Philippine English

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Philippine English
Region Philippines
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
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Philippine English is the variety of English used in the Philippines by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos. English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino. Code-switching is prevalent in informal situations. Sub-varieties of Philippine English are emerging based on the regional location and thus linguistic influences of the speakers.

Orthography and grammar[edit]

Philippine laws and court decisions, with extremely rare exceptions, are written solely in English. English is also used in higher education, religious affairs, print and broadcast media, and business. Most educated Filipinos are bilinguals and speak English as one of their languages (see List of countries by English-speaking population). Still, for highly technical subjects such as nursing, medicine, computing and calculus, English is the preferred medium for textbooks, communication, etc. Very few would prefer highly technical books in the vernacular.[1][2] Movies and TV shows in English are usually not dubbed in cable channels.[3]

Because English is part of the curricula from primary to secondary education, many Filipinos write and speak in fluent Philippine English, although there might be differences in diction and pronunciation.[4] Most schools in the Philippines, however, are staffed by teachers who are speakers of Philippine English and hence notable differences from the American English from which it was derived are observable.

Philippine English traditionally followed American English spelling and grammar,[5] except when it comes to punctuation as well as date notations. For example, a comma almost never precedes the final item in an enumeration (much like the AP Stylebook and other style guides used in the English-speaking world). Except for some very fluent speakers (like news anchors), even in English-language media, dates are also often read with a cardinal instead of an ordinal number (e.g. "January one" instead of "January first") even if the written form is the same. This is mostly because educated Filipinos were taught to count English numbers cardinally, thus it carried over to their style of reading dates. In military-style (or sometimes officialese) date notation (e.g. 1 January) the American standard is mostly followed, that is "one January".

Tautologies like redundancy and pleonasm are common despite the emphasis on brevity and simplicity in making sentences; they are common to many speakers, especially among the older generations. The possible explanation is that the English language teachers who came to the Philippines were taught old-fashioned grammar, thus they spread that style to the students they served. Examples are "At this point in time" and ".. will be the one ..." (or "... will be the one who will ...") instead of "now" and "... will ..." respectively - e.g., "I will be the one who will go ...", rather than "I will go ...".[6]

Phonology[edit]

Most of the native Malayo-Polynesian languages of the Philippines do not contain the [f] phoneme. Thus, some Filipinos substitute [p] for [f] when they pronounce English words containing [f]. Some even pronounce English words that normally do begin with [p] with an [f] through hypercorrection due to confusion over which pronunciation is required.

Like [f], the [v] sound is also virtually non-existent in most major native languages of the Philippines. Partly because modern Spanish does not distinguish between [b] and [v] (both being pronounced as [b] and, intervocalically, as [β]), some of the older generation of Filipinos would pronounce the letter [v] in all English words as [b].

Languages of indigenous minorities that had limited contact with the Spanish colonial government often retain the [v] sound. The [f] sound also occurs in some of them. Examples are the Ivatan language, Ibanag language, and languages of the Lumad tribes in Mindanao and Visayas. All of them are minor indigenous languages of the Philippines. The Ibaloi tongue in the Baguio-Benguet area of Northern Luzon also has naturally occurring [f] and [v] sounds, as in sifa (interrogative who) and divit (a traditional wrap-around skirt). The modern spelling of the name of one of the most numerous ethnic groups of the Philippines, the Manobo tribes of Mindanao, is actually the hispanized spelling of the original Manobo word Manuvu.[7]

Some of the other sounds that Philippine languages lack include [ɪ], [æ] and [ʌ]; only a few still retain [ə] (most notably Kinaray-a in Panay Island). The sound [ɪ] (/i/ in "brick") is replaced with [i] (/y/ in "happy") so the pronunciation of the words "bit" and "beat [bit]", "hit" and "heat [hit]", and "fill" and "feel [fil]" would be the same, respectively. The [θ] and [ð] sounds in all words are also absent in these languages, so they are pronounced [t] and [d] instead as a sign of th-stopping. Others hypercorrectly sound th in Thai, Thomas, etc. as [θ].

Words such as "back" [bæk] and "buck" [bʌk], "cat" [kæt] and "cut" [cʌt], and "pass" [pæs] and "pus" [pʌs] respectively would also have the same pronunciation since [a] (/a/ in Filipino word "alin"), [æ], and [ʌ] are not distinguished and all would be pronounced as [a]. Except for [ʌ], this is similar to speech of some speakers of English language in northern England, Scottish English, Ulster English, and Irish English. The ur ([ɜr]) in some words like current, hurry, and murder is sometimes realized as ([ar]), thus they sound like carrent, Harry (or hari = king), and marder respectively. Some speakers also realize [æ] as [ɛ] instead, so bad and bed are homophones.

With the exemption of [ə] sound in word endings "ble", "fle", and "ple" which are replaced with [o] (/o/ in Filipino word "uso"), [ə] in "cle", "dle", "gle", "tle" is either replaced with [e] (/e/ in "egg") which is more commonly used or [o]. Google [ˈɡuɡ(ə)l] would be read as [ˈɡuɡel] and handle [ˈhænd(ə)l] would be [ˈhandel]. Also depending on the spelling as Filipinos read based on how the word is spelled, "travel" [ˈtræv(ə)l] would be [ˈtrabel], "computer" [kəmˈpjutər] as [komˈpjuter], and circle [ˈsərkəl] read as [ˈsirkel] or [ˈsirkol]. For that reason, the endings -cion, -sion, -tion rhyme like Shaun/Shawn (locally /ʃon/ "Sion/Syon"), which is somewhat similar with non-native pronunciation of English by speakers of Romance languages. Depending on the schwa that represents the e or i in a word, it may also be replaced by [e] or [i] respectively, thus stir and steer are homophonous.

The schwa in unstressed affixes is sounded with its full equivalent vowels instead, so that the -ace/-ase əs in "surface", "purchase", -ate [ət in some words like "private" and usual pronunciation of "candidate", -ain in "mountain", "captain" (and -ane in "Brisbane"), and -age/-ege [ɪdʒ] or [ədʒ] in "marriage" rhyme with "ace", "pain/pane", "eight", and "age" respectively, or not deleted in some affixes but still sounded fully, namely -ary, -ery, -ory, -mony, -erry, that is why words like "history [ˈhistori]" and "mastery [ˈmastɛri]" are pronounced that way. Likewise, the second o (schwa sound) in "Catholic" and "sophomore" are not elided as a form of epenthesis, even in careful or casual speech. Some other words and affixes like -ile and -ine are pronounced mostly like in British and Commonwealth English and some other speakers of Canadian and/or American English, thus "missile/missal" and "hostile/hostel" are not homophonous.

In addition to the schwa, the /ɪ/ or /e/ in -es/-ess is pronounced with the full vowel instead, thus it sounds like ess (the letter S, [ɛs]). This feature is also somewhat similar with non-native pronunciation of English by speakers of Romance languages. Many Filipinos have a difficulty with some initial-stress-derived nouns, so "complex" and "compound" sound alike whether as a noun or not.

