Philippe Mora

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Philippe Mora (born 1949[1]) is a French Australian film director.

Phillipe Mora
Born1949
Paris
Occupation
  • Film director
WorksCommunion (1989 film)

Origin[edit]

Mora was born in Paris, France in 1949, and grew up at the centre of the Australian arts scene of the 1950s[2] and began making films with an 8mm camera his father gave him while he was still a child,[3] and won art prizes as a teenager.[4] He is the eldest son of artist Mirka Mora[5] and her husband, restaurateur[6] and gallery owner[7] Georges Mora, a French Resistance fighter during World War II. After a brief stint in New York, the family emigrated to Australia in July 1951 when Philippe was two, settling in Melbourne, where the Moras founded the Melbourne eateries Mirka Café and Café Balzac. Two younger brothers: William Mora (b. 1953), an art dealer, and Tiriel Mora (b. 1958), an actor., were born in Australia. In 1965 they opened the Tolarno Restaurant and Galleries in St Kilda.[8]

Career[edit]

A self-confessed movie addict from childhood, Mora's cinema icons were the Marx Brothers, Jean Cocteau's surrealist films, Alfred Hitchcock, Buster Keaton (as director) and Ernst Lubitsch's early films,[9] as reflected in his first home movies. Back Alley, now preserved at the National Film & Sound Archive, was made in 1964 when he was 15. This was a parody of West Side Story filmed in Flinders Lane, Melbourne just behind his mother's studio at 9 Collins Street. The film features Mora, his brother William, and friends Peter Beilby and Sweeney Reed. His next film, Dreams in a Grey Afternoon (1965) was made as a silent movie but was screened with music by artist Asher Bilu. Shot on 8 mm and printed on 16 mm, the film features stop-motion animation of sculptures by the Russian-Australian sculptor and painter Danila Vassilieff, and includes rare footage of Sunday and John Reed.

His next project, Man in a Film (1966), was a pastiche of Federico Fellini's and was also influenced by his recent viewing of The Beatles' A Hard Day's Night. Like its predecessor, it was made as a silent film, shot on 8mm and blown up to 16mm, and again screened with music by Asher Bilu. Man in a Film starred Sweeney Reed and premiered at the Tolarno Galleries in early 1967.

Give It Up (1967), shot in Fitzroy Street, Melbourne, again featured Reed, with Don Watson and Philippe's younger brother Tiriel. The film symbolised Australian response to the Vietnam War by depicting a woman (played by Zara Bowman) being repeatedly kicked and beaten in the gutter of a busy street while onlookers do nothing.

Exhibitions[edit]

In late 1967,[10] when he had finished school,[11] Mora travelled to England. He was invited, with his partner Freya Matthews, by Australian artist Martin Sharp into "The Pheasantry", a historic building in King's Road, Chelsea, London which housed studios and a nightclub.[12] This residence inspired the name of his production company, Pheasantry Films. As "Von Mora", during this time he contributed cartoons influenced by Dada, comic strip art, Francis Bacon, and Vincent Van Gogh to Oz magazine and assisted co-editor Martin Sharp with its landmark "Magic Theatre" edition. In 2007, along with others associated with Oz including Germaine Greer, he was critical of the sensationalist depiction of the era in the movie Hippie Hippie Shake,[13] but recalled in 2008 that; "most of my creative roots are in London. This is where I took off, crashed and burned and took off again. Paraphrasing Brendan Behan, on occasion, like many artists, I was a drinker with a painting problem."[14] He also made his next short film, Passion Play, shot in the Pheasantry ca. 1967-1968 and featuring Jenny Kee as Mary Magdalene, Michael Ramsden as Jesus, and Mora himself as the Devil.

Mora began painting as soon as he arrived in London,[15] and his first London exhibitions "Anti-Social Realism" and "Vomart," were held, at her invitation, in 1968 and 1969 at the Kings Road gallery of Clytie Jessop, and garnered excellent reviews.,[16] though the first, in the Daily Mail announcing that he used a special paint formula that kills flies, was evidently a satire written by the artist.[17] Jessop was sister of Hermia Boyd (Hermia Lloyd-Jones), wife of noted ceramicist David Boyd and a well-known actress and director who played the sinister Miss Jessell in Jack Clayton's classic supernatural thriller The Innocents (1961), and later directed the film Emma's War (1988) starring Lee Remick and a young Miranda Otto.[citation needed]

Mora also held a show at the Sigi Krauss Gallery where Martin Sharp also exhibited, featuring pictures painted in black and white.[2] The show also included a grey male rat which he had bought from Harrods. When the rat turned out to be female and gave birth, he tried unsuccessfully to sell the babies as 'multiples' in a limited edition of eight. The rat show attracted the interest of German avant-garde artist Klaus Stacks, who commissioned Mora to produce an edition of a hundred screen prints of the mother rat.[18] In February 1971, Joseph Beuys and Erwin Heerich invited him to sign a "Call to Action" manifesto demanding the freeing of the German art market.

