Philip the Bold
|Philip the Bold|
|Duke of Burgundy|
|Reign||1363 – 27 April 1404|
|Predecessor||John the Good|
|Successor||John the Fearless|
|Born||17 January 1342
|Died||27 April 1404 (aged 62)
Halle, County of Hainaut
|Spouse||Margaret III, Countess of Flanders|
|Issue||John the Fearless
Margaret of Burgundy
Anthony, Duke of Brabant
Philip II, Count of Nevers
|House||Valois of Burgundy|
|Father||John II of France|
|Mother||Bonne of Bohemia|
Philip the Bold (French: Philippe le Hardi, Dutch: Filips de Stoute; 17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404, Halle) was Duke of Burgundy (as Philip II) and jure uxoris Count of Flanders (as Philip II), Artois and Burgundy (as Philip IV). The fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg, Philip was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois. His vast collection of territories made him the undisputed premier peer, and made his successors formidable rivals of the King of France.
Born in Pontoise in 1342, Philip gained his cognomen the Bold when, at the age of 14, he fought beside and was captured with his father at the Battle of Poitiers. He was created Duke of Touraine in 1360, but in 1363, as a reward for his courage at Poitiers, he returned this to the crown, receiving instead from his father the Duchy of Burgundy in apanage, which his father had ruled since the death of Philip of Rouvres in 1361. Philip would rule the duchy until his death.
On 19 June 1369, Philip married the 19-year-old Margaret of Dampierre, the daughter of Louis II, Count of Flanders, who would become the heiress of Flanders, Brabant, Artois, and the Free County of Burgundy after the death of her brother in 1376. Margaret was the widow of Philip's stepbrother, Philip of Rouvres, Duke of Burgundy, Count Palatine of Burgundy, and Count of Artois, Boulogne and Auvergne. The two had been betrothed and married as children, she at seven years old, he at 11 years old; he died when he was about 15 and she about 11. Their marriage was without issue. As her father's eventual heiress, Margaret would bring rich possessions to her husband and to their children.
From 1379 to 1382, he helped his father-in-law put down revolts in Flanders, particularly in Ghent, organising an army against Philip van Artevelde. The revolts were finally ended only in 1385, following the death of Louis II, with the Peace of Tournai. As jure uxoris Count of Flanders, he would keep in mind the economic interests of the Flemish cities, which made their money from weaving and spinning. In this he was aided by the expansion of the Three Members - a parliament consisting of representatives from the towns of Bruges, Ghent and Ypres - to the Four Members through the addition of the rural area Franc of Bruges
Involvement in France
Philip was very active in the court of France, particularly after the death of his brother, Charles V, whose successor, Charles VI as King, was 11 years old. During Charles' minority, his uncles, Louis, Duke of Anjou, John, Duke of Berry, Philip himself, and Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, Charles VI's maternal uncle, were regents. Among his acts while regent was putting down the 1382 tax revolt, known as the Harelle. The regency lasted until 1388, Philip taking the dominant role: Louis of Anjou was fighting for his claim to the Kingdom of Naples after 1382, dying in 1384, John of Berry was interested mainly in the Languedoc, and not particularly interested in politics; whilst Louis of Bourbon was a largely unimportant figure, due to his personality (he showed signs of mental instability) and his status (since he was not the son of a King). However, Philip, along with John of Berry and Louis of Bourbon, lost their power in 1388, when Charles VI, taking up personal rule, chose to favour the advice of the Marmousets, his personal advisors, over that of his uncles.
In 1392, events conspired to allow Philip to seize power once more in France. Charles VI's friend and advisor, Olivier de Clisson, had recently been the target of an assassination attempt by agents of John V, Duke of Brittany; the would-be assassin, Pierre de Craon, had taken refuge in Brittany. Charles, outraged at these events, determined to punish Craon, and on 1 July 1392 led an expedition against Brittany. Whilst progressing towards Brittany, the King, already overwrought by the slow progress, was shocked by a madman who spent half-an-hour following the procession, warning the King that he had been betrayed; when a page dropped a lance, the King reacted by killing several of his knights, and had to be wrestled to the ground. Philip, who was present, immediately assumed command, and appointed himself regent, dismissing Charles' advisors. He was the principal ruler of France until 1402.
His seizure of power, however, had disastrous consequences for the unity of the House of Valois, and of France itself. The King's brother, Louis, Duke of Orléans, resented his uncle rather than himself being regent; the result was a feud between Philip and Louis, which was continued after their deaths by their families. In particular, both quarrelled over the royal funds, each desiring to appropriate this for their own ends: Louis to fund his extravagant lifestyle, Philip to further his ambitions in Burgundy and the Low Countries. Nonetheless, this struggle only served to enhance the reputation of Philip, and gave him real popularity in Paris, since, in comparison with the profligate and irresponsible Louis, he appeared a sober and honest reformer. Thus, although Charles VI, in a rare moment of sanity, confirmed his brother as regent in 1402, Louis' misrule allowed Philip to regain control of France as regent in 1404, shortly before his death.