A phenomenon among the older generation of Filipinos is their pronunciation of all the English words starting with s + consonant such as star, spade, stampede, slide, stigma, statue, sky, stable, strict, and stew. These words are pronounced by some of them as "istar/estar", "istampede/estampede", "istigma/estigma", "istatue/estatue", "istable/estable", "istrict/estrict" and "istew/estew" because these older people were exposed to the Spanish language and were used to the Spanish system wherein there are no words starting with s + consonant, but instead es + consonant. Thus, estrella (star), estampida (stampede), estigma (stigma), estatua (statue), estable (stable), estricto (strict) and estofado (stew). As mentioned earlier, this phenomenon is called epenthesis. Another phenomenon is pronunciation by some speakers of the digraph qu before e and i in some words like conquest, liquidity so that they would be conkest and likidity to an English speaker's ear. Consequently, the silent e or any other letter in French-derived words and names, namely, the endings -que and -tte (in Nicolette) are pronounced respectively -ke and -te, not -k and -t. Again, this is a result of exposure to Spanish.

Another issue is suprasegmentals. In pronunciation, emphasis often tends to be put on the wrong syllable of a word (such as emphasizing the second syllable of "advocacy", "category", "celibacy", "ceremony", "delicacy", etc. instead of the first) or on the wrong word in a sentence as compared to North American English or British English. This issue is likely rooted in the aforementioned Spanish (Castilian) influence and often occurs with English words with Latin (and indirectly Spanish) roots. However, this is not the case for many fluent Anglophone speakers, who learn to pronounce and emphasize the proper stress correctly, mostly with help and guidance from their teachers or tutors. Despite this, some of these underlying mistakes remain in those speakers.

In fact, the stress of syllables and even pronunciation vary in many words. For example, adult may be pronounced with the stress either on the first syllable (as in British/Commonwealth) or the last (as in American). Likewise, miscellany is usually stressed on the second like in Britain, not in the first and miss-a-Laney as pronounced in the United States. Some place names like Moscow and Glasgow have the second syllable rhyming with low, not now; in fact, the local pronunciation of Moscow, Idaho by North Americans is identical to pronunciation of the Russian capital by Commonwealth and Irish speakers. Essentially, words and place names in English present in every Filipino's vocabulary may have varying degrees of stress and enunciation, mostly influenced by US speech and partly, indirectly by the UK via Southeast Asian neighbors that were once British colonies or by innovative pronunciations. See American and British English pronunciation differences for words Filipino speakers usually pronounce when they are familiar with them or encounter them.

Yod-coalescence is also very common in certain stressed syllables of words in Philippine English. This turns the clusters [dj], [tj], [sj] and [zj] into [dʒ], [tʃ], [ʃ] and [ʒ] respectively in certain words unlike standard American dialects which drop the yod. Words like dew, tune, and tube become pronounced as /ˈdʒuː/ (Jew), /ˈtʃuːn/ (Choon), and /ˈtʃuːb/ (Chube). Yod-coalescence in stressed syllables occurs in Australian, Cockney, Estuary English, Hiberno-English (some speakers), Newfoundland English, South African English, Scottish English, Welsh English, and many other varieties of English in the rest of the Commonwealth of Nations (except Ireland). Word-initial [j] also coalesces with word-final [d/ð], [t/θ], [s], and [z], giving the same effect as the clusters mentioned earlier, so "sees/seize your" and "pass(ed) your" sound like "seizure/seashore" and "pasture". Non-coalescence and yod-dropping can be possible depending on the fluency of the speaker, however, in the [sj] sound of some words like consumer and pharmaceutical, for example.

Vowels[edit]

As mentioned above, the schwa is featured in some Philippine languages.

Consonants[edit]

Among mother-tongue speakers, the phonology of Philippine English almost completely resembles that of the North American variant (thus, Philippine English is a rhotic accent), while the speech of those who are not native speakers is influenced to varying degrees by indigenous Philippine languages. Since many English phonemes (such as [f] and [v]) are not found in most Philippine languages, pronunciation approximations are extremely common.

Some examples of non-native pronunciation include:

  • Awry = [ˈari]
  • Filipino = [piliˈpino]
  • Victor = [bikˈtor]
  • Family = [ˈpɐmili] or [ˈpamili]
  • Varnish = [ˈbarnis]
  • Fun = [ˈpɐn] or [ˈpan]
  • Vehicle = [ˈbɛhikel] or [ˈbɛhikol]
  • Lover = [ˈlɐber]
  • Find = [ˈpɐjnd]
  • Official = [oˈpisʲɐl]
  • Very = [ˈbɛri] or [ˈbejri]
  • Guidon = [ɡiˈdon]
  • Hamburger = [ˈhɐmburdzʲɛr]
  • High-tech = [ˈhajtɛts]
  • Hubcap = [ˈhabkab]
  • Margarine = [mɐrɡɐˈrin]
  • Seattle = [ˈsʲatel]
  • Shako = [sʲaˈko]
  • Daniel/Danielle = [ˈdeɪnjel] or [ˈdanjel]
  • February = [(f/p)ebˈwari] or [(f/p)ebˈrari]
  • Janice = [dʒaˈnis]
  • January = [dʒanˈwari]
  • Rachel/Rachelle = [ˈreiʃel]
  • Stephen, Stephen- in Stephens, Stephenson = [(i/ɛ)ˈstifɛn] or [(i/ɛ)ˈstipɛn]
    (the ph digraph has an eff sound rather than a vee, even in standard Philippine English)
  • Special (some speakers) = [(i/ɛ)ˈspeɪʃal] or [ˈspeɪʃal] rhymes with spatial
  • Twenty- (one, two, etc.) (many speakers) = [ˈtweɪnti]
  • -ator in senator, predator = [ˈejtor] (by analogy with -ate)

The above list applies mainly to monolingual Filipino-language-speakers; a number of other indigenous languages, mentioned previously, employ phonemes such as [f], [v], and [z]. This form of mispronunciation, caused by the limited sound inventories of most Philippine languages compared to English (which has more than 40 phonemes), is generally frowned upon by Anglophone Filipinos, in particular, and businesses dealing with international clients.

Industries based on English[edit]

The abundant supply of English speakers and competitive labor costs have enabled the Philippines to become a choice destination for foreign companies wishing to establish call centers and other outsourcing operations.[8][9][10][11] English proficiency sustains a major call center industry, and as of 2005, America Online (AOL) has 1,000 people in what used to be the US Air Force's Clark Air Base in Angeles City answering ninety percent of their global e-mail inquiries. Citibank does its global ATM programming in the country, and Procter & Gamble has over 400 employees in Makati, a central Manila neighborhood, doing back office work for their Asian operations including finance, accounting, Human Resources and payments processing. See Call center industry in the Philippines

An influx of foreign students, principally from South Korea, has also led to growth in the number of English language learning centers,[12] especially in Metro Manila, Baguio City and Metro Cebu.