His next show was in 1970 at the Sigi Krauss Gallery featuring a life-size sculpture of a sitting man, Pork Chop Ballad, a metaphor for the war in Vietnam. Mora's provocative and highly symbolic offal exhibit caused a stir. A brick was thrown through the gallery window, which led to it being featured on the cover of Time Out. Later, as the piece began to putrify, the police were called after Princess Margaret, dining at the restaurant across the street, complained about the stench. Detectives from Scotland Yard descended on the gallery and demanded that the sculpture be removed, but gallery owner Krauss refused. The police claimed it was a health hazard and forced him to move it into the garden, where it gradually rotted away.[14] At later Krauss group exhibition Mora also screened his 8 mm 'film painting' Passion Play back-projected onto a screen framed in gold leaf.

Guy Brett compared his work in the Camden Arts Centre exhibition Narrative Painting in Britain in the Twentieth Century with that of David Hockney:

The paintings of the young Australian Philippe Mora … create the opposite atmosphere to Hockney's. They suggest networks of Fear, Threat and Violence. Yet it is not possible to compare them, because Mora uses an apparently dry and cool, economical graphic style rather than the florid impressionism one might expect… Where Hockney avoids any kind of moral judgement, Mora's pantings are thoroughly moralistic… He has an effective way of re-interpreting borrowed imagery… with his thin bleak line and his grasp of grotesque imagery. Mora does create a strong atmosphere.[19]

Film[edit]

Trouble in Molopolis (1970), Mora's first feature-length film (the title a homage to Fritz Lang's Metropolis),[6] was financed by the partnership of Arthur Boyd and Eric Clapton.[20] Shot in Robert Hughes' apartment and at the Pheasantry, the film features Germaine Greer as a cabaret singer, Jenny Kee as 'Shanghai Lil', Laurence Hope as a gangster, Martin Sharp as a mime and Richard Neville as a PR man. Tony Cahill from The Easybeats collaborated with Jamie Boyd for the score before the film premiered at the Paris Pullman Cinema in Chelsea, as an Oz benefit. Introduced by George Melly, star John Ivor Golding also made a memorable appearance at the premiere, defecating in the front row and then passing out in an alcoholic coma.[citation needed] Shown in May 1970 at the Festival of British independent Films in London,[21] it was eventually screened in Australia at the Adelaide Film Festival in 1980.[22]

At age 23, Mora directed Swastika, a two-hour compilation selected from 250 hours of captured Nazi documentaries, anti-Semitic propaganda, the Berlin Olympics including an interview with a polite Jesse Owens, and sequences from home movies made by Eva Braun discovered in the United States Marine and Signal Corps files[23] in Washington by German-born University of London academic and specialist in German film, Lutz Becker,[24] who pointed out that it included the first piece of film ever to show Hitler, in Munich in 1919, and colour film of the Storm Troopers' victory parade in Berlin, 1933, remarking that "Even the Nazis didn't know about the 1919 piece of film with Hitler in it."[25] In the same year Mora became editor and American correspondent of the newly launched Cinema Papers alongside Peter Beilby and Scott Murray.[26]

In 1975 and newly married, Mora wrote and directed, Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?,[1][27][28] a documentary about the 1930s Depression consisting of a series of film clips from newsreels and photographs, Hollywood films reflecting historical events, and those about making movies as well as outtakes, trailers, and home movies.[29][30] It was screened at the Cannes Film Festival during 'Critics Week,'[11] and at the 1975 Melbourne Film Festival,[31] at which he announced that he had left Australia "because I wanted to get into films, and there was no industry here."[11]

