|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2012)|
|Pangasiwaan ng Palingkurang Atmosperiko, Heopisikal at Astronomiko ng Pilipinas|
|Formed||December 8, 1972|
|Superseding agency||Weather Bureau|
|Jurisdiction||Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR)|
|Headquarters||Science Garden Complex, Agham Road, Diliman, Quezon City|
|Agency executive||Vicente Malano, Acting Administrator|
|Parent agency||Department of Science and Technology|
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (Filipino: Pangasiwaan ng Palingkurang Atmosperiko, Heopisikal at Astronomiko ng Pilipinas, abbreviated as PAGASA, which means "hope" in the Tagalog word pag-asa) is a Philippine national institution dedicated to provide flood and typhoon warnings, public weather forecasts and advisories, meteorological, astronomical, climatological, and other specialized information and services primarily for the protection of life and property and in support of economic, productivity and sustainable development. The government agency was created on December 8, 1972 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 78 reorganizing the Philippine Weather Bureau into PAGASA.
Meteorological observations in the Philippines started on January 1, 1865 under the Observatorio Meteorológico del Ateneo Municipal de Manila, ran by Jesuit Fathers(a young jesuit that started the observatorio Francisco Colina) of what is now called the Manila Observatory of the Ateneo de Manila University. On April 28, 1884, King Alfonso XII issued a decree recognized the observatory as an official institution of the Spanish colonial government in the Philippines.
At the start of the 20th century, meteorological observations were transferred from the Roman Catholic Church to the American colonial government. By act of the Philippine Commission, the Weather Bureau of the Philippine Islands were established under Act No. 131 on May 22, 1901. The Commonwealth Government placed the Weather Bureau under the Department of Commerce and Industry.
President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Decree 78 creating the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) merging meteorological service and astronomical observatory under one office. The decree also transferred jurisdiction to Department of National Defense. On June 2, 1977, Presidential Decree 1149 amended the original PAGASA charter to include the establishment of the Typhoon Moderation Research and Development Office (TMRDO) and the National Flood Forecasting Office (NFFO). On September 18, 1984, PAGASA was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of National Defense to the National Science and Technology Authority (NSTA).
President Corazon Aquino, whose absolute power of legislation was still under the Office of the President reorganized the National Science and Technology Authority and created the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) by virtue of Executive Order 128. PAGASA remains under its jurisdiction. On January 1, 1988, PAGASA was reorganized consisting of five (5) major branches and three (3) support units. Starting at the Estrada Administration in 2000, PAGASA receives constant technical grants and assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
Work in astronomy in the Philippines started in 1897. It was one of the functions of the "Observatorio Meteorológico de Manila" (OMM), which became a government agency on April 28, 1884. Prior to this, it was a private undertaking that began on January 1, 1865. The astronomical dome that housed the telescope of the Observatorio located then on Padre Faura St., Manila, is its most prominent edifice. The observatory performed not only meteorological and astronomical services but also seismological and terrestrial magnetism services. Its astronomical activities were mostly limited to timekeeping and observation of solar and stellar phenomena. The OMM became the Weather Bureau in 1901 with its observatory in Manila as its central office.
During the World War II, the astronomical observatory was destroyed and it was only in 1954 that a new observatory was constructed within the University of the Philippines campus in Quezon City. It has remained there up to the present time (2003), now under the PAGASA, as the only government astronomical observatory. Still performing basically the same functions as its forerunner in Manila, it has, however, updated its equipment in that disseminated time signals throughout the country, including the meteorological stations, by radio. It has also operated, beginning in 1970, an Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) equipment, the predecessor of the modern telefacsimile or telefax equipment. The APT enabled the reception of satellite and other images over long distances. The PAGASA stopped operating the APT in 1978 because of the interference it creates with other communication network of the government.
From 1954, the has been quiescent, but for the construction of a planetarium in the PAGASA Science Garden in Quezon City in September 1977. Since 1969, the PAGASA has been establishing a solar radiation network that consists of 53 stations today. In 1983, the first Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) ground receiver was installed in PAGASA, which introduced the agency to space technology. This equipment provided the agency with large-scale images of the atmosphere over the data-sparse western Pacific ocean and contributed to the significant improvement of its weather forecasting capability. The facility was upgraded in 1988 to enable it to receive the high-resolution images being generated by the Japanese satellite. In 1991, the ground receiver for the polar-orbiting satellite of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States was installed to complement the existing facility. From 1992 to 1993, additional satellite ground receivers were installed at the PAGASA stations at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Cagayan de Oro City and Mactan, Cebu province.