Recently, the Spanish Ministry for External Affairs and the Japanese government decided to hire speakers of the Philippine English as Language Assistants for their own respective countries.

Vocabulary and usage[edit]

Some words and phrases and their respective definitions or uses are peculiar to Philippine English. Some examples are:

  • Accomplish — To complete a form - all government forms specify they are to be "accomplished".
  • Advanced — Setting the clock ahead of the correct time.[13]
  • Aggrupation — A political group. From the Spanish word agrupación.[14] (Usually used in insurance.)
  • Aircon — It refers to Air Conditioner.
  • Ala — Filipinos prefer to spell "a la" or more correctly "à la", as one word. (The constructions "de la," "de las," or "de los" from Spanish are also often written as "dela," "delas" or "delos", in the same way that the construction of "pan de sal" would often be written as "pandesal".)
  • Already — Filipinos use this word to state that they have finished doing something, even though it was completed past the original deadline. In standard English, by contrast, "already" is used only when something was completed ahead of schedule.[example needed]
  • American — An illiberal term used by many local people, referring to any white/Caucasian person, regardless of not being from the United States. It can also be used as an adjective on a thing or object which one assumes comes from the Western world. The Tagalog colloquial term "kano" is more commonly used for any white person, which is taken from the word "Amerikano" (meaning "American").
  • Apartelle — A budget hotel. From apartment + hotel + le. Other terms used are "apartel", "apartment hotel" and "condotel" (portmanteau of condominium and hotel).
  • Arbor — Getting someone's items for free.[15]
  • Armalite — The US M16A1 rifle, regardless of whether it is made by Colt, Hydramatic, or locally by Elisco/Armalite (part of the Elizalde conglomorate which was licensed by Colt to make the rifle for the Philippine Government; later in 1983, Elizalde purchased the real ArmaLite Inc.). Despite the introduction of the M16A2, the term is still widely used in the Philippine military and police.[16]
  • Artist — A movie/television actor/actress. From Spanish artista.
  • Baby Armalite — The short barrel version of the M16A1 known as the CAR-15 and similar to the current M4 carbine. First made by Colt, Hydramatic, and then locally in the Philippines by Elisco/Armalite under Colt license.[17]
  • Baby bus — A small bus used as public transport, the Philippine version of a minibus. The term "babybus" is known to have originated in the province of Cavite, where the baby bus is one of the main modes of public transport.
  • Bad Shot/Bad Trip— Meaning frustrated and not in good mood.[18]
  • Banana cueSabá (cooking banana, similar to plantain), rolled in brown sugar then deep fried and skewered. The hot oil caramelizes the sugar giving the banana cue a crunchy texture. The name is thought to have come about because the bananas prepared are served skewered, in a manner similar to Philippine barbecue.[19] Also called banana Q.
  • Bedspace — The use of a bed at private home, rent for which is paid by a lodger or boarder known as a "bedspacer."[20]
  • Biodata — Similar but inferior to a résumé; a form that lists a person's accomplishments.
  • Birdie — (slang) The penis. Used by mothers to refer to babies' penis, the slang term has been popularized by the song "Don't Touch My Birdie".
  • Blank tape — (sometimes tape) refers to any blank magnetic or optical media. While recordable DVDs and Blu-rays would also be called "blank tape" by some Filipinos, they are also oftentimes called CDs, thus creating confusion between the optical formats. In contrast, the terms "cassette" and "cassette-tape" were often used properly back in the heyday of the format. The floppy disk is an exception, as most people call it "diskette".
  • Blowout — To Filipinos, this means to throw a party, versus in American English where the phrase is used when a car has a flat tire or when a sports team is badly beaten by another, usually by a wide point spread. The Filipino "blowout" originated from "blow out the candle(s)".
  • Blue seal — An imported version of a locally produced cigarette, usually untaxed. From the blue seal labels found in cigarettes for export or tax free use. Usually of higher quality than the locally produced equivalent.[20]
  • Bold — Nude, sometimes referring to pornography and soft-core. Maybe because movies showing nudity were considered bold, as in daring. Possibly from the 1960s when conservatism in society was only beginning to break down. A movie with nude scenes is known as a Bold movie. In the 1970s, the term for such movies was "bomba film," whereas in the 1980s it was "S.T. (sex trip) movie." These were also called T.F. (titillating films).
  • Boodle fight — A gathering where food (usually pansít, or steamed rice and sardines) is served on old newspapers or banana leaves spread over a table and eaten with bare hands by a group of people. Although it is the practice for some Filipinos to eat with their hands, a group of people eating this way from one source is an unnatural and contrived practice in Philippine culture. This way of eating was devised by PMA cadets, and does not represent authentic Philippine culture, but instead symbolizes fraternity and equality among PMA members by their sharing the same food without regard to rank. The term is taken from pre-World War Two West Point slang meaning "any party at which boodle (candy, cake, ice cream, etc.) is served."[21]
  • Boston — A type of metal or rubber pad placed in the heel and/or front of the sole of a shoe for antislip purposes.
  • Boundary — An amount public transport drivers pay the transport operators daily; any excess belongs to the driver as his daily wage.
  • Boy — An affectionate nickname, used for certain men, usually combined with a second word which describes their employment, hobby, or body type. E.g. "Boy Balut," in allusion to the object's passion for eating aged duck embryos.
  • Bring home — A noun-phrase mostly encountered in the Visayas, this is used in reference to food at fiestas or other social gatherings packed by the host for guests to "take home". It is often shortened to the acronym 'BH'. To Anglophones in the Visayas, "take home" may be interchangeable with "bring home".
  • Breezy — Another term to make sexual advance. See the word Chancing.
  • Bull ring — A class ring about the size of a standard American men's class ring, worn by some members of the military, police, fire service, Bureau of Corrections, coast guard and merchant marine. The term "bull" refers to the ring's large size in comparison with Philippine class rings of civilian colleges, which are smaller. A "super bull ring" is a large class ring comparable in size to those of American institutions such as The Citadel, Norwich University, and VMI.
  • Busted — A person who was rejected or dumped by his/her love interest. [15]
  • By and by — Later.[20]
  • Cabaret — (pronounced /KA ba ret/) A strip club.
  • Cadette — A female cadet. From French. The Philippine pronunciation is derived from West Point slang. "cdtte" is the usual abbreviation of this term.
  • Calling card — Refers to a business card. A call card, on the other hand, is a phone card.
  • Camote cue — It is similar to Bananacue, but using sweet potato (which is known in Filipino as kamote).
  • Canteen — A loan word from British English, normally used for cafeteria.
  • Carnapper — A car thief.[22] Motor vehicle theft (carjacking) is known as Carnapping.[22]
  • Cent — A centavo. "¢" the symbol for "cent" is also used as a symbol for "centavo." Formerly, "ctvs" was commonly used as the abbreviation for "centavo." "ctvs" appears to be a combination of "ctvo" the correct English abbreviation for "centavo(s)" and cs the correct Spanish abbreviation of "centavos." Cénts is a Spanish abbreviation for céntimos and "centavos."