In 1976, after eight years working in London and New York, Mora's first feature film was Mad Dog Morgan,[1][32] about the bushranger Daniel Morgan, which he also wrote and directed, explaining to Rita Erlich that while he was moving away from the documentary, in all films "one is telling a story, just using different means. Film is a narrative art."[9] Starring Dennis Hopper, Jack Thompson, David Gulpilil, Bill Hunter and Frank Thring,[33][34] produced by David Puttnam[35] with A$175,666 investment and a A$8,500 loan from the Australian Film Corporation and private backers,[36] Mad Dog Morgan was the first Australian movie to get a 40-cinema release in the United States and worldwide rights purchased for A$300,000 (worth nearly A$2 million in 2021).[37] Though reviewer Michael Rowberry considered its "bid for realism has led the director to overdo the blood," and that the "simplistic morality of the film which ultimately robs it of depth,"[38] it went on to receive the John Ford Award at the Cannes Film Festival in 1976 as part of US Bicentennial celebrations, and in 1977 Mora was nominated by the Australian Film Institute for 'Best Director' for the film.[39]

In early 1980, Mora and Ron Mallory took an option on Errol Flynn: The Untold Story by Charles Higham,[40] raising hopes of an Australian film being produced in Hollywood, but abandoned after controversy over Higham's research; members of Flynn's family unsuccessfully sued the author and the book's publisher for libel.[41] After making The Beast Within, his first film in America, Mora's next project on one of his periodic returns to Australia in 1981,[42] was the parodic superhero musical, The Return of Captain Invincible, released in Hoyts cinemas for Christmas 1982 by Seven Keys,[43] and starring Alan Arkin, Christopher Lee, Kate Fitzpatrick and an all-star Australian cast, with songs by The Rocky Horror Show creator Richard O'Brien. When Mora fell out with producer Andrew Gaty following Gaty re-cutting the film, the Department of Home Affairs pulled its certification as an Australian film asserting that it was then a different film, prompting a February 1983 court case,[44] which was still not settled in July.[45]

Mora's next productions were A Breed Apart with Rutger Hauer and Kathleen Turner, the werewolf horror films Howling II: Your Sister Is a Werewolf and Howling III, the latter shown at the Melbourne Comedy Festival in 1991,[46] and the political drama Death of a Soldier, starring James Coburn, which was based on the infamous Melbourne wartime Eddie Leonski murder case.[47][48] While in Australia to make the latter, Mora conducted a seminar in June 1985 at the Australian Screen Directors Association.[49] Mora's next film used the plot of the book Communion,[50] by his old friend from his London days in the late 1960s, artist, author and broadcaster Whitley Strieber. Released in 1989, and to video,[51] the film starred Christopher Walken and was based on Strieber's own alleged encounters with aliens.

Film credits as director as well as occasional writer and actor during the 1990s included the horror spoof Pterodactyl Woman from Beverly Hills (1994) with Beverly D'Angelo, Barry Humphries (in three roles), Moon Unit Zappa and Philippe's children Georges and Madeleine; Art Deco Detective (1994); and Precious Find (1996), a sci-fi version of The Treasure of the Sierra Madre. For television, Mora directed Mercenary II: Thick & Thin (1997), and the films Back in Business (1997), Snide and Prejudice (1998) and Burning Down the House (1998).

When We Were Modern[edit]

In the early 2000s, with a A$25,000 'general development' fund from the Australian Film Commission,[52] Mora began work on a still-unfinished film project titled When We Were Modern[53] which in part touched on his own life and experience. The film's plot explores on the tangled relationships of the Heide inner circle – Sidney Nolan, Joy Hester, Albert Tucker and John and Sunday Reed. In the 1940s, after deserting from the army, Nolan took refuge at the Reed's famous house "Heide", and it was here that he made the first paintings in his now world-famous Ned Kelly series. During this time, Nolan also conducted an open affair with Sunday Reed, but she refused to leave her husband and marry Nolan, so he subsequently married John's Reed's sister, Cynthia Hansen instead. The marriage eventually broke up, and when Cynthia committed suicide in 1976, her death sparked a bitter feud between Nolan and author Patrick White, which lasted until the end of their lives. White excoriated Nolan for abandoning his first wife Elizabeth (who was a close friend of his) and for remarrying (to Mary Perceval) so soon after Cynthia's death.