Philip died in Halle, County of Hainaut (modern Belgium), on 27 April 1404. His territories were bequeathed to his eldest son, John the Fearless, who inherited also Philip's political position in France and leadership of the Burgundians against Orléans.
Tomb of Philip the Bold
In 1378, Philip the Bold acquired the domain of Champmol just outside Dijon, to build the Chartreuse de Champmol (1383–1388), a Carthusian monastery ("Charterhouse"), which he intended to house the tombs of his dynasty. His tomb and his recumbent effigy are one of the chief works of Burgundian sculpture. They were made by Jean de Marville (1381–1389), Claus Sluter (1389–1406) and Claus de Werve (1406–1410). Jean Malouel, official painter to the duke, was responsible for the polychrome and gilt decoration. After his death, the body of Philip the Bold was eviscerated and embalmed, then placed in a lead coffin. It was then deposited in the choir of Chartreuse de Champmol on 16 June 1404. His internal organs were sent to the church of Saint Martin at Halle. In 1792, his body was transferred to Dijon Cathedral and in the following year his tomb was damaged by revolutionaries and looters. It was restored in the first half of the 19th century, and is today in the former palace of the dukes, now part of the Musée des Beaux-Arts of Dijon.
Marriage and issue
Philip the Bold married Margaret III, Countess of Flanders (1350–1405) on 19 June 1369, a marriage which would eventually not only reunite the Duchy of Burgundy with the Free County of Burgundy and the County of Artois, but also unite it to the rich county of Flanders. Philip and Margaret had the following children:
- John the Fearless (1371–1419, murdered at Montereau), his eldest son and successor as Duke of Burgundy
- Charles (1372–1373)
- Marguerite of Burgundy (October 1374 – 8 March 1441, Le Quesnoy), Countess of Mortain married William VI, Count of Holland and Duke of Bavaria-Straubing
- Louis (1377–1378)
- Catherine of Burgundy (April 1378, Montbard – 24 January 1425, Gray, Haute-Saône), married Leopold IV, Duke of Austria
- Bonne (1379–1399, Arras) betrothed to John I, Duke of Bourbon
- Antoine, Duke of Brabant (August 1384 – 25 October 1415, at Agincourt)
- Mary of Burgundy (September 1386, Dijon – 2 October 1422, Thonon-les-Bains), married Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy
- Philip II, Count of Nevers and Rethel (1389–1415, at Agincourt)
In arranging the marriages of his children, Philip followed an intelligent diplomatic and strategic design, which would be followed by his successors in Burgundy as far as Emperor Maximilian I. For example, the double marriage in 1385 at Cambrai of his son, John the Fearless, and his daughter, Marguerite, to Margaret of Bavaria and William of Bavaria, son and daughter of Albert, Count of the neighbouring Hainault and Holland, prepared the later union of Hainault and Holland with Burgundy and Flanders, as carried out by Philip's grandson, Philip the Good; the marriages also inserted the new Valois Burgundy dynasty into the Wittelsbach network of alliances: the other daughters of Count Albert had married William I, Duke of Guelders and Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia; their cousin, Isabeau of Bavaria, had married Charles VI of France, and become Queen of France.
In addition to his alliance with the low county Bavarians, Philip also made links with the Dukes of Austria and of Savoy, by marrying his daughter Catherine to Leopold IV of Austria, and his daughter Mary to Amadeus VIII of Savoy.
See also: Dukes of Burgundy family tree
In Burgundy, the residences that once belonged to Philippe the Bold and that still exist are rare. Apart from several elements of the ducal palace in Dijon (Tour de Bar), we find the château de Germolles, largely preserved. This residence was offered to his wife, Margaret III, Countess of Flanders in 1381. The princess transformed the old fortress into a luxurious home with the help of the finest artists of the Burgundian School Claus Sluter and Jean de Beaumetz.
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, (The Boydell Press, 2005), 152.
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, 3.
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, 16.
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, 40-41
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, 42.
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, 56-57
- Richard Vaughan, John the Fearless, (The Boydell Press, 2009), 198.
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy, (The Boydell Press, 2002), 31.
- Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: the formation of the Burgundian state, The Boydell Press, 2002.
- The Mourners: Tomb Sculptures from the Court of Burgundy
|Ancestors of Philip the Bold|
Philip the Bold
Cadet branch of the House of ValoisBorn: 15 January 1342 Died: 27 April 1404
|Title created||Duke of Touraine
|Duke of Burgundy
1363 – 1404
John the Fearless
|Count of Charolais
1390 – 1404
Louis of Male
|Count of Nevers
|Count Palatine of Burgundy
Count of Artois and Flanders
1384 – 1404
with Margaret II & III
Margaret II & III
as sole ruler
|Count of Rethel