  • Certain — Used to emphasize[clarification needed] or to denote,[clarification needed][specify] as in e.g., "The desk officer of the UP police, a certain Corporal Kalibo, told the Inquirer ...", or "What we're really pushing for is diversification, maybe have a certain bucket in fixed income, a certain basket in equity-based funds and then a certain portion in the peso and dollar funds," (emphasis added). The word is used more in Philippine English than in other dialectal forms.[23] The correct forms are "A certain amount of ..." and "A certain desk officer of the UP police named Corporal Kalibo, told the Inquirer ...".
  • Chancing — To make a sexual advance. To "cop a feel." Mostly used by Filipinos of the Silent Generation and the Baby Boom Generation, this refers to advances by either gender that "take a chance" toward some form of suggestive bodily contact.[20]
  • Change costume - Changing one's attire/dress
  • Check opt / Check off - A term used if the cellphone user has no prepaid credits. It was derived from the word "Check Operator Sevice", an error message displayed by Nokia cellphones which was the most popular phone brand in the Philippines in the late 90's up to year 2012. It rarely used in the advent of smartphones.
  • Chicken — Something which is easy or easily accomplished in contrast to the American slang term meaning a coward. The final exam was chicken "The final exam was easy." This is derived from the expression "chicken feed". Whereas in the latter's case, the phrase Run like a chicken Often, the American slang term is used by younger speakers.
  • Chit — A restaurant bill or a card. Rarely in use (especially by the younger generation) today.
  • Chocolate man or crocodile — Refers mostly to policemen in charge of traffic in Manila. Also refers to some politicians. This tag may have originated from the formerly khaki uniform in use by the police (nowadays Philippine police use a blue uniform).
  • Civilian — Casual clothes, as against uniform clothes. Likely derives from police use of the term.
  • Coast guardian — A member of the Philippine Coast Guard.
  • Colgate — Refers to toothpaste. It is a genericized trademark.
  • Combo — Can refer to a musical band in addition to standard meanings. Rarely used by the younger generation.
  • Comedy — A term used to describe something hilarious (as in a practical joke)
  • Comfort room — The Filipino term for bathroom/restroom. Usually abbreviated as "C.R."[20] Despite this term, some other establishments use "restroom".
  • Commuter — One who takes public transport ("commutes"), as opposed to commuters who take their own private vehicles. It is also used to refer to taking public transportation regardless of destination, as in "commuting to get to a shopping mall."
  • Cong. — An abbreviation for congressman. This abbreviation is normally used for the terms "congress" and "congressional".
  • Convo — A short term for conversation.
  • Cotton bud — A loan word from British English, which is a cotton swab.
  • Coupon bondBond paper, with the "coupon" diverging in meaning from accepted uses of the word, e.g. "a stub". The word "coupon" is also used with that meaning in Philippine English. "Coupon bond" is pronounced /ko'pon bo'nd/, possibly due to the ambivalence of Philippine languages with the vowels o and u, as happens in most loanwords/co-optations in Tagalog.
  • Cowboy — An American; rarely in use today. Nowadays, "cowboy" is used to describe an attitude of being "manly" or brave or someone willing to do a dirty or blue-collar job. It is often used to refer to having no qualms about using (broken) objects or being in places/spots associated with the lower middle class or the poor.
  • Crayola - Crayons. It is a genericized trademark.
  • Cutex — Nail polish. It is a genericized trademark.
  • Dance Revo - Shortened term for the arcade dance game Dance Dance Revolution. The game became popular in the Philippines during late '90s until the early 2000s.
  • Dialect — A regional language, instead of a regional version of a language in Standard English. The Commission on the Filipino Language declared Filipino, a language based on Tagalog, to be one of the two official languages of the Philippines, which is shared with the English language. All the indigenous languages such as Ilocano and Bisaya are called "dialects". This usage of dialect was partly perpetuated by the fact it was a relic of the inaccurate vocabulary used in literature during the American period (1898–1946).[24] To most Anglophone Filipino purists, especially linguists, the proper and accurate term is "regional language".
  • Dine-in — "Eat in", "for here" (opposite of "take-out"). This is commonly used by fast food attendants who have to ask whether a customer's order is a take-out or a "dine-in" one (e.g. to eat within the establishment). "Dining in" means something else in the United States.
  • Dirty ice cream — Non-generic ice cream sold on the streets.
  • Dirty kitchen — In a private home, a separate kitchen intended for the household help.
  • Dollar-speaking — Someone who usually speaks in English in public. Another term is "speaking dollar" (slang).
  • DOM — A dirty old man.
  • Dormmate — Someone who stays in the same dormitory.[20] A dormer is a dormitory resident.
  • Double deck — A bunk bed, also known as a double bed.
  • Drama — Used to refer to someone who becomes emotional or expresses such emotions (usually sadness, sorrow, despair or suffering). For example, "Nag da-drama na naman siya", literally meaning "He (or she)'s getting all emotional again". This is taken from what is known locally as a "teledrama" or "teleserye", similar to a soap opera, in which characters in the drama often show such emotions. It can also be taken from the American slang term "drama queen" (see O.A.)
  • Drive-in — Refers to motels, rather than outdoor movie theaters.
  • Duster — A sun dress. "Although she is wealthy, she wore a duster to the market so she would not be overcharged." The horsemen and cowboys, in the American Old West, wore linen coats known as "dusters", to protect their underclothing from dusty, dirty trails and roads. Also, a cleaning instrument (a duster in other parts of the world) is known as a "feather duster".
  • Eat-all-you-canAll-you-can-eat.
  • Eisenhower jeep — An M38A1 jeep.
  • English — An English-speaking, white American. Also a person from England.
  • Entertain — A word you will mostly hear from a worker or employee, such as in a government office or a business building, e.g. "How can I entertain you?" or if they claim to be busy they will then reply "I cannot entertain you at this time". In standard English, the word used in this case would be "assist" (sometimes in use).
  • Estafa — Used in English-based Philippine law for the crime of fraud or embezzlement or small-scale economic cheating activity. From Spanish "con art".
  • Ex. — The abbreviation of the phrase "for example.", supplementary to e.g. This is used only in writing, and is read as "Example...". Some people use E.g. instead.
  • Expired — Used to refer his/her subscription services has expired. This term was is popularly used on texting, calling, and surfing the internet. For example "Expired na ako", meaning "His/her text/call/internet subscription services has expired".
  • Face-out — Something (such as an electronic device) that is no longer produced or sold, and therefore cannot be obtained. (It can also refer to something that is no longer in use or in fashion.) This is likely an adoption of "phased-out", albeit mispronounced and misspelt.
  • Feeling... — A term most commonly used by youths to call someone who one thinks is trying to act or be something they're not. Usually preceded by a noun or adjective, for example "feeling close" (or "F.C."), someone who acts like they're close to another when the other person hardly knows them or doesn't know them at all.
  • Filipino time (or Manila time) — The habit of Filipinos not being on time. However, the now-mandatory and enforced Philippine Standard Time aims to turn Filipino time into "Juan Time" which is the habit of being on time.
  • Fill-up — To fill out a paper or document, e.g. Please fill-up this form. Sometimes "fill in". From British English.