At the time of announcement, Mora had cast Australian actor Clayton Watson (The Matrix) to play Nolan, with Americans Alec Baldwin as John Reed and Jennifer Jason Leigh as Sunday Reed. During pre-production, Mora discovered previously unseen home movies of the Heide circle, including the only films of Joy Hester and the Mirka Café. When We Were Modern was to have been dedicated to Sweeney Reed, who committed suicide in March 1979, aged 34. Sweeney was to have featured prominently as a character, and as a tribute to him, Mora reportedly planned to include some of the footage from Back Alley under the closing credits.

Mora labored on the project for several years but it was rejected by Australian film funding bodies. Since then, Mora has worked on several other features and documentaries, but in May 2012, Deadline Hollywood reported that he was returning to the film, intended then to be an animated feature using a combination of hand puppets, stop motion and conventional animation, with the last act in 3D, supervised by 3D cinematographer Dave Gregory. The report also indicates that Clayton Watson will still portray Nolan, but will now perform the role as a voice actor. Interviewed for the report, Mora commented: "Personally I loved John and Sunday, and Sweeney Reed, their adopted son, was my best friend as a kid. My parents helped John and Sunday set up the Museum of Modern Art of Australia. This Nolan-Reed ménage is an important story that must be told honestly, no holds barred. It's a great Australian epic of love and modernism. We are using puppets done in the style of the painters involved."[54]

Later career[edit]

In 2007, Mora obtained FBI files released under freedom of information laws. In them, he uncovered evidence of an elaborate plot by Robert Kennedy to trick Marilyn Monroe into suicide; the detailed three-page implicated her psychiatrist, publicist and housekeeper as well as her friend, the British-born Hollywood actor Peter Lawford, who was married to Kennedy's sister, Patricia.[55][56] In the Sydney Morning Herald Mora affirmed that the document, sent to the FBI on 19 October 1964, was genuine.

Mora married Pamela Krause Mora, a producer and production designer who worked on a number of his films since the 1990s, and they have three children.

Reception and legacy[edit]

In 1970, The Guardian's Derek Malcolm reviewing Trouble in Molopolis then being shown at The Other Cinema's 'festival of British independents,' describes it as "a Brechtian fable directed by Philippe Mora and set to on-off Weill-like music by Tony Cahill and others. Good colour belies its cost (£6,000) and a sense of humour enlivens its serious purpose, which is to present a story of greed, stupidity and avarice in easily recognisable Marxist terms ... rough and at times amateurish ... it is distinctly original without being pretentious."[57] The Daily Telegraph picked up on Mora's statement that "it was a problem keeping the clichés yet trying to get a fresh reaction,' of which the journalist Eric Shorter concluded; "the problem was not solved."[58]

Though it was the official British entry at the Cannes Film Festival, Australian critic Pamela Ruskin excoriated Swastika in her review for lacking context, and thus 'whitewashing' Hitler.[59] Micheal Billington in The Illustrated London News Obersalzburg considered a strength was its revealing "Hitler's manifest impatience when anyone else is talking and his inability to relax even in a domestic setting: he's as rigid as a tightly rolled umbrella, as carefully wound up as a mechanical toy. Far from emphasizing the gap between the private and the public face, this intriguing if fact-starved film suggests that the two were ominously indistinguishable.[60] When Swastika was being shown afresh three years later in Village Theatres throughout Australia, Barbara Alysen in the Sydney Tribune was less reactive, acknowledging the controversy because "we are accustomed to having documentaries tell us what to think and [...] Hitler without comment is probably still a little too ambiguous," but pointing out that though it "shows Hitler, Goering, Goebbels et al. sunbathing, playing with children and dogs, and relaxing rather than orating and inciting," the film reveals Hitler as "a rather anaemic actor, shy and ill-at-ease in front of the camera," which makes "the ruling caste come out of Eva's films looking embarrassingly puny and unassertive, [...] unconscious inferiority [being] nazism's driving force."[61] Derek Malcolm compares Hitler : The Last Ten Days starring Alec Guinness unfavourably against Mora's "unforgettable documentary" revealing "the real thing,"[62] and Alexander Walker writing in The Evening Standard remarks that;

If you think it morally objectionable to treat such a man with the considerate focus of an admiring camera which lends if not enchantment to the view, then a mundane humanity, just consider what Albert Speer, Hitler's former architect and Armaments Minister, writes in a preface to the film – that unless we view the monster in his human shape, we may not recognise other human beings as the monsters they could become today, or tomorrow.[63]

