacon of Canterbury prior to March 1194 by Richard I, having previously a royal clerk. An attempt was made to appoint him as Dean of York, but political factors prevented this.
Philip was appointed as Bishop of Durham in November 1195. He was formally elected by the chapter in January 1196. The pope confirmed the election on 13 April 1196 and he was ordained a priest on 15 June 1196. On 20 April 1197 he was finally consecrated as bishop, by the pope in Rome. Prior to his consecration, he obtained a licence to operate a mint in Durham, and installed his nephew Aimeric (or Aimery) as the Archdeacon of both Durham and Carlisle.
Philip, along with Wiliam de Rupierre, Bishop of Lisieux, went to Rome in the early part of 1197 to argue before Pope Celestine III about contested lands in France. It was in the course of this successful negotiation that the pope consecrated him as bishop. In 1198 Philip was sent to Germany to attend the election of a successor to Emperor Henry VI.
Philip was present at the coronation of King John in 1199, and attempted to protest the fact that the coronation took place without the Archbishop of York. After the coronation he was employed by John on diplomacy with Scotland. In 1201 he went on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. After his return, he was involved in the resolution of the dower rights of Richard's queen, Berengaria of Navarre, but afterwards was not at the king's court for almost three years.
In 1207, Philip quarrelled with King John over the right of John to tax tenants of the Church. Philip denied that John had such a right, but, along with Archbishop Geoffrey of York, had his lands confiscated. Both Geoffrey and Philip went to the court of the king, and begged to be forgiven. Philip had to pay a fine for forgiveness.
As bishop, Philip quarreled with the monks of his church over the right of the bishop to name clergy to serve churches. At one point, the monks were besieged in the cathedral, and the prior of the monks was excommunicated. Some sources blame the bishop's nephew Aimeric for fanning the flames of the quarrel, but Philip also violently disputed the monks' side. Eventually a settlement was reached.
Philip died on 22 April 1208. It is said the monks refused him a Christian burial, his body ending up in an obscure grave with no religious ceremony. However, his gravestone is recorded in the chapter-house.
- Snape "Poitou, Philip of" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Gillingham Richard I p. 232
- Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 2: Monastic Cathedrals (Northern and Southern Provinces): Canterbury: Archdeacons of Canterbury
- Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 241
- Powicke Loss of Normandy p. 115
- Gillingham Richard I p. 311
- Bartlett England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings p. 473
- Warren King John p. 149-150
- Warren King John p. 191
- Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 2: Monastic Cathedrals (Northern and Southern Provinces): Durham: Bishops
- Bartlett, Robert C. (2000). England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings: 1075–1225. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822741-8.
- Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third revised ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.
- Gillingham, John (1999). Richard I. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07912-5.
- Greenway, Diana E. (1971). Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 2: Monastic Cathedrals (Northern and Southern Provinces): Canterbury: Archdeacons of Canterbury. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Greenway, Diana E. (1971). Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 2: Monastic Cathedrals (Northern and Southern Provinces): Durham: Bishops. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Powicke, Maurice (1960). The Loss of Normandy 1189–1204: Studies in the History of the Angevin Kingdom (Second ed.). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5740-X.
- Snape, M. G. (2004). "Poitou, Philip of (d. 1208)" ((subscription or UK public library membership required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22100. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- Warren, W. L. (1978). King John. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03643-3.
|Catholic Church titles|
Hugh de Puiset
|Bishop of Durham