  • Final answer - A final decision. Derived from the game show Who Wants to be a Millionaire? wherein the contestant tells the host that he/she is sure of his/her answer to the question
  • First name — Given/christened name. The proper term "given name" is also used.
  • Fiscal — The title/position equivalent to public prosecutor; also its shorthand. From the Spanish fiscal.
  • Fiscalize — To serve as a check and balance; commonly used by politicians.[20]
  • Five-six — Borrowing or lending money with 20% interest.[20] This also refers to certain types of businessmen (usually Indian and other South Asian) who engage in the same money lending business (20% interest) and typically commute on motorcycles. Five-six comes from a scheme of lending 5 (hundred pesos) and expecting back 6 (hundred pesos).
  • Fliptop — A generic term for any kind of rap battle. It was derived from FlipTop Battle League, the most popular rap battle in the Philippines.
  • For a while — Used on the telephone to mean "please wait" or "hold on". Literal translation in Tagalog: Sandalî lang (correctly means "Just a moment").
  • Fortune — Refers to both the correct usage (luck or wealth) and a genericized trademark of a cigarette brand from Fortune Tobacco Corporation
  • FX taxi — A type of share taxi. Share taxis in the Philippines are usually Toyota Tamaraw FX, an Asian Utility Vehicle (AUV) based on the Toyota Kijang sold in Indonesia.
  • Game — A slang term which refers to a readiness, as in "I'm ready, let's do it", usually before playing a game or carrying out a proposed activity. If being asked, "Game ka na ba?", it literally means "Are you ready (to play)?"
  • Get down / go down (a vehicle) — "Get off." Derived from Tagalog context (Bumabâ ka, literally meaning "(you) get down").
  • Gets? — "(Do you) understand?" Slang from "Do you get it?" or "Do you get me?". The usual reply is Ah, gets. ("Ah, (I) understand.")
  • Gimmick — A planned or unplanned night out with friends. Also, any offering during evening hours by clubs, bars and restaurants to lure customers in. Seldom used to mean a trick or device used to reach some end, or a clever ploy or strategy.[25]
  • Google — To do an online research. It is a genericized trademark.
  • Green jokesDirty jokes (subsequently, to be "green-minded" is to have a dirty mind, e.g. always giving sexual connotations to everything). Loan translation from Spanish "chistes verdes." By contrast, it is interesting that in standard usage the term "blue" means "obscene" or "pornographic" and is used in terms such as: "blue jokes"; "blue films"; "blue movies"; and "blue stories."
  • Green-minded — Dirty minded, originally from Tagalog, the word Green is "Berde", which sounds like "Birdie" (the common Tagalog euphemism for a penis).
  • Grotto — A cave-like garden structure which contains a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary (mostly Our Lady of Lourdes) found in homes and sometimes in streets. It came from the English word meaning "cave" as well as the miraculous cave found in France.
  • Haggard — Motorcycle cop; somewhat obsolete, more commonly used now is 'hagad'. It also refer to a person who look tired and unmanageable.
  • Hand carry — Refers to carry-on luggage (when flying on commercial aircraft).
  • High-blood — A term used on someone who is quick-tempered or easily angered (Mag ha-high blood na naman yan, meaning "They're going to get angry again"); or as an adjective, ("Huwag kang high blood", meaning "Don't be angry" or "Don't get angry"); a person or thing that is displeasing and makes one annoyed or angry (Nakaka-high blood ka, literally meaning "You make me really mad"). Can also mean the literal term for something that's likely to cause, or give someone "high blood pressure". (Na ha-high blood ako, literally meaning "I have high blood pressure", or "I'm suffering from high blood pressure".)[26]
  • Hold departure order — An executive/judicial or court order to hold the departure for a foreign country of a criminal suspect.
  • Holdupper — A holdup man, or stickup man.[20][27]
  • Hollow blockCement, concrete, or foundation block (technically a brick).
  • Hostess/GRO — A female waiter in a bar. The same word is used to denote a prostitute, although the very word "prostitute" denotes people who ply the streets for customers. It is from the bar practice of asking a female waiter out, in exchange for money, to have sex with her. GRO is an abbreviation for the euphemistic "Guest Relations Officer" phrase which has the same source.
  • Huggies — Baby diaper. It is a genericized trademark.
  • Ice Drop — Popsicle stick[18]
  • Ice water - Cold tap / purified drinking water on a long plastic bag.
  • Intro boy(s) - from the word "intro" and "boys", a loan word from a band "Introvoys", usually used as internet cafe or college slang, especially in playing DotA, that an individual, a player or group of players have great skills and performance at first, then eventually went downhill or getting nervous. Sometimes being used as any other situations other than playing DotA, such as class reporting.
  • JeepneyMass transit vehicles originally made from US military jeeps. (See "Owner" below).[22]
  • Jejemon — Refers to a person whose written article is very difficult to read and understand.
  • Jingle — To urinate. It is not clear whether the now-defunct Jingle Chordbook magazine popular in the 1970s–1980s used the urinating Cupid on its masthead logo before the slang term came into circulation, thus inspiring the slang term's conception and street usage, or whether the image was inspired by the slang term.
  • JockeyBriefs (men's underwear). Comes from the brand of underwear of the same name.
  • Joe — A now-obsolete term for an American, used during and after WWII; from G.I. Joe.
  • Junk shop — A junk yard that buys and sells scrap and recyclable materials.
  • Jutes — Cannabis. In American English, jute is not a type of cannabis.
  • Kennedy jeep — A 1960 M151 MUTT jeep.
  • Kidnapable — A person who, because of his or her high social standing or considerable wealth, is a likely target for kidnapping for ransom. While this could be heard and can be considered part of Philippine street English, it is usually used tongue-in-cheek. Additionally, Filipinos would just about join any English or Philippine English or Tagalog verb with the suffix '-able', but all with a certain amount of humor understood in the usage.
  • KJ — Abbreviated term for the noun killjoy.
  • Kodak — Take a photo. A verb form of the genericized trademark Kodak. Seldom used today despite the emergence of digital cameras and popularity of selfie.
  • Live-in — An unmarried couple who lives together in a sexual relationship; to 'live in sin', cohabitate.
  • Load — (Once called balance, originated as when you inquire credit balance, now obsolete.) Refers to prepaid credits on a prepaid mobile phone. Load can be acquired by "electronic reloading".
  • Lowbat (or lowbatt or low batt) — A blend of the words "low" and "battery", the term is often used when the battery power of an electronic device (such as a mobile phone) is running low and about to die, or has already died.
  • Malicious — Refers to sexually perverted speech or actions, such as sexual innuendo. Distinguishable from standard English usage which refers to harmful intent, without sexual connotations. Persons who use such speech or actions may be referred to as malicious-minded.
  • Maniac(or Manyakis) — Refers to a pervert. Likely short for "sex maniac".
  • MacArthur jeep — A Willys MB.
  • Macho dancer — Refers to a male stripper in a Philippine gay bar.
  • Marine tank — An Amtrak, specifically an LVT-5.
  • Masteral/sUniversity studies required to obtain a Master's degree. The word is obviously adapted for the master's degree program from the modifier "doctoral" used in the doctorate program.[20] The proper term "masters" is also in use.
  • Meat house — A small house where meat is stored for drying or a smokehouse for curing meat or fish, through a smoking and drying process.
  • McDo - Refers to the fast food chain McDonald's
  • Metro aide — Refers to public street cleaners or broom sweepers employed by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority.