Susie Eisenhuth in the Australian Women's Weekly hailed Brother. Can You Spare a Dime? as a film that "manages to romp through the difficult task of presenting this unhappy time and checks out finally as a thoroughly absorbing and entertaining affair. With a breezy blend of documentary footage, much of it rare and all of it fascinating –and gems from the movie classics of the period (like Gold Diggers of 1933). Mora has assembled a superb scrapbook of the lean, mean, laugh-or-you'll-cry '30s...Best of all, young writer-director Mora understands that the most interesting history is that which chronicles events both great and small."[64] The un-named Tharunka reviewer considers that "It's a pity that Brother Can You Spare A Dime? has been given a glossy, nostalgic image when, in fact, it is a film of importance in understanding the forces which manipulate societies without regard to any integrity of the individual."[65] Sandra Hall in The Bulletin declared it "a documentary meticulously constructed to give the flavor of a country and a period through its ceremonies, its personalities, its news stories and its culture,"[66] while English critic Alan Stanbrook regarded its view of the Depression "oversimplified."[67] In its subject country, America itself, Kevin Thomas praised the documentary's 'astonishing comprehensiveness' and emotional impact'[68]

More ambivalent about melodramatic moments in Mad Dog Morgan in which "Mora loses control," Hall found it overall "a film that works hard and for the most part, effectively as a reminder of what is remarkable in Australian history."[69] Though, according to Filmnews, it opened to "damaging" reviews in New York,[70] Kay Keavney of the Australian Women's Weekly, in discussing Margaret Carnegie's research into the bushranger subject of Mad Dog Morgan, describes the film's creators as "arguably the world's most exciting young film-makers, Philippe Mora and Jeremy Thomas."[71] While in Australia promoting the film, Mora gave a master class at Chiron College, which was an innovative senior secondary school in Sydney 1969–1976. Mad Dog Morgan won 'Best Direction' in the 1977 Australian Film Institute awards alongside other celebrated Australian features; Bruce Beresford's Don's Party and Henri Safran's Storm Boy.[39]

Filmnews in 1976 offered the perspective that;

Philippe Mora's films have always been concerned with insanity...the individual insanity commonly referred to as madness, or the conditioned insanity which is that apparent state of normality termed civilized behaviour. In this context Mora's three major works, Swastika, Brother Can You Spare Dime and Mad Dog have defined three aspects of insanity so concisely that they may be regarded as testaments for the 70s.[72]

During its 1990 showing in the UK Christopher Tookey panned Communion (1989) in the Sunday Telegraph as 'unquestionably a pain in the arse,' and calls Mora's direction 'banal,'[73] while The Daily Telegraph rated it 'awkward and unconvincing,'[74] Derek Malcolm considered the film hampered by audiences low expectations of the genre; and despite its "high seriousness," "we get something more than a little dull and not much more credible than your average ET substitute."[75]

Reviewing Mora's 1994 Art Deco Detective, Cass Hampton declared unambiguously that "straightforward it definitely is not," but concluded that "there's a lot to chew on, and may be indigestible, but it has appeal: quirky dialogue, classy black comedy and dry, understated acting. It might be somebody's cup of tea.[76]

Selected filmography[edit]

Year Title Notes
1969 Trouble in Molopolis [6][21]
1973 Swastika [77][78][79]
1975 Brother Can You Spare a Dime? [64][65][66]
1976 Mad Dog Morgan [71][39]
1982 The Beast Within
1983 The Return of Captain Invincible
1984 A Breed Apart
1985 Howling II: Your Sister is a Werewolf
1986 Death of a Soldier
1987 Howling III [46]
1989 Communion [73]
1994 Art Deco Detective
1996 Precious Find
1997 Pterodactyl Woman from Beverly Hills
Snide and Prejudice
Back in Business
1998 Joseph's Gift
1999 According to Occam's Razor
Mercenary II: Thick & Thin
2001 Burning Down the House
2009 The Times They Ain't a Changin'
The Gertrude Stein Mystery or Some Like It Art
2011 German Sons
2012 Continuity [80]

Exhibitions[edit]

