Jump to content

Philippine Independent Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coat of arms of the Philippine Independent Church
Philippine Independent Church
Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Spanish)
Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas (Filipino)
AbbreviationIFI, PIC
TypeChristian (Western)
ClassificationCatholicity, Protestantism (formerly on its earliest years[a])
OrientationMix of Independent Catholic, Anglo-Catholic,[1] Nationalist, Progressive,[2][3] Liberal
TheologyTrinitarian[c] (with theological and doctrinal identity based from the Chalcedonian,[5] Anglican, and Catholic theology), Independent Catholic doctrine
GovernanceSynod (General Assembly)
Joel O. Porlares
Dindo D. Ranojo
Supreme Council of
Bishops Chairperson
Joselito T. Cruz
  • The IFI General Assembly
  • IFI Executive Commission
  • Local dioceses: 48 (clustered into regional bishops conferences)
  • Overseas dioceses: 2
  • Total: 50
  • Overseas organized congregations: 4
Full communionSee list
North America
Middle East
East Asia
Southeast Asia
Pacific Islands
LanguageFilipino (lingua franca), Native Philippine regional languages, English, Spanish, Latin
LiturgyThe Filipino Ritual and The Filipino Missal by Iglesia Filipina Independiente, 1961[10]
HeadquartersIglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral of the Holy Child
#1500 Taft Avenue,
Ermita, Manila, Philippines
OriginAugust 3, 1902 (1902-08-03)
Quiapo, Manila, Philippine Islands
IndependenceFrom the See of Rome:
Since the 20th century; 121 years ago (Autocephalous Filipino leadership since)
Separated fromRoman Catholic Church
  • Iglesia de la Libertad
    (1938, small minority)[11][12][13]
  • Independent Church of Filipino Christians / Aglipay Memorial Church (ICFC / AMC)
    (1955, small minority)
  • Church Body of Christ – Filipinista
    (1966, small minority)
  • Holy Catholic Apostolic Christian Church (HCAC)
    (1966, small minority)[12][11]
  • Philippine Independent Catholic Church (Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente) – PICC/ICFI[d]
  • Aglipayan Christian Church Inc. (Legion of Mary)
    (1995, small minority)[16]
  • 63rd and Mothers Apostolic Church of the Philippines
    (2000s faction, small minority)
  • At least 30 other minor "Aglipayan" offshoots, breakaway factions, sects, and splinter groups all over the Philippines not in communion with the IFI, which is the legally-declared "mother church"[17]
Members1,458,992 (2020 census)[18]
7 million (WCC 2023 estimate)[6]
Aid organization
  • IFI – Task Force on Emergency Relief (IFI–TFER)
  • IFI Concern and Advocacy for Relief & Resiliency, Empowerment, and Sustainability (IFI CARES)
Seminaries2 (plus 1 joint seminary with the Episcopal Church in the Philippines)
Other name(s)
  • Aglipayan Church
  • "Mother Aglipayan Church"
  • "Mainstream/Mainline Aglipayan Church"
  • "Native Filipino Catholic Church"
  • The Christian Register
  • The Sower
Official websitewww.ifi.org.ph
SloganLatin: Pro Deo et Patria
Slogan/Mottos in English: "For God and Fatherland - Scripture, Charity, Knowledge, Liberty"
Official flag of the IFI
Official flag of the IFI

The Philippine Independent Church (Filipino: Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas; Ilocano: Nawaya a Simbaan ti Filipinas), officially referred to by its Spanish name Iglesia Filipina Independiente (IFI) and colloquially called the Aglipayan Church, is an independent[e] Christian denomination, in the form of a nationalist church, in the Philippines.[f] Its nationalist schism from the Roman Catholic Church was proclaimed during the American colonial period in 1902, following the end of the Philippine–American War, by members of the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina due to the pronounced mistreatment of Filipinos by Spanish priests and partly influenced by the unjust executions of José Rizal and Filipino priests and prominent secularization movement figures Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora,[21][22] during earlier Spanish colonial rule when Roman Catholicism was the state religion in the country.

Prolific Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo described the Philippine Independent Church as "the only living and tangible result of the Philippine Revolution."[23][24] Ever since its inception, the IFI/PIC Aglipayanism[g] is widely characterized as a schismatic, rather than a heretical movement, although the church itself and its congregation distance themselves from the "schismatic" description and prefers the term "independence" instead. Despite not being in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church, the Philippine Independent Church universally maintains and adheres to the core set of beliefs and practices of broader catholicity.[25][26]

The Philippine Independent Church is the country's first and oldest wholly Filipino-led independent Christian church. Its central office is located at the National Cathedral of the Holy Child in Ermita, Manila. It is ecumenically in full communion with the worldwide Anglican Communion, the third largest Christian communion in the world, while still maintaining its independence as per their concordat and does not require from either the acceptance of all doctrinal opinions. Although marked with Anglican influence, the Philippine Independent Church had come to develop its own liturgy, traditions, and theology distinct from Anglicanism. Originally professing to Trinitarianism, the Philippine Independent Church adopted a Unitarian theological doctrine during its earliest years but has reverted to Trinitarinism since 1947 to present.[14][27]



Gregorio Aglipay and the Philippine Revolution

Gregorio Aglipay in his middle age as supreme bishop

Gregorio Aglipay was an activist and Roman Catholic priest from Ilocos Norte, who would later be excommunicated by then Archbishop of Manila, Bernardino Nozaleda, for "usurpation of ecclesiastical jurisdiction" by joining Emilio Aguinaldo's libertarian movement and suspicion in possibly fomenting schism with the Pope (then Pope Leo XIII) in 1899 at the height of the Philippine–American War.[28][29]

During the earlier Philippine Revolution, Aglipay and his former college schoolmate and fellow anti-friar Isabelo de los Reyes (also known as Don Belong), an ilustrado author, journalist, and labour activist who was in exile in Spain at the time, acted to reform the Filipino Catholic clergy which was then dominated and controlled by Spanish friars ("frailocracy") as Roman Catholicism was the state religion at the time of the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines. At the time, almost all native Filipino priests were already prohibited from administering a parish since 1870 and were just coadjutors or assistants to the Spanish friars. Native priests were also denied consecration to the episcopacy.[30][31] Then-President Emilio Aguinaldo persuaded Aglipay to head the native Filipino clergy by appointing him military vicar general of the Philippine Revolution in 1898, wishing to overthrow the spiritual power of the Spanish friar-bishops.[32]