  • Mickey Mouse money — Refers to obsolete WWII Japanese occupation paper currency in the Philippines.
  • Middle name — Also known as middle initial when only the first letter is given, it is usually the mother's maiden surname. Filipino culture is highly patriarchal and family-centered, so the name reflects the ancestral roots of the person, with the surname from the father, and the middle name from the mother. In some legal documents middle names are written in the Spanish style, appearing after the surname and are preceded by "y" which is a Spanish conjunction. Its French equivalent, née is seldom used.
  • Mineral water — Is freely used to mean any PET bottled water or any water in carboys provided by bottled-water sellers, regardless of whether these are correctly or falsely mineral, purified or distilled drinking water.
  • Minor subject - Refers to extra curricular and/or elective subjects in schools, colleges, and universities.
  • Minus One - Refers to an instrumental music.
  • Mistah — A graduate of the Philippine Military Academy. From the non-rhotic pronunciation of "mister."
  • More — Meaning "do it again" or "do more than that". This commonly attached to the tagalog language for example "Sayaw pa more" meaning "To dance again".
  • Motel — Used mostly to refer to a love hotel, a hotel or a motel paid at an hourly rate, used primarily for sex. Often used with the word "short-time" as in the construction "short-time motel."
  • Motor — Shortened term for a motorcycle, or moped (see Scooter, below).
  • MTV — A music video. MTV is the name of a music television channel, where music videos are regularly broadcast.
  • Napkin — A female sanitary napkin or cloth napkin.
  • Necrological service — While "necrological" is often used in standard English to refer to military records or listing of casualties and the dead, in the Philippines "necrological service" is used by funeral homes to refer to a pre-burial event consisting of eulogies and songs, especially over a deceased celebrity or public figure. Outside this page, this Philippine English phrase as such may have been first noted in writing in the Taglish elegy of Filipino poet V.I.S. de Veyra for English-language Filipino poet Ophelia Alcantara Dimalanta titled Requiem Para Kay Ophie (Dimalanta)---Makata, Kritiko ng Wika which mentions "necrological service" among other Philippine English words and phrases.[28] "Memorial service" is also understood.
  • Nightclub — Used to refer exclusively to strip clubs, especially among the older generation. To avoid confusion, real nightclubs are instead referred to as "dance clubs", "discos" or simply as "clubs".
  • Nipa hut — An indigenous house used in the Philippines.
  • Nosebleed — A term used for a person who cannot speak, pronounce or understand English or any other foreign language well.
  • Number two — A mistress. The recipient of illicit affection by a married/involved man or woman.[20]
  • OA — Abbreviated term for "overacting", sometimes also used to refer to someone "giving the drama".
  • Ocular inspection — Although a familiar phrase in ophthalmology, this is widely used in Philippine business and government to refer to a necessary inspection of a location for such purposes as a (near-)future event or project or for an assessment by an investigative body. Some purists call this term redundant and insist on the word "inspection" alone or with an appropriate adjective.
  • OfficemateCo-worker
  • Our Father — The Lord's Prayer. Comes from the first two words of the said prayer.
  • Overpass — Commonly used to refer to a pedestrian overpass, pedestrian separation structure or pedway. In North America, an overpass often means a bridge or road crossing over another road (called flyover in the Philippines and in the Commonwealth except Canada).
  • Owner-type (or Owner jeep) — A customized Jeep-derived vehicle for private, non-commercial use. Usually constructed in bright stainless steel.[20]
  • PX goods — Any import-restricted imported grocery item. From Post Exchange, due to the illegal but lucrative business in then-US military bases in the Philippines in exchanging such goods for cash. Sold in so-called PX stores. Prized for their quality and variety. The stores (and goods) died out when trade was later liberalized, probably in the 1990s, opening the door for the availability of imported goods in the Philippines.[20]
  • Pack up — Often used instead of "wrap up" when referring to movie sets, presentations, etc. Also, redundantly, in the context of long trips or vacations.
  • Parlor/salon — Refers to a hair/beauty salon. "Salon" originally meant a place to gather.
  • Pension house — A family-owned guest house or boarding house.
  • Pentel pen — A marker, regardless of manufacturer. A genericized trademark from the Pentel brand of markers (similar to the American usage of Sharpie).
  • Perfume — Any scent used by women or men. No distinction is made between perfume and cologne.
  • Polo — Used in the Philippines to mean the dress shirt. In the US and the UK, the phrase "polo shirt" refers to the golf or tennis shirt.
  • Pershing cap — A service cap.
  • Pistolized — An adjective to describe a long gun with its shoulder stock removed and replaced with a pistol grip. Obsolete.
  • Practicumer — Refers to a student who participates in a course of study that involves the supervised practical application of previously studied theory; an intern (which is frequently preferred). (Practicum - internship)
  • Presidentiable — A person aspiring to become the President of the Philippines. From president + -able.
  • Recollection - A spiritual retreat. (E.g. A class of high schoolers had underwent a spiritual recollection with a pastor.)
  • Red egg - Salted eggs. This is a reference to its dark purple appearance and the Filipino term Itlog na pula
  • Redemptorist Church — The National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, a Catholic church in Baclaran, Paranaque.
  • RefRefrigerator, as opposed to the American English "fridge", which was derived from the early 20th Century, American refrigerators made by Frigidaire. Some Anglophones use fridge. In sports, it is used as a short-hand for Referee.
  • Remembrance — A souvenir or memento.
  • RevivalCover version of a song. Also means a restart of a project or plan that was dormant for a long time.
  • Rotonda/rotundarotary intersection, roundabout, or traffic circle. Adopted from Spanish.
  • Rhum — This French word listed in Webster's Third New International Dictionary is the preferred spelling of rum. This variation in spelling is a little similar to "whiskey" (U.S. and Ireland) and "whisky" (Scotland and Canada).
  • Rubber shoesSneakers, athletic shoes, or gym shoes.
  • RugbyRubber cement. A genericized trademark from the Rugby brand of wood glue popular in the Philippines.
  • Sala — Refers to either a courtroom or the living room. In international English, sala would mean a large hall or reception room, or specifically in architecture, it would otherwise refer to sala Thai. From Spanish.
  • Sala setLiving room furniture.
  • Salvage — A slang word for summary execution, the meaning evolved from frequent usage in sentences such as "The corpse was salvaged from the Pasig river", when the real meaning is "The corpse was found floating on the Pasig River among the salvage (refuse)". The word may have also been a pseudo-anglicism of the Spanish word "salvaje" (pronounced the same as the Tagalog word "salbahe"), meaning "like a wild animal"/"feral". When used as a verb, it means "to maul", "to attack viciously".[20]
  • Sample — Meaning "to show skills or talent". It is commonly chant by a group of people if they want to insist an individual to show his/her talent or skills.
  • Sari-sari store — Refers to a small, neighbourhood convenience store or booth. Sari-sari is Tagalog for "mixed variety" or "sundry", but the term is generally used in Philippine English in combination with "store". Sometimes called a "variety store" in the Canadian sense.