At present, there are three institutions which undertake activities in astronomy in the Philippines. These are the PAGASA, the Manila Observatory and the National Museum (NM). The former evolved from the OMM, while the second is a private institution under the Ateneo de Manila University in Quezon City. The NM is also a government agency, which is under the supervision of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports and is located at the Rizal Park or Luneta in Ermita, Manila. The PAGASA engages in the promotion of astronomy, including space science in the Philippines through shows in its Planetarium and the publication of posters. It coordinates and collaborates with other agencies or institutions in this field, such as the organization of astronomical societies in the colleges or universities.
The PAGASA has been afforded by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, several opportunities to know and keep abreast of the latest developments in astronomy and space science through its participation in international workshops and congresses. The agency has made and partially implemented plans for the modest improvement of its facilities with its scarce financial and human resources. It needs more of these resources to make a big stride in astronomy and space science. The Philippines had embarked to be in the status of a newly industrializing country in 2000. One of the imperatives to attain this goal is to give a higher priority in fostering the development and application of science and technology in the country.
PAGASA is mandated by law to keep and disseminate the Philippine Standard Time (PST). Section 6 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 8, which defines the metric system in the country, states: "PAGASA shall be responsible in the establishment, maintenance and operation of the National Standard for the second of time". Another laws like Presidential Decree 1149 and Republic Act No. 10535 (also known as "The Philippine Standard Time (PST) Act of 2013"), assigns PAGASA as the official agency that handles the dissemination of the Philippine Standard Time (PST). One of PAGASA's eight (8) major units, the Atmospheric, Geophysical and Space Sciences Branch (AGSSB) operates and maintains a timing system thru its Time Service Unit (TSU).
The Time Service Division was established as one of the major units in the then Weather Bureau sometime in 1949. Its master clock was a U. Nardin Marine chronometer, with pendulum regulator, which was utilized as a dispatch clock. A short synchrome ensemble replaced the marine chronometer in 1951 and a quartz crystal clock improved the system in 1965. Since then, there was no major improvement that had been done with the system, except for the acquisition of a Digitizing Oscilloscope. In 1988, the Time Service Division was downgraded to the Time Service Unit (TSU), together with the reorganization of the PAGASA.
- Maintains the national standard of time and frequency.
- Disseminates the precise time and frequency via Internet, radio broadcast and other means.
- Extends time and frequency calibration and standardization services to industrial and scientific institutions.
- Exchanges data on time and frequency with overseas institutions.
PAGASA monitors tropical cyclone activity and issues warnings if they fall within the Philippine Area of Responsibility or PAR. This area is bound by an imaginary line drawn along the following coordinates:
- 25°N 120°E, 25°N 135°E, 5°N 135°E, 5°N 115°E, 15°N 115°E, 21°N 120°E and back to the beginning.
Tropical cyclone bulletins are issued by PAGASA every six hours for all tropical cyclones within this area that have or are anticipated to make landfall within the Philippines, or twelve hours when cyclones are not affecting land.
As of May 20,2015 PAGASA used to classify tropical cyclones into five categories:
- Tropical Depression - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 30 to 60 kph
- Tropical Storm - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 61 to 88 kph
- Severe Tropical Storm - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 89 to 117 kph
- Typhoon - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of more than 118 kph
- Super Typhoon - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of more than 220 kph.
On August 27, 2007, PAGASA announced that it was putting up a tornado warning system, days after several more powerful and destructive tornadoes damaged houses in Central Luzon, the monsoon and climate change. On August 23, 2007, a 2nd tornado destroyed 30 houses in 4 villages in San Miguel, Bulacan, the first having damaged 27 houses in San Rafael on Aug. 8.
However, as of present time, the weather bureau has yet to provide such warnings.
The climate of the Philippines is discussed in detail on the Climatology page of the PAGASA website.
PAGASA lists patterns of Temperature, Humidity, Rainfall, Seasons, and four Climate Types, for the Philippines.
Climate Types are:
- Type 1 – Two pronounced seasons: Dry from November to April, Wet rest of the year.
- Type 2 – No dry season, but with heavier rainfall from November to January.
- Type 3 – Seasons are not very pronounced, relatively dry from November to April, and wet during the rest of the year.
- Type 4 – Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year.