Aglipay was a member of the Malolos Congress, the lone member coming from the religious sector, although he also represented his home province, as well.[30]

Aglipay was also a guerrilla leader during the Philippine–American War, with the rank of lieutenant-general.[33] He was also the convener of the Filipino Ecclesiastical Council (Paniqui Assembly) on October 23, 1899, months following his excommunication, in response to the manifesto of former Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini, who first came up with the idea of urging the Filipino clergy to organize a Filipino "national church" as inspired by the secularization movement, but not necessarily a schism from Rome.[31] The idea received support from Aguinaldo.[34] The assembly was attended by 28 native Filipino priests, thus, the short-lived national church was materialized. However, it was disestablished in 1901 following the dissolution of the First Philippine Republic.[31]

Post-excommunication and establishment by Isabelo de los Reyes and the Unión Obrera Democrática

President Emilio Aguinaldo and Supreme Bishop Gregorio Aglipay (seated, second and third from left respectively), with some Cabinet officials of the First Philippine Republic, December 1904.

Following the end of the Philippine–American War, Isabelo de los Reyes, together with the members of Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina, formally founded and publicly proclaimed the commencement of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (abbreviated as IFI and translated to "Philippine Independent Church" in English) on August 3, 1902, at the Centro de Bellas Artes in Quiapo, Manila.[35] The new church faced opposition from the colonial government, which sought to maintain the status quo.[26] The church was later incorporated with the then-Insular Government of the Philippines as a religious corporation sole in 1904.[36] The new church rejected the spiritual authority and infallibility of the Pope and abolished the celibacy requirement for priests, allowing them to marry. At that time, even before Aglipay joined the movement, all of its clergy were former Roman Catholic priests, mostly from the Ilocos Region, with some of whom became the church's first ever nominated and elected bishops by its earliest batch of clergy and laity who mostly belong to various political parties in Manila. Among the first elected bishops was former Roman Catholic priest and vicar forane Pedro Brillantes. The elected bishops then formed the church's first Supreme Council of Bishops. De los Reyes also formed an Executive Committee for the church from the staff of the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina who drafted the church's early first two Fundamental Epistles, which were later approved by the Supreme Council of Bishops. The elected bishops were then consecrated by the other priests as justified in accordance with the Fundamental Epistles. The first ever bishop to be consecrated in the IFI was Pedro Brillantes, whose consecration took place on October 20, 1902, and proclaimed Bacarra, Ilocos Norte as his episcopal seat. All of the former Roman Catholic clergy who joined the movement were later declared excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church.[32][8]

Isabelo de los Reyes was the chief initiator of the separation and suggested in absentia that Gregorio Aglipay, knowing that he was influential with the Filipino clergy,[37][38] should be the founding head, or Obispo Maximo (Supreme Bishop), of the church which was unanimously agreed by the members present in the proclamation. De los Reyes' desire to form a new church was conceptualized upon his repatriation to the Philippines from Spain in 1901 after his talks in 1899 with Giuseppe Francica-Nava de Bontifè, then the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain, to request the Holy See in looking into the conditions of the Philippines had failed. By then, the country had changed from Spanish rule to American. Although the American concept of separation of church and state was introduced in the Philippine Constitution of 1899, Spanish friars were still in control of the parishes all throughout the country, and de los Reyes feared that American clergy would sooner or later replace the Spanish, instead of native Filipinos. Along with the American colonization was the arrival of the American Protestant missionaries in the Philippines starting in 1901.[21]

De los Reyes managed to rally enough people from his organization, Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina, the first modern labor union federation in the country wherein he was its first president, to materialize an independent and purely Filipino-led church "conserving all that is good in the Roman Church and eliminating all the deceptions which the Romanists had introduced to corrupt the moral purity and sacredness of the doctrines of Christ." At the time, he had the necessary logistics needed to form a new Filipino-led church, but one: an equipped and empowered bishop to head it.[21]

At first, the already-excommunicated Aglipay was reluctant, as he was initially against a schism and was faithful to the magisterium. He believed that all means of reaching an understanding with Rome should be exhausted first before declaring any schism. Doubting that Aglipay might not take the leadership, the church elected its first batch of bishops, with Pedro Brillantes as the first ever to be consecrated. However, after Aglipay's talks with Jesuit and American Protestant leaders quickly backfired when both were dismissive and would not allow native Filipino priests to lead their respective churches, he eventually accepted de los Reyes' offer to head the independent church and was proclaimed as a bishop by the Supreme Council of Bishops of the newly-formed church on September 6, 1902, while also serving as the de facto "supreme bishop" until he was finally consecrated to the position by his fellow other bishops on January 18, 1903.[24][21] Thus, the denomination also became known as the "Aglipayan Church", after its first supreme bishop.

Aglipay celebrated his first mass as the de facto Supreme Bishop on October 26, 1902 in Tondo, Manila. During his first mass, Apolinario Mabini, who was in exile at the time and in bad health condition, sent a letter of encouragement to the new church.[31] Isabelo de los Reyes himself would later be formally excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church in 1903. De los Reyes assumed the role of the de facto principal theologian, as well as a lay leader, in the church.[39] On October 1, 1902, Aglipay headed the signatories, approval, and promulgation of the very first and short-lived temporary Constitution of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. Subsequently, Aglipay also formally signed the third to sixth and last Fundamental Epistles. In late 1902, the church opened a seminary which was later renamed Seminario Central de Mabini (predecessor of present-day Aglipay Central Theological Seminary), named after Apolinario Mabini, at Nancamaliran West, Urdaneta, Pangasinan.[40][41][42] The IFI was able to gain roughly three to five million followers on its first year of separation from the Roman Catholic Church.[43]

The Tondo Cathedral was the Iglesia Filipina Independiente's first national cathedral along Calle Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue) in Tondo, Manila which was established in 1905. It was heavily destroyed during the Second World War in 1945. It was later replaced by the National Cathedral of the Holy Child in Ermita, Manila.