  • Scandal - term used referring to amateur porn, celebrity porn or sex tape leaks. The correct usage of term is also used, but only common in political or juridical usage.
  • Scotch tape — Transparent adhesive tape. A genericized trademark.[20]
  • See-through fence — A chain link fence. Also cyclone wire fence, a term used even in government specifications.
  • Selfie stick — A generic term for monopods.
  • Sem — A short term for "Semester".
  • Senatoriable — A person aspiring to become senator. From senator + -able.
  • Service road — A non-limited frontage road or access road running parallel to a higher-speed road, usually a freeway.
  • Shoot — Usually said after a perfect shot of something is thrown into a container, or after a basketball has entered the ring. Came from the basketball term when a player successfully inserts the ball inside the hoop.
  • Short-time — Refers to a stay in a "short-time hotel", where prostitutes, within roughly three hours, perform their illicit services.
  • Sidecar — A public (for-hire) vehicle consisting of a bicycle and an attached passenger sidecar.
  • Sign pen — A pen similar to a technical pen used for signing documents. From Pentel Sign Pen.
  • Singer — refers to a musical artist or performer, regardless of what musical genre, including rap and noise. Also used as a genericized trademark for sewing machine, its accessories and franchises.
  • Slang — Refers to strong foreign accents or pronunciation. For instance, the sentence "Your English is very slang", implies that someone has an unaccented English, that the "slangy" person is hard to understand. Distinguishable from standard English usage which refers to very informal usage of vocabulary and idioms, rather than pronunciation alone.
  • SlippersSandals and flip-flops.
  • Snake — A slang word for an eel, or usually, a traitor or betrayer (translated from the Tagalog ahas)
  • Snopake — British correction fluid company, which is the world's first producer of liquid correction fluid. It is a genericized trademark.
  • SnowballSnow cone.
  • Solon — A legislator, either a Senator or a Congressman.
  • Sounds — Referring to music, especially when heard through earphones or loud car or home audio systems.
  • Space wagon — A minivan.
  • Sponsor — A college or high school honorary cadet colonel. Rarely used at present.
  • Squatter area — A shantytown.
  • Step-in — Stylish ladies' sandals minus the strap. It can also describe slippers
  • Steve — Finders keepers. Commonly used by the children.
  • Stick — An individually sold cigarette in the Philippines versus a sold sealed pack of cigarettes.
  • Stolen shotcandid photo
  • Subdivision — A gated community. Also known as a Village.
  • Sunkist- Slang term for oranges. Came from a generic brand of juice drinks.
  • Technical sergeant — A non-commissioned officer grade just below master sergeant and just above staff sergeant in the Philippine Army, Philippine Air Force, and Philippine Marine Corps. The defunct Philippine Constabulary also had this grade. Derived from the U.S. Army grade used during World War II. Presently in the American military, only the U.S. Air Force uses this grade.
  • Third lieutenant — The lowest commissioned officer grade of the American colonial gendarmerie, an organization which existed from 1901 through 1942. The American colonial army also had this grade from 1935 through 1942. Similar to the American colonial army, the Spanish army in 1898 had a rank structure with four company grade officer ranks: captain; first lieutenant; second lieutenant; and ensign (alférez). In contrast, the Philippine army in July 1898, like the present Philippine army, had three company grade officer ranks: captain, first lieutenant, and second lieutenant.
  • Time — meaning "to stop".
  • Time bombFart/flatulence. The proper meaning (as in a bomb that is detonated when time runs out) is also used.
  • TIme first — meaning "Hold for a second". Commonly used when playing childrens' games.
  • Tissue — A paper napkin or bathroom tissue/toilet paper.
  • Toga — Refers to the commencement/graduation gown.
  • Tomboy — A boyish girl. A "tomboy" is almost always presumed to be a lesbian, although it may also refer to straight girls who dress and act like boys (see Gay, above). The word is rarely used, if ever, for feminine-looking lesbians. The word "tomboy" is a portmanteau meaning "Tomorrow (a) boy"
  • Topdown — A convertible automobile.
  • Topsiders — A classic, American boat or deck shoe, which became popular in many countries in the 1980s and were designed and manufactured by Paul Sperry in 1935.
  • Torà tóra — A T-28 Trojan aircraft formerly used by the Philippine Air Force and utilized during the counterinsurgency wars in the Philippines in the late 1970s and 1980s. The name "torà tóra" is derived from the film, Tora! Tora! Tora!. This movie features aircraft which resemble the T-28 Trojan in that they had a low wing and a single radial piston engine.
  • Traffic — Implies a traffic jam or heavy traffic. Usually used as an adjective, referring to heavy traffic volume.[20][27]
  • Traffic lead — Unarmed traffic police.
  • Trending — Meaning most talked, well-known, popular, and famous. The term was derived from microblogging site Twitter.
  • Tricycle — A public (for-hire) vehicle consisting of a motorcycle and an attached passenger sidecar.
  • Trolley — A loan word from British English, which is a cart or baby stroller. Seldom in use today.
  • Trooper — Any serviceman. Normally this term refers specifically to a soldier in a cavalry or airborne unit. In the U.S. this term is also used for state police officers, whereas in the U.K. it is also used for special forces soldiers.
  • Trying hard — Refers to an unsuccessful social climber. It was coined from a popular literature Bituing Walang Ningning with the line "You're nothing but a second-rate, trying hard copycat!". (outdated)
  • Tupperware — A genericized trademark for a plastic container.
  • Turbo broiler — The term used by Philippine manufacturers and the Philippine market to refer to the tabletop convection oven.
  • TurcoCarpenter term for an anti-rust paint used in roofs. A genericized trademark from the Turco brand.
  • Unli — a shorthand of "unlimited". Usually used as prefix, such as "Unli-calls", "unli-texts"[29] or "unli-rice[30]".
  • USB - refers to USB flash drives, originated from Kingston Technology, the company popularizing the format in the Philippines, for their front package marking "USB" or "USB 2.0".
  • Vendo or vendo machine — Refers to a vending machine, that usually sells snacks and soft drinks, like Coca-Cola products. The slang term is originally from the American Vendo Company operating in the Philippines.
  • Vetsin - refers to Monosodium glutamate. It is a genericized trademark.
  • Via-satellite — This phrase has been used by Philippine television channels RPN 9 (now CNN Philippines) and Q TV (now GMA News TV) to refer to satellite-fed foreign shows delayed by several minutes or hours in contrast to live television broadcasts. For instance, RPN 9 (and later ABS-CBN) might show a random NBA game coverage either "live" or simply "via satellite". Q TV, meanwhile, had broadcast American Idol "via satellite" (with more or less a 10-hour delay), except for the finals which had been traditionally shown "live".
  • VideokeKaraoke with lyrics on a television monitor was first coined in the Philippines in the 1990s.
  • Vulcanizing Shop — An automobile and truck tire repair shop.
  • Washday — A work day where an employee can wear casual clothes, as uniforms, are usually laundered that day (see Civilian). Not in use except among the older people.
  • We accept — Usually found on business signages, cards and flyers, the phrase "we accept" is used to refer to what orders or requirements the business can accommodate. American (and some Philippine) businesses would use the phrase "we do", as in "we do lettering" instead of "we accept lettering".
  • Wet market — To some Filipinos, a street market, although others use it to refer to its sense in standard English.
  • Wow Mali — It refers to a prank victim or jokes. It was coined from the hidden camera reality show.