Date Title Collaborators Location Notes
1967 Argus Gallery, Melbourne, Australia
1968 Anti-Social Realism and Into Childhood Clytie Jessop Gallery, London [17]
1969, to 23 February Paintings by Philippe Mora [81]
1969 Vomart
1970 Forgeries
1970, 23 April-22 May Crucifixion Exhibition. An Exhibition of Degenerate Art Mora, Powell, Ramsden, Strawheim, Sharp, Shamask, Philadelphia and other Neurotic Perverts Sigi Krauss Gallery, 29 Neal Street, Covent Garden
1970, 10 February–8 March Narrative Painting in Britain in the 20th Century Camden Arts Centre, London [19]
1971: 29 June-17 July Really good taste art by P. Mora Clytie Jessop Gallery, London [82][83]
1971, August Recent paintings by Philippe Mora Tolarno Galeries, 42 Fitzroy Street. St. Kilda

Collections[edit]

Awards[edit]

Award Category Recipient Result Ref.
1978 Australian Film Institute Awards AACTA Award for Best Direction Mad Dog Morgan Won [39]
15th International Festival of Fantastic & Horror Cinema, Sitges, Spain Best Special Effects The Return of Captain Invincible Won [86]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Thomas, Kevin (11 November 1976). "Mora--The World Is His Scenario". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California, United States. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  2. ^ a b "It's All In The Family". Australian Jewish News. 20 August 1971. p. 23.
  3. ^ "PHILIPPE MORA: The Hollywood Interview".
  4. ^ "Junior art awards". The Australian Jewish Herald. 13 December 1963. p. 13.
  5. ^ Krum, Lazar. "Mirka and Philippe - 9 Collins Street". State Library Victoria. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  6. ^ a b c Cox, Steve (6 May 2019). "Philippe Mora: Australian Auteur". FilmInk. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  7. ^ Philippe Mora Cannes 2011 Interview Part I on Vimeo
  8. ^ Symon, Eve (15 July 1976). ""Mad Dog Morgan" Philippe Mora — A Fast Runner". The Australian Jewish Times. p. 16.
  9. ^ a b Erlich, Rita (30 April 1976). "On-Call : Modest start to features". The Australian Jewish News. p. 5.
  10. ^ "MILESAGO - People: Philippe Mora". www.milesago.com. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  11. ^ a b c "A Future In Features". The Australian Jewish News. 9 May 1975. p. 3.
  12. ^ Tarling, Lowell (2021). Sharpest : the biography of Martin Sharp as told to Lowell Tarling (2nd ed.). Exile Bay, NSW: ETT Imprint. pp. unpaginated. ISBN 978-1-922473-68-4. OCLC 1291224335.
  13. ^ Marks, Kathy (19 December 2007). "A long strange trip into the past". The Independent. pp. 10–11.
  14. ^ a b Totaro, Paola (20 September 2008). "Clapton's Aussie mate recalls wild London". The Age.
  15. ^ Germaine, Max et al. . ed. 1990.; King-Hall, Stephen; Hall, James; King-Hall, William; King-Hall, George Fowler (1990). Artists and Galleries of Australia (3rd, rev. and enl. ed.). Roseville, N.S.W.: Craftsman House. p. 485. ISBN 9789768097026. OCLC 222931540.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ "Philippe Mora - Biography | England & Co Gallery, London". England & Co Gallery. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  17. ^ a b "Scene". Daily Mirror. 18 September 1968. p. 16.
  18. ^ a b Mora, Philippe. "Experiment on a rat presumed, 1970, synthetic polymer paint on composition board". National Gallery of Victoria.
  19. ^ a b Brett, Guy (10 November 1970). "Art". The Times.
  20. ^ "Philippe Mora - Biography | England & Co Gallery, London". England & Co Gallery. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  21. ^ a b Dawson, Helen (24 May 1970). "Briefing : entertainments round-up : films". The Observer. p. 27.
  22. ^ "Who's Doing What". Filmnews. Sydney, NSW. 1 November 1980. p. 4.
  23. ^ Hall, Sandra (16 June 1973). "Films : Commerce rears its head". The Bulletin. 95 (4858): 59.
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  25. ^ Mitchell, Linton (26 January 1974). "Box Office Hitler...". Reading Evening Post. p. 5.