Immediately after accepting the post, Aglipay demanded both then Governor-General William Howard Taft and Roman Catholic Church authorities to turn-over the church buildings to him on September 27, 1902, starting with the Manila Cathedral, but got rejected. A five-year campaign resulted in the acquisition of nearly one-half of Roman Catholic Church properties in the country by Aglipay's followers. However, in 1906, the then-conservative Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that all property that had been occupied by Aglipay's followers had to be returned to the Roman Catholic Church. The Supreme Court of the United States upheld the decision in 1909. The Aglipayan Church was then forced to move to makeshift quarters, with only a handful of followers able to retain the occupied buildings.[44][28]

Developing early theology


On October 28, 1903, the IFI adopted the Doctrina y Reglas Constitucionales (DRC), which replaced the Fundamental Epistles as the doctrinal foundation and governing rules of the Church, with slight revisions in 1918 and 1940.[8]

Aglipay, like José Rizal, later became a Freemason in May 1918. Although not a Mason himself, de los Reyes — who created a distinct doctrine, liturgy, and organization for the Philippine Independent Church — drew on aspects of their theology and worship, which was then approved formally by Aglipay.[44] De los Reyes was supported by Miguel Morayta, Grand Master of the Spanish Orient Lodge of Freemasonry in Madrid.[45][46] The Jesuit historian John N. Schumacher contended that Morayta and other non-Filipino Masons and laymen pushed Aglipay and de los Reyes towards schism from the Roman Catholic Church because of their resentment towards the activities of Catholic religious orders in the Philippines, rather than any simple admiration and encouragement for Filipino nationalism.[45] Aglipay in 1929 titled de los Reyes, who remained a layman, as an Obispo Honorario (Honorary Bishop).[47]

Representation of "Ang Birhen ng Balintawak" ("Virgin of Balintawak" or "Our Lady of Balintawak"), an icon of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente which is believed to be a Marian apparition during the Philippine Revolution. It depicts an indigenous Virgin Mary, as the mother of a struggling nation dressed in traditional Filipina dress, with her Son, the Divine Infant, attired as a Katipunero.

From 1902 to 1907, the Church was Trinitarian and largely followed Catholic forms of worship.[48] It reformed the Latin Tridentine liturgy, and the Mass in its earliest days was said both in Spanish and the vernacular. Aglipay and de los Reyes later amended their theology, coming to reject the divinity of Jesus and the Holy Trinity, officially becoming theologically Unitarian in 1907.[49][11] Aglipay and de los Reyes' Unitarian, rationalist, and progressive theological views were already evident in the church's Catecismo de la Iglesia Filipina Independiente (1905),[50] Oficio Divino (1906),[51] and the novena, Pagsisiyam sa Birhen sa Balintawak (1925),[52] as well as its English translation, Novenary of the Motherland (1926). However, a significant number of the Church's population refused to accept the new Unitarian theology, and continued to profess Trinitarianism.[53]

De los Reyes held the position of Honorary Bishop until his death on October 10, 1938. There were claims that he allegedly recanted and returned to the Catholic Church two years before his death. However, his son, Isabelo de los Reyes Jr., who later became Supreme Bishop, vehemently denied the claims.[47] Aglipay, meanwhile, was Supreme Bishop until his own death on September 1, 1940.[8]

Ecumenism, factionalism, and schism into offshoot Aglipayan sects


From its early years, two principal factions coexisted uneasily within the IFI and had become even more apparent after Isabelo Sr. and Aglipay's death: one Unitarian (led by Aglipay's successor and former personal secretary, cleric-turned-politician, and second supreme bishop, Santiago Fonacier – who was elected after Aglipay's death in accordance with the constitution of the church and was faithful to Aglipay and Isabelo Sr.'s theology), and the other, Trinitarian (led by Isabelo de los Reyes Jr. – the church's then-general secretary who was elected the fourth supreme bishop in 1946).[34][54][55]

Before being elected, Fonacier initially committed to steer the IFI back to Trinitarism, however during his tenure, his theological and doctrinal stance was evidently still leaning towards his predecessor's Unitarian beliefs. On January 21, 1946, Fonacier was ousted from his position after a unanimous decree by the church's Supreme Council of Bishops due to controversies regarding certain decisions he imposed, which were deemed allegedly unconstitutional. A schism developed at the tail-end of Fonacier's term, and the Unitarian faction left the church, claiming the right to the name and possession of church properties. Under Isabelo Jr.'s leadership, the church's affiliation with revolutionary movements were severed and abrogated, coupled with his pursuit for ecumenism.

On August 4, 1947, a year after the granting of full independence of the Philippines from the United States, the IFI General Assembly under Isabelo Jr. petitioned the House of Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, one of the member churches of the Anglican Communion, to bestow the IFI with valid apostolic succession.[8] Although a significant number of native Filipino Roman Catholic priests have joined the IFI during its inception, however, there were no bishops who joined the movement since the Roman Catholic Church had consecrated no native Filipino bishops before and by the time the IFI broke away, therefore the church lost the historic episcopate of apostolic succession.[56] The Roman Catholic Church started consecrating Filipinos in 1906 as enticement for the rest of the Filipino clergy not to affiliate with the movement.[57] First supreme bishop Gregorio Aglipay had previously sought bestowal of apostolic succession from other denominations abroad for years before his death, but failed due to his Unitarian theological beliefs and past revolutionary activities. Historically, IFI Bishops prior to the bestowal of apostolic succession were generally addressed and referenced only as "Monsignors" and their "bishop" consecration and designation only served as a title or position as high-ranking clergy whose roles were to head certain dioceses.[19]

On August 5, 1947, the IFI Church officially adopted both a new Constitution and Canons and Declaration of Faith and Articles of Religion that were Trinitarian. According to the latter document, "the Doctrine and Constitutional Rules of the Philippine Independent Church, adopted on October 28, 1903, and subsequently amended, and the Fundamental Epistles of the Philippine Independent Church, are henceforth not to be held as binding either upon the clergy or laity of the church in matters of doctrine, discipline or order, wherein they differ in substance contained from the new Declaration of Faith or the Articles of Religion. They are, however, to be valued as historical documents promulgated by the founders of the church when they were seeking to interpret the Catholic faith in a manner understood by the people. Under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the church has sought to eradicate such errors of judgement and doctrine as crept into its life and official documents in times past".[58][59]

The House of Bishops of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America then granted the IFI petition during their meeting in November 1947. On April 7, 1948, at the Episcopal Pro-Cathedral of Saint Luke in Manila, the Trinitarian IFI had its bishops, namely: de los Reyes Jr., Manuel Aguilar, and Gerardo Bayaca (third supreme bishop), reconsecrated and bestowed upon the historic apostolic succession from the Anglican line by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America led by then Missionary Bishop Norman S. Binsted, acting for the Presiding Bishop, and assisted by fellow Episcopal Church bishops Robert F. Wilner and Harry S. Kennedy. Former President Emilio Aguinaldo acted as a sponsor for the three IFI bishops. The Trinitarian IFI then sued the Unitarian faction for sole rights to the name and property of the original IFI.[60][44]

Isabelo de los Reyes Jr., the church's fourth supreme bishop from 1946 to 1971 and son of IFI founder and proclaimer Isabelo de los Reyes, is known by the moniker, the "Father of Ecumenism in the Philippines".