Certain phrases uncommon outside of the Filipino community often crop up in Philippine English:

  • ".. will be the one ...", and "... will be the one who will ..." instead of "... will ..." - e.g., "I will be the one who will go ...", rather than "I will go ...".[6][improper synthesis?]
  • "To open/kill/close an appliance/device" instead of "to turn on/off an appliance/device". The reason for this is because the Filipino words "buksan" (to open), "patayin" (to kill) and "isara" (to close), in the manner used in the sentence, have no direct translation to the English word "to turn on/off".

The usage of the first example is generally discouraged by most English tutors and teachers today as a form of redundancy.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Author David Crystal remarks that English is used in technical contexts for intelligibility, and Taglish is used in social contexts for identity, noting that similar situations exist in other countries (e.g., as with Singlish). See Crystal, David (2003). English as a Global Language (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 189. ISBN 0-521-53032-6 
  2. ^ Espinosa, Doray (1997). "English in the Philippines". Global Issues in Language Education (Language Institute of Japan) (26): 9. Retrieved March 13, 2011. 
  3. ^ Rowthorn, Chris; Bloom, Greg (2006). Philippines. Lonely Planet Country Guide (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4. 
  4. ^ Isabel Pefianco Martin (April 12, 2008). "Fearing English in the Philippines". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 13, 2011. 
  5. ^ Gonzalez, A. (2009) The Transplantation of American English in Philippine Soil, in A Companion to the History of the English Language (eds H. Momma and M. Matto), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi:10.1002/9781444302851.ch31
  6. ^ a b Examples: . "So if they see policemen about to conduct a security survey, they should ask me first because I will be the one who will know about it. They will have to talk to me,", "Security survey for Lapu banks suggested". Philippine daily Inquirer, citing Cebu Daily News. March 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03 ; . "If I will be the one who will talk and explain, that will be self-serving,", Anselmo Roque (January 18, 2007). "Ecija school faculty bares university exec’s mess". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03 ; . "Whoever wins on the issue of secret balloting will be the one who will win the speakership,", Norman Bordadora (July 22, 2007). "Arroyo can deliver SONA sans Speaker—Salonga". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03 .
  7. ^ "Manobo". tripod.com. 
  8. ^ Mellisa Sabuero (April 22, 2003). "Call it a boom: Philippine call centers". Asia Times, http://www.atimes.com/. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  9. ^ Carl Marc Ramota (2004). "Economic Woes Drive Bright Graduates to Call Centers". Bulatlat, http://www.bulatlat.com/. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  10. ^ Diana G Mendoza (October 1, 2010). "Philippines: Call Centre Boom Breeds New Culture – and Risky Behaviour". Global Geopolitics & Political Economy, http://globalgeopolitics.net/. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  11. ^ Carlos H. Conde (August 13, 2007). "English getting lost in translation in Philippines". The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  12. ^ Jonathan M. Hicap (September 13, 2009). "Koreans Flock to the Philippines to Learn English". Korea Times, http://www.koreatimes.co.kr. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  13. ^ Quismundo, Tarra. "LIST: 40 Filipino-coined words added in Oxford dictionary". globalnation.inquirer.net. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  14. ^ "aggrupation". MSN Encarta Dictionary, http://encarta.msn.com/. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  15. ^ a b "13 English Words And Phrases That Have Different Meanings When Used In The Philippines". Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  16. ^ "A Historical Review of Armalite" (PDF) (Edition of 4 January 2010). ArmaLite, Inc. Retrieved March 17, 2011. 
  17. ^ Lingao, Ed (2003). "Arming the Enemy". Public Eye: the Investigative Reporting Magazine (Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism) IX (3). Retrieved March 17, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b "Do you use these "Philippine English" words and phrases?". RocketNews24. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  19. ^ Overseas Pinoy Cooking.Net website accessed on 6 November 2010
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Roger B. Rueda. "Philippine English (I)". The News Today :: Online Iloilo News and Panay News. Retrieved March 17, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Glossary of Army Slang". American Speech (Duke University Press) 16 (3): 163–169. October 1941. doi:10.2307/486883. ISSN 0003-1283. JSTOR 486883. 
  22. ^ a b c "Philippine English". MSN Encarta Dictionary, http://encarta.msn.com/. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  23. ^ Jeannette Andrade (August 28, 2007). "Hazing eyed in death of graduating UP student". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03  . Doris Dumlao (August 17, 2008). "Mutual funds for P1,000 a month". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03  . Michael Lim Ubac (April 24, 2008). "Suspected smugglers, Customs, LTO officials charged". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03 . . (the construction "a certain ..." occurs several times in each of these examples.)
  24. ^ Andrew Gonzalez (1998). "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 19 (5, 6): 487. doi:10.1080/01434639808666365. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  25. ^ Gimmick definition English Wiktionary.
  26. ^ "26 Filipino Words Now Officially Part Of The English Language". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  27. ^ a b Borlongan, Ariane Macalinga (2007). "Innovations in Standard Philippine English". Current Research on English and Applied Linguistics: A De La Salle University Special Issue (De La Salle University , Academia.edu). 
  28. ^ V.I.S. de Veyra's poem "Requiem Para Kay Ophie"
  29. ^ "Unli Call & Text 25 - Smart Communications". smart.com.ph. 
  30. ^ "mang Inasal BBq with unlimited rice & free sinigang sour soup! - Review of Mang Inasal, Manila, Philippines - TripAdvisor". tripadvisor.com.ph. 

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