On August 6, 2010, President Benigno Aquino III announced the removal of Prisco Nilo as the administrator of PAGASA. PAGASA was directly under Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Undersecretary for Research and Development (R&D) Graciano Yumul. A special order from DOST Secretary Mario Montejo, dated August 5, 2010, designated Yumul as the new PAGASA administrator. Nilo was criticized for lack of modern equipment, forecast inaccuracies, slow voluntary response and the aftermath of Typhoon Ondoy in September 2009, and Typhoon Basyang in July 2010.
Doppler radar, weather stations and other equipment
PAGASA installed its first Doppler weather radar station in Baler, Aurora and another in Baguio. The new weather radars can monitor the typhoon and its movements, amount of rainfall either moderate or heavy and real-time atmospheric forecasts using a visual radar monitor, an example was that of Typhoon Basyang in 2010. Doppler radars are now used for weather warnings (such as rainfall) through Project NOAH since June 2012.
PAGASA has installed at least ten Doppler radars in the country, currently operational stations are as follows:
- Luzon: Aparri (Cagayan), Baguio City, Subic (Zambales), Baler, (Aurora), Tagaytay (Cavite), Virac (in Catanduanes, the country's most modern radar facility);
- Visayas: Mactan (Cebu), Guiuan (Eastern Samar);
- Mindanao: Tampakan (South Cotabato), Hinatuan (Surigao del Sur).
Moreover, the weather bureau is now constructing four to five more Doppler radar stations in Busuanga and Quezon (both in Palawan), Iloilo, Zamboanga City, and Basco (Batanes). It aims to have thirteen operational radar stations nationwide by the end of 2013.
Before Nilo's leave, an automated rain gauge was also installed in a telecommunications cellsite in Montalban, Rizal (in cooperation with Smart Communications) to monitor excess rainfall as a warning signal to avert the effects of flashfloods and landslides by using cellphones, the weather bureau plans to adopt its swift transfer of data from ground forecasting stations to main headquarters utilizing its automated data acquisition system modeled after Japan Meteorological Agency's AMeDAS in the near future as a solution to forecast inaccuracy and their problems. The Japan International Cooperation Agency will provide modernization programs to enhance the services of PAGASA include meteorology and flood forecasting, and tornado warnings as precautionary measures. Seven new Doppler Radars placed in different locations are scheduled to operate in June 2011.
In addition, the weather bureau introduced its Landslide Early Warning Sensor (LEWS) (recently invented by the University of the Philippines) to reduce landslide casualties in case of landslides. Using this new device, the sensor picks out signals in the form of computer data to show soil and ground movements and is transferred to the ground station immediately in an event of a landslide, and in order to launch forced evacuation. PAGASA hopes to install 10 sensors in five landslide prone areas by 2012, when it is tested and ready to bury on ground.
Another innovation to flood alerts was the adoption of an Automated Weather Station (AWS) designed to monitor amounts of rainfall and flood levels in case of an incoming warning, the AWS can be controlled by a computer even it is unmanned and a siren to evacuate people for emergencies. Few of the AWS units are installed in few points of the country and many more units will be installed to extend its coverage.
In 2011, Taiwan donated fifteen weather stations to the Philippines' Department of Science and Technology, and it has been reported that "The Philippines weather bureau will also share information from the new weather stations with Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau, helping expand the range of Taiwan's weather forecasts." PAGASA and the Philippines Department of Science and Technology work jointly in the implementation of weather stations.
- 2015 Pacific typhoon season
- Amado Pineda
- Climate of the Philippines
- Doppler weather radar
- Prisco Nilo
- "A Brief History of the Philippine Meteorological Service". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. 2004. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- "World Meteorological Organization - WMO" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2013-08-22.[dead link]
- Locsin, Joel (November 1, 2014). "For improved response? PAGASA to adopt ‘super typhoon’ category in 2015". GMA News Online. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "PAGASA to put up tornado warning system". GMA News Online. 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- "Aquino sacks PAGASA chief". GMA News Online. 2010-08-06. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- "Weather bureau to install Doppler Radar". Sun.Star. 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- Teves, Catherine (2012-03-24). "PAGASA to install more radars this year —— Bayanihan". Bayanihan. Retrieved 2013-08-22.
- "Philippines activates 15 weather stations donated by Taiwan". Wantchinatimes.com (English news website of the Taiwan-based China Times News Group). September 17, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- "Launching of Automated Weather Station". Philippines Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. June 30, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.