After prolonged litigation, in 1955, the more dominant Trinitarian faction was finally awarded by the Supreme Court the right to the name and possessions of the original IFI. The IFI then entered into full communion with the entire Anglican Communion in 1961 through the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.[27][61] The Episcopal Church assisted in coming up with the IFI liturgical books with a Filipino missal. The missal shows a marked Anglican influence while retaining the form of the Catholic Mass.[62] Consequently, the IFI officially published The Filipino Missal and The Filipino Ritual in 1961, replacing the Oficio Divino which was first published in 1906. The church later signed a concordat of full communion with the Church of England in October 1963, the Scottish Episcopal Church in December 1963,[8] and the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht in 1965.[7][63][64] Fonacier's group, on the other hand, remained Unitarian, and eventually became known as the "Independent Church of Filipino Christians" (ICFC) which would later become a member of the International Association for Religious Freedom (IARF).[65] However, they would soon fragment into other minor groups.[48][8][16][66]

In the late 1960s, the church youth sector had begun criticizing the complacency of church leaders especially about making a clear stand regarding the semi-feudal and semi-colonial conditions of the Philippine society. As a result, Supreme Bishop de los Reyes Jr. recognized the youth's clamor to reclaim the church's nationalist heritage by allowing the organization of the first ever National Youth Assembly in 1969, marking the beginning of youth activism and reawakening of revolutionary nationalism, while still asserting their role to promote ecumenism.

Exterior of the National Cathedral of the Holy Child located along Taft Avenue in Ermita, Manila.

On October 10, 1971, the 33rd death anniversary of Isabelo de los Reyes Sr., his son and then-supreme bishop Isabelo Jr. died of a heart attack, aged 71, while officiating a mass in the María Clara Christ Church in Santa Cruz, Manila. He was buried at the María Clara Christ Church on October 17 after having lain in state for one full week at the Iglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral which he had built in Taft Avenue, Manila. De los Reyes was succeeded in office by the church's then-general secretary, Macario V. Ga.[67]

In 1973, the first reunification attempt between the IFI and ICFC was initiated during the administrations of Macario V. Ga (IFI's fifth supreme bishop) and Vicente K. Pasetes (ICFC's supreme bishop at that time). Although Santiago Fonacier, who served as ICFC consultant emeritus already at the time, was not physically part of the whole negotiation due to old age, he was represented by his son Anos J. Fonacier, a lawyer and entrepreneur. The said reunification attempt failed when the majority of the ICFC clergy, including Fonacier's legal counsel and son-in-law Rizalino R. Pablo, did not conform to the agreement of reconciliation due to their firm adherence to their Unitarian beliefs. In 1974, Pasetes finally reconciled with the IFI and brought with him four other ICFC bishops and a fair number of priests to the IFI fold which culminated in a memorandum of agreement that was signed between IFI's Ga and Pasetes himself. However, a segment of ICFC clergy refused to recognize the agreement. With the return of Pasetes to IFI, the remaining ICFC clergy elected a new ICFC supreme bishop in 1975.[26]

In October 1977, the IFI Church adopted a new set of Constitution and Canons, as approved by the General Assembly held in May of the same year, wherein the supreme bishop shall only be elected for a term of six years without immediate re-election starting in 1981. Then in 1981, a faction of the church called the "Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente" or the "Philippine Independent Catholic Church" (ICFI/PICC), led by then-supreme bishop Macario V. Ga (who was on his 9th year in office) and priest Armando L. de la Cruz, who claimed to have maintained the "original catholic ethos and doctrine of the original nationalist independent church", was formed.

Ga was a known staunch supporter of former president and dictator Ferdinand Marcos which caused tension to a number of bishops and laity who were critical of Marcos and his dictatorship, thus marking the rekindling of the aforementioned clergymen's revolutionary nationalist roots. The opposing faction of clergy and laity rallied the election of Abdias R. de la Cruz, then the Bishop of Aklan and Capiz and concurrent general secretary, as the new supreme bishop in the 1981 General Assembly. Ga, refusing to step down, then filed a petition at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in an attempt to nullify the election of de la Cruz. Ga also questioned the authenticity of the adopted 1977 Constitution and Canons after a few years from approval. However, even after a motion for reconsideration, both the SEC and the Court of Appeals executed the decision in favor of de la Cruz and the 1977 Constitution and Canons in 1985 and 1987, respectively.[8]

Ga's faction subsequently got their name registered separately in the SEC. The IFI later responded by asking the Court to prevent the faction from using the name "Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente", an exact same name in one of the former's SEC-registered recognized alternative names. The SEC reviewed and later revoked the certificate of incorporation of the ICFI and ordered to change its name to avoid confusion with the IFI and all of its dioceses, who had registered the "Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente" name first, years before Ga's faction, therefore deemed the rightful owner.[8]

The ICFI/PICC appealed and the case reached the Supreme Court. However, because of technicalities, the latter ruled to close and terminate the case. Eventually, in a compromise agreement to avoid further conflict with the IFI, the ICFI/PICC and its chapters/dioceses registered once again in the SEC in a different name in 2014 but only with a slight modification and variation from the previous one, as well as with their Visayas archdiocese correspondingly changing their diocesan name in the SEC to "Eastern Visayas Independent Catholic Church" (EVICC), headed by their metropolitan archbishop Valiant O. Dayagbil, a former IFI priest himself. Ultimately, later in 2019, the entire group has since been formally known as the "International Conference of Philippine Independent Catholic Churches of Jesus Christ", which has been in concordat with the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA), a non-member province of the Anglican Communion, since 2020.[14][68][69][15]

In the latter half of the 1990s, Ga voluntarily reconciled with the IFI, which led to the signing of a memorandum of agreement that paved the way for the mass return of a fair number of congregation and clergy in the Ilocos Norte and Cotabato areas.[14] However, Armando de la Cruz, who was already the ICFI/PICC's duly elected supreme metropolitan archbishop, was adamant on the reunification.[40] Unlike the IFI wherein the Supreme Bishop is only allowed to have a non-consecutive six-year term, Armando de la Cruz of the ICFI/PICC has a lifetime term as supreme metropolitan archbishop.[26] Ga's return to the IFI resulted in another breakaway group from the ICFI/PICC that was established in 1995 under the name "Aglipayan Christian Church Inc. (Legion of Mary)", which is based in Davao City.[16]