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  27. ^ "Art: Hard Times". Time Magazine. Time Inc. 1 September 1975. Archived from the original on 17 July 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  28. ^ "Events". events.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  29. ^ Taylor, Judith; Stricker, Frank (1976). "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? Depression follies of 1976". Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media. pp. 52–53. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  30. ^ Eder, Richard (8 August 1975). "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? (1975) 'Can You Spare a Dime?' Evokes 1930's". New York Times. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  31. ^ "Films : Mammoth Festival". The Australian Jewish News. 9 May 1975. p. 13.
  32. ^ Moffitt, Ian (3 April 1976). "Cover Story : Australia's golden age of film". The Bulletin. 98 (5001): 32.
  33. ^ Mora, Philippe (31 January 2010). "The shooting of Mad Dog Morgan". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  34. ^ "Mad Dog Morgan". Australian Centre for the Moving Image. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  35. ^ "David Puttnam". Filmnews. Sydney, NSW. 1 March 1980. p. 7.
  36. ^ Australian Film Commission (1977). "Australian Film Commission Loans and Investments 1975-76". Australian Film Commission Annual Report 1975-76. Australian Film Commission. APPENDIX A: 42, 43. ISSN 0816-9624.
  37. ^ Hawken, Noel (4 June 1976). "Japanese invasion fears derided". Papua New Guinea Post-Courier. p. 16.
  38. ^ Rowberry, Michael (3 April 1979). "Films: Dog Has His Day". Coventry Evening Telegraph. p. 3.
  39. ^ a b c d "Award Finals". The Australian Jewish News. Melbourne, Vic. 26 August 1977. p. 15.
  40. ^ Higham, Charles (1981). Errol Flynn : The Untold Story (1st ed.). New York: Dell Publishing. ISBN 9780440123071. OCLC 7323180.
  41. ^ Flynn v. Higham, 149 Cal.App.3d 677 (2nd District Court of Appeal 1983-12-09).
  42. ^ "Who's Doing What". Filmnews. Sydney, NSW. 1 October 1981. p. 14.
  43. ^ "Production Roundup". Filmnews. 1 July 1982. p. 12. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  44. ^ Hall, Sandra (15 February 1983). "Film-making : Tax aid for an ailing industry". The Bulletin. 103 (5352): 37.
  45. ^ Hall, Sandra (19 July 1983). "Films : At least the impulse is invincible". The Bulletin. 103 (5374): 76.
  46. ^ a b "From The Cutting Room Floor". Filmnews. 1 March 1991. p. 4. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  47. ^ Kohn, Peter (22 June 1984). "Leonski film big venture". Australian Jewish News. p. 13. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  48. ^ "Film to be made on strangler". Canberra Times. 21 January 1985. p. 7. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  49. ^ "Who's Doing What". Filmnews. 1 May 1985. p. 14. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  50. ^ "Advertisement". Daily Mirror. 12 October 1990. p. 2.
  51. ^ Martin, Adrian (1 December 1991). "Adrian Martin's been back to die video shop; here is what he discovered..." Filmnews. p. 10. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  52. ^ Australian Film Commission (2000). "Appendix 7 : Industry Assistance". Australian Film Commission 1999/2000 Annual Report. Australian Film Commission: 72. ISSN 0816-9624.
  53. ^ "Director continues to strike a nerve", The Age, 14 May 2002
  54. ^ Deadline Hollywood
  55. ^ Elsworth, Catherine (19 March 2007). "Monroe was given suicide drug by Rat Pack friend, claims secret FBI file". The Daily Telegraph. p. 9.
  56. ^ Marks, Kathy (18 March 2007). "Marilyn : The case for 'assisted suicide" : The star was fooled into killing herself, says an old FBI file. Did friendslet her die when she expected to be saved?". The Independent. p. 3.
  57. ^ Malcolm, Derek (14 May 1970). "A miner catastrophe : the week's new films". The Guardian. p. 10.
  58. ^ Shorter, Eric (15 May 1970). "Films". The Daily Telegraph. p. 13.
  59. ^ Ruskin, Pamela (8 June 1973). "Roundabout : SWASTIKA!". The Australian Jewish News. p. 6.
  60. ^ Billington, Michael (1 March 1974). "Cinema". Illustrated London News. p. 69.
  61. ^ Alysen, Barbara (22 September 1976). "Reviews : The private life of Adolf Hitler and friends". Tribune. Sydney, NSW. p. 8.
  62. ^ Malcolm, Derek (10 May 1973). "Exterminating angels". The Guardian. p. 12.
  63. ^ Walker, Alexander (27 March 1973). "The smile lurking on a monster's face". Evening Standard. p. 10.
  64. ^ a b Eisenhuth, Susie (17 March 1976). ""Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?"". Australian Women's Weekly: 33.
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