In 1995, the concordat of full communion between the IFI and the Church of Sweden was signed.[70] On February 17, 1997, the IFI also signed a concordat of full communion with the newly-autonomous Episcopal Church in the Philippines (ECP).[7][71][72][73]

Present day


IFI congregations are also found throughout the Philippine diaspora in North America, Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands. The World Council of Churches and the church itself recorded to have a number of roughly 6 to 7 million adherents.[74] According to some sources, the church is the second-largest single Trinitarian Christian denomination in the Philippines, after the Roman Catholic Church (some 80.2% of the population), comprising about 6.7% of the total population of the Philippines. By contrast, the 2010, 2015, and 2020 Philippine Census recorded only 916,639, 756,225, and 1,458,992 members in the country, respectively, or about 1% of the population.[75][76][18] Winning large numbers of adherents in its early years because of its nationalist roots, Aglipayan numbers gradually dwindled through the years due to factionalism and doctrinal disagreements. At present, there are at least 30 splinter groups and more — who broke away from and not in communion with the IFI (mainstream Aglipayan) — still bearing and carrying the "Aglipayan" name and tradition.[13]

Unlike the Roman Catholic Church and several other Christian denominations, the church does not discourage its members from joining Freemasonry. Some of the members of the church, like the founders de los Reyes and Aglipay, are political activists, often involved in progressive groups and advocating nationalism, anti-imperialism, social justice, democracy, labor rights, as well as opposing extrajudicial killings. They have often been victims of enforced disappearances and been branded as leftists by the government for being aligned with progressive groups, specifically after Alberto Ramento, the ninth supreme bishop, was killed in 2006 for being an anti-government critic.[77][78]

The church then created the "Ramento Project for Rights Defenders" (RPRD), the IFI's human rights advocacy and service arm for South–Central Luzon, in Ramento's honor. The church also has another development institution called the "Visayas-Mindanao Regional Office for Development" (VIMROD).[79] As per the 1947 Declaration of Faith and Articles of Religion (DFAR), the church itself claims to be "not an ally with any particular school of political thought or with any political party, asserting that its members are politically free". Contrary to popular belief, the rule on the separation of church and state in the Philippines does not necessarily mean that the IFI Church is prohibited in human rights advocacies.[58] The church has also managed to build schools from pre-school to college, and cemeteries in some areas of the country managed by its respective dioceses.[26]

While people outside the IFI Church collectively refer to the members as "Aglipayans", members of the church themselves recently prefer to collectively refer to themselves as "Filipinistas", "Pilipinhons", "IFIans", and "Independientes". They would sometimes brand themselves as the "Native Filipino Catholic Church" to distinguish themselves from adherents of the Roman Catholic Church. The members prefer to refer every August 3 of the year as their "proclamation anniversary" of independence from Rome rather than founding anniversary as they claim to continue adhering to the concept of catholicity, indicating continuity of faith and practice from Early Christianity, despite separating from the authority of the See of Rome. They also refer to Isabelo de los Reyes as "proclaimer" and Gregorio Aglipay as the "first supreme bishop", rather than founders.[80][25][81]

Doctrine and practice


Worship and liturgy


The main Sunday liturgy is the Eucharist or the Holy Mass, which is spoken and celebrated in the vernacular. The Eucharistic liturgy of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente resembles that of the Roman Missal, with elements taken from the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, such as the Collect for Purity, the positioning of the Sign of Peace before the Offertory, the Eucharistic Prayers, and the Prayer of Humble Access. Just like the Roman Catholic Church, the IFI Church does the sign of the cross in left to right motion. The church professes both the Apostles' Creed and Nicene Creed, but uses the latter most of the time. The church also believes and administers the seven sacraments. The IFI Church declares that the Four Marks of the Church ("one, holy, catholic, and apostolic") is present within their church, thus claiming to be an independent jurisdiction of the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. Orders of service and ceremonies are contained in The Filipino Ritual and The Filipino Missal. Although not officially accepted by the church's biblical canon, the seven deuterocanonical books are regarded by the IFI as "worthy of veneration and source of wisdom". The church does not adhere to sola scriptura. The church generally affirms the authority of both Scripture and Tradition and believes that faith and reason are equal.[26] Clergy celebrants are assisted by young male and female altar servers (locally referred as "sacristan") and acolytes. The church does not have a prescribed dress code for mass attendees. The church follows the yearly IFI Liturgical Ordo Calendar wherein the liturgical seasons, observances, and traditions closely resemble to that of the Roman Catholic Church.[82]

Aglipayans strongly adhere in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and communion is distributed under both kinds through intinction. However, they are non-committal in belief regarding transubstantiation, consubstantiation, and sacramental union. Aglipayans maintain that the belief in the real presence does not imply a claim to know how Christ is present in the Eucharistic species (the consecrated bread and wine) and is left to mystery. Moreover, belief in the real presence does not imply belief that the consecrated Eucharistic species cease to be bread and wine. Church members are taught that the Eucharistic species do not necessarily change into the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ during consecration but Christ's body and blood become really present and are really given in the entire Eucharistic liturgy. Furthermore, Aglipayans believe that one receives the body and blood of Christ by faith, asserting instead that Christ is present in the Eucharist in a "heavenly and spiritual manner". Nonetheless, Aglipayans have never formally questioned the theological doctrine of transubstantiation, consubstantiation, and sacramental union.[25]

Being a nationalist church, Aglipayans employ Filipino national symbols in their liturgical practices, such as the use of national colors and motifs, the singing of the national anthem, and the displaying of the national flag in the sanctuary since 1907.[26] During the American occupation, the Flag Law of 1907 or Act No.1696 — an act to prohibit the display of flags, banners, emblems, or devices used in the Philippine islands for the purpose of rebellion or insurrection against the authorities of the United States and the display of Katipunan flags, banners, emblems, or devices and for other purposes — was passed on September 6, 1907, by the Philippine Commission. At the time, the United States flag used to be the official flag of the Philippines until October 1919 when the law was repealed by the Philippine Legislature. By the time that the Flag Act was enacted, as an act of protest, the IFI clergy led by Gregorio Aglipay designed their clerical vestments with images and colors of the Philippine Flag and used it during their mass celebrations. Subsequently, the clerical vestment designs inspired by the Philippine Flag colors and symbols are still practiced up to this day by the IFI in honor to its nationalist and revolutionary heritage. At present, since the implementation of the Republic Act No. 8491 or the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines in 1998, there has been no recorded or documented reports of violations made by the IFI in the Section 34 of the aforementioned law.[26]

Aglipayans are also adherents to praying the rosary. They also practice house church. The church does not hold as dogma the Immaculate Conception (the church rather celebrates its feast simply as the "Feast Day of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary") or the Assumption (August 15 is instead celebrated as the Feast Day of the Solemnity of the Blessed Virgin Mary); but these may be believed privately. The IFI's tradition of celebration of the First Communion varies from the Roman Catholic Church. IFI sometimes allow infant communion depending on the parents' discretion, but conventionally, one receives their first communion at the age of 7 or 8, which is generally considered the age of reason, preferably after a session/s of "religious instructions". Contrary to popular belief, the IFI also administers the Sacrament of Penance, although auricular confession[h] is rarely practiced since not all priests can administer it – only those who are authorized by their bishops the faculties to hear confession. Albeit not required, Aglipayans, at their discretion, may confess their sins individually only through an authorized priest at the altar rail, in a reconciliation room within the church, or in sight of others waiting in the row for the same purpose (but at some distance to not break the seal of confession), instead of a confessional box. By practice, Aglipayans usually join general/public confession "directly to God" during the Eucharist or Holy Mass. Aglipayans also repudiate the traditional concept of purgatory. The purgatory, as a physical place that the IFI believes in, is on Earth. The IFI also has their own process of exorcism, but is not considered a sacrament and has no specific prescribed formula, nor an "office of exorcist". Unlike the Roman Catholic Church, wherein a priest has to undergo specialized training and authority, all ordained IFI priests with "strong spiritual discernment" can perform exorcism, as long as they consulted their respective diocesan bishops and after a careful medical examination to exclude the possibility of mental illness, and should only be done as a last resort. Although not mandatorily coercive, the church also highly encourages its members to practice tithing as the minimum standard form of "Christian giving back". The church does not prescribe a standard amount during the collection of alms (offerings) in the Holy Mass.[58][83][25][84]

The IFI Church places a strong emphasis on the participation of the laity in worship, liturgy, and policy-making. Laypeople are often involved in leading prayers, reading scripture, and serving as Eucharistic ministers.

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente views their history of liberation from the Roman Catholic Church during the colonial era in the Philippines as comparable to that of the story of Exodus which can be found in the religious book of the same name in the Bible.[26]

Apostolic succession


The Iglesia Filipina Independiente (IFI) rejects the exclusive right to valid apostolic succession by the Petrine Papacy. The IFI believes that apostolic succession emphasizes the collective authority of all the apostles, not just Peter. Therefore, the IFI strongly suggests that the succession of authority in the Early Church did not derive solely from Peter but from all the apostles.[26]

Bishops of the IFI derive their unbroken line of apostolic succession from the Episcopal Church in the United States of America (TEC) of the Anglican line, which was first bestowed upon them on April 7, 1948. The Anglican line traces its succession from the Archbishop of Canterbury. Moreover, the Old Catholic Churches recognizes the validity of Anglican orders through the 1931 Bonn Agreement wherein a full communion was established between the Old Catholic Churches and to all churches of the Anglican Communion to which TEC is a member of.[85]

The Old Catholic Church also began co-consecrating bishops of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente after a full communion was established between the two churches on their own right on September 21, 1965, therefore, the IFI also traces their succession from the Old Catholic lineage. According to the principle of ex opere operato, certain ordinations of and by Old Catholic bishops are still recognised as being valid and has never been formally questioned by the Holy See.[85]

Priesthood and ministry


The Iglesia Filipina Independiente maintains the historic threefold ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons. The aforementioned three orders of ministers have distinct vestments from one another. Their vestment varies according to the liturgy being celebrated.

Clerical celibacy is optional. It allows its priests to marry, rejecting mandatory clerical celibacy while committing to marital chastity. Priests may also remain unmarried.[26]

Priests are also sometimes referred to as presbyters. An aspiring priest is required to complete a bachelor's degree in Theology from one of the church's officially organized seminaries.[26]

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente has two classification of deacons — the Transitional Deacon (one who is waiting to be ordained for priesthood), and the Permanent (Perpetual) or Vocational Deacon (one who has specialized ministry and not necessarily be ordained to priesthood).[26]

Priests and deacons (except for Permanent/Vocational Deacons) are not allowed to accept salaries from employment or appointment in an office outside the church without the written permission of their diocesan bishops. Bishops as well are not allowed to do such endeavors without the written permission of the Executive Commission. Spouses of the aforementioned clergy are not subject to such policy and are given liberty to earn income on their own. The vow of poverty is not stated in the Constitution and Canons, although priests are strictly mandated to always put their ministry on top priority wherein it should not be compromised when permitted to have an occupation outside the church.[86]

Albeit controversial, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente also allows the ordination of women. In February 1997, Rosalina V. Rabaria of the Diocese of Aklan and Capiz became the first woman to be officially ordained priest in the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. On May 5, 2019, Emelyn Dacuycuy of the Diocese of Batac became the first woman to be consecrated bishop in the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, further asserting their belief in women's inclusion and breaking the tradition of patriarchy in the clergy. The date and venue of Dacuycuy's consecration coincided with Gregorio Aglipay's date and place of birth. The church as a whole also refers to itself using female pronouns.[87][88][89][90]

Unlike the Roman Catholic Church and most Anglican churches, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente currently does not have nuns or religious sisters. Some members of the Women of the Philippine Independent Church (WOPIC) in certain dioceses wear veils and religious habits similar to that of the religious sisters, during mass, as a "sign of reverence". During Lenten season, a group of WOPIC members called nobisyas (literally translated to novice in English) render 40-day church services as their pamamanata (act of penance) and wear veil as "an honorable way to imitate Mary, mother of Jesus", same thing with the seven women "dolorosas". The IFI used to have nuns when the Episcopal Sisters of St. Anne in Mindanao and the Episcopal Sisters of Mary the Virgin in Luzon accepted IFI women into their religious orders for sisterhood training in the 1960s. The IFI sisters later established their own order: the Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus in the 1970s, having their base at the Episcopalian St. Andrew's Theological Seminary, and unlike its priests wherein clerical celibacy is optional, the IFI nuns adhere to the vow of chastity in celibacy; as well as the other traditional vows of poverty and obedience. However, due to insufficient institutional patronage, the congregation eventually disbanded, with some of them joining back to the Episcopalian sisters in Luzon.[40]

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente has priests who are military chaplains of the Philippine Army Chaplain Service, and has also launched a ministry for seafarers and their families, the Mission to Seafarers PH.

A clergy member cannot be in political office or be involved in political election while continuing ministry as ordained. The clergy member must seek the approval of his/her bishop at least two months before the filing of candidacy. A clergy member upon applying his/her certificate of candidacy is considered resigned. An ordained who had joined an electoral contest, being an official candidate and lost, may be admitted again to the ministry and apply for a reinstatement to the Supreme Council of Bishops (subject for approval) as long as he/she completes a one-year refresher course in one of the IFI's seminaries. On the other hand, an ordained who won an election may also be admitted again to the ministry and apply for a reinstatement to the Supreme Council of Bishops, after he/she officially ends his/her political tenure and must not concurrently hold a political position, as long as he/she also completes a one-year refresher course.[26]

Minor orders in the church include subdeacons and acolytes. Furthermore, the church has non-ordained commissioned lectors, and lay readers/lay ministers/or lay preachers in every diocese.[26]



Generally, all of the church's faithful deceased in "Heaven" are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation.

Just like the Roman Catholic Church, IFI members are Marian devotees and devotees of saints, especially Catholic saints. However, several saints canonized by Rome after the 1902 schism are not recognized by the IFI Church and its members. Meanwhile, Popes (or Bishops of Rome) universally canonized as saints before the 1902 schism are widely acknowledged by the IFI Church. The IFI Church also celebrates All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day every November 1 and 2, respectively. While veneration of saints is formally practiced, deification of saints on the other hand is condemned by the Church as blasphemy.[58][91][92]

In the liturgical calendar of the IFI, the Monday after All Saints' Day is designated as "Commemoration Day for the Martyrs and Confessors of the IFI".[26]

During the early days of the schism particularly in 1903, the church, led by Aglipay together with a number of bishops, canonized José Rizal and the Gomburza priests. However, the church has since revoked their sainthood in the 1950s and already ceased to recognize them as saints up to this day, although they still recognize them as national heroes and early IFI martyrs.[93][94]



Aglipayan bishops joined public demonstrations in support of the Reproductive Health Bill, a legislation advocating for contraception and sex education to reduce the rate of abortion and control rapid population growth that the Roman Catholic Church and several other Christian denominations objected to on moral grounds.[95][96]

Stance on abortion


Although supportive of the Reproductive Health Bill, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente strongly opposes non-"medically necessary" induced abortion.[95]

LGBTQ rights

Members of the Philippine Independent Church and Episcopal Church in the Philippines participating in the 2017 Pride March in Marikina City, Philippines.

In 2017, the church's position on the LGBTQ+ community changed to an extent wherein the church leadership acknowledged, apologized, and released a statement in which it states, among other things, that the IFI has, for many times, "shown indifference, and have made the LGBTQ+ people feel less human, discriminated against, and stigmatized." The statement – dubbed "Our Common Humanity, Our Shared Dignity" – stresses the church's position that it "must openly embrace God's people of all sexes, sexual orientations, gender identities, and expressions (SSOGIE)." Moreover, although the church is still opposed to the holy matrimony of same-sex couples, the statement stresses that the IFI is "offering their Church as a community where LGBTIQ+ people can freely and responsibly express themselves, pronouncing God's all-inclusive love."[97][98]

This apology statement's groundwork first came up in 2014, when a gay member articulated during the church plenary his query about the church's plans for sexual minorities. This led to discussions among the newly-elected set of national youth officers, led by an openly gay president and a lesbian executive vice-president, which would later be succeeded by another openly gay president. The church's position on LGBTQ+ persons was approved by the Supreme Council of Bishops and officially adopted by the entire church in February 2017.[97][98] The church has now fully committed to accepting LGBTQ+ people as part of their congregation, and their ministry.[1]

On February 24, 2023, the church ordained Wylard "Wowa" Ledama, a trans woman and registered nurse-turned-seminarian, to the diaconate as the church's and country's first ordained trans clergy. She was assigned at the National Cathedral. This move by the church was met with mixed reactions from other denominations.[2][99]

Views on divorce


Although no official statement yet from the Church as a whole, church officials expressed openness to the passage of the Divorce Bill in the Philippines. However, they clarified that it should not be misconstrued as a disregard to the "sanctity of marriage", but as a matter of practicality. They further stated that while they believe that couples are duty-bound to keep their marriage vows, divorce may be used as a last resort, when psychological and incompatibility problems make it difficult for both partners to live together.[100]

According to the officials, the IFI's stance on the controversial subject stems from its teachings that emphasize the "people's rights for freedom, dignity, and integrity, which also means encouraging the society to be responsive to the realities of time and to recognize that there have been unions that were wrong". They further clarified that the church will still "guide" couples on not resorting to divorce, if possible.[100]

Response to red-tagging


Several church officials are advocates against the culture of impunity and as a result, a number of advocates have been recipients of accusations by government personnel tagging them as alleged enablers and sympathizers of insurgents and terrorists ("red-tagging"). The church released a statement strongly condemning such allegations.[101] A number of church officials also urged Congress to probe the red-tagging incidents and conduct an impartial investigation.[102]


Joel Porlares, the incumbent Supreme Bishop since 2023

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente is an episcopally-led, synodically-governed church. The General Assembly is the highest policy-making body while the Executive Commission is the highest policy-making body in the absence of the General Assembly. The church leadership is autocephalous and is led by the Supreme Bishop, similar to a presiding bishop in other denominations. The Supreme Bishop heads the Executive Commission.[26] The 14th and current Supreme Bishop is Joel Porlares, who was elected on May 9, 2023.

The church has three predominant clergy and laity councils: the Supreme Council of Bishops (SCB), the Council of Priests (COP), and the National Lay Council (NCL).[26]

There are three mandated major sectoral organizations of the laity (lay organizations) in the church under the National Lay Council: the Youth of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (YIFI), the Women of the Philippine Independent Church (WOPIC), and the Laymen of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (LIFI).[26]

Official logo of the Supreme Council of Bishops (SCB).
Official logo of the Laymen of Iglesia Filipina Independiente (LIFI). LIFI is a mandated lay organization under the National Lay Council (NCL).
Official logo of the Women of the Philippine Independent Church (WOPIC). WOPIC is a mandated lay organization under the National Lay Council (NCL).
Official logo of the Youth of Iglesia Filipina Independiente (YIFI). YIFI is a mandated lay organization under the National Lay Council (NCL).

Meanwhile, the priests also have their own sectoral organization: the National Priests Organization (NPO). Other sectoral organizations in the church include, the Clergy Spouses Organization (CSO), and the nonsanctioned Clergy Children Organization (CCO). Just like the Roman Catholic Church, the IFI also have pious associations.[26]

The Philippine Independent Church is primarily organized into dioceses. In every diocese, there is a cathedral containing the cathedra of a bishop. A diocese is composed of parishes and missions. A parish and mission may have outstations. Parishes and missions in every diocese are geographically grouped into vicariates.[26]



Iglesia Filipina Independiente is the official and full legal name of the Philippine Independent Church, while the latter is its English translation as specified in the church's Constitution and Canons.[86]

Aside from the previously disputed Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente, or Philippine Independent Catholic Church in its English translation, other legally recognized names in which the denomination may alternatively be known are: Iglesia Catolica Apostolica Filipina Independiente or Philippine Independent Catholic Apostolic Church, Iglesia Aglipayana or Aglipayan Church, Iglesia Catolica Aglipayana or Aglipayan Catholic Church, and Iglesia Independiente Aglipayana or Aglipayan Independent Church.[36]

Iglesia Filipina Independiente written in Baybayin
Iglesia Filipina Independiente written in Baybayin

All aforementioned names are duly registered in the Securities and Exchange Commission with SEC Registration No. PW-611, as a religious corporation sole, originally incorporated in 1904 during the Insular Government of the Philippines period and got registered at the SEC in 1936, same year when the SEC was first formed. The names Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Philippine Independent Church, and Aglipayan Church are much more commonly used.[26]

Notable churches

A bust of Gregorio Aglipay displayed at the front of the National Cathedral.

Owing to its roots in the Roman Catholic tradition, the structure of the church buildings, as well as the outstation chapels, of the Philippine Independent Church do not differ significantly from Roman Catholic church buildings in the Philippines.[80][81]

Cathedral of the Holy Child (National Cathedral)

The baptistery at the Cathedral of the Holy Child (National Cathedral)

Located along Taft Avenue, the Cathedral of the Holy Child in Ermita, Manila, is the National Cathedral of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and the seat of the supreme bishop. Designed by architect Carlos Arguelles, construction of the church began in 1964 and was inaugurated on May 8, 1969, to commemorate the 109th birth anniversary of its first supreme bishop, Gregorio Aglipay.[103] The church is made largely of bare concrete and wood and has been noted for having a suspended block with sloping trapezoidal walls and textured with horizontal grooves all throughout, suspended with a triangular block.[104]

María Clara Parish Church

Interior of the María Clara Parish Church
The original statue of the Our Lady of Balintawak located in María Clara Parish Church.

Named after the main heroine in Rizal's Noli Me Tángere, the María Clara Parish Church (formerly the María Clara Christ Church) in Santa Cruz, Manila, was originally built as a wooden structure in 1923 before it was expanded and rebuilt as a concrete structure in the 1950s. When the original national cathedral of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente in Tondo was destroyed during World War II, the María Clara Parish Church became the temporary office of the supreme bishop before relocating in 1969 to the present-day Cathedral of the Holy Child. The original statue of the Virgin of Balintawak is housed in the María Clara Parish Church. While the administration of the church building is under the Diocese of Greater Manila Area, the property itself is owned by the de los Reyes family. The current resident and parish bishop of the church is retired bishop Gregorio de los Reyes, son of Isabelo Jr. and grandson of Isabelo Sr.[103][105]


Aglipay Central Theological Seminary (ACTS)

The Aglipay Central Theological Seminary (ACTS) in Urdaneta City, Pangasinan is the regional seminary of the church serving the North-Central and South-Central Luzon Dioceses. ACTS offers Bachelor of Theology and Divinity programs for members who aspire to enter the ordained ministry. These are four-year study programs with curriculum focusing on biblical, theological, historical, and pastoral studies, with reference to parish management and development, and cultural and social context.[106][107][108]

The St. Paul's Theological Seminary (SPTS) in Jordan, Guimaras is the regional seminary of the Church serving the Visayas and Mindanao Dioceses.[8][88][109]

Saint Andrew's Theological Seminary (SATS)

The St. Andrew's Theological Seminary (SATS) in Quezon City is run by the Episcopal Church in the Philippines, serving both its church and the Iglesia Filipina Independiente.[110]

Another seminary is planned to be established at Cabadbaran City in Mindanao.[26]

Relationship with other Christian denominations


Churches in communion

Historical memorial marker of the Concordat of Full Communion between the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and the Episcopal Church in the Philippines.

The church enjoys full communion with the Protestant Anglican Communion and the Episcopal Church in the United States since September 22, 1961.[61][27][111]

Other churches the IFI is in full communion with include (mostly members of the Anglican Communion): the Church of England, the Scottish Episcopal Church, the Union of Utrecht, the Episcopal Church in the Philippines, the Church in the Province of the West Indies, the Church of the Province of Central Africa, the Church of the Province of West Africa, the Anglican Church of Kenya, the Anglican Church of Tanzania, the Church of North India, the Church of South India, the Church of Pakistan, the Church of the Province of Myanmar, the Church of Ceylon (extra-provincial), the Nippon Sei Ko Kai, the Church of Ireland, the Lusitanian Catholic Apostolic Evangelical Church (extra-provincial), the Anglican Church of Canada, the Church of Uganda, the Anglican Church of Rwanda, the Anglican Church of Burundi, the Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church (extra-provincial), the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia, the Old Catholic Church of Austria, the Old Catholic Church of the Czech Republic, the Old Catholic Church of Germany, the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands, the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, the Polish National Catholic Church of America, the Old Catholic Church of Croatia, the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil, and the Church of Sweden.[7][64][63][27][72][8][91]

Current ecumenical relations with the Roman Catholic Church


On August 3, 2021, during the IFI's 119th Proclamation Anniversary and as part of celebrating 500 years of Christianity in the Philippines, Roman Catholic Church leaders from the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) signed two documents with the IFI "for more ecumenical cooperation amidst diversity." Although the IFI still remains to be independent from the Holy See, in the first joint statement, both IFI and Roman Catholic Church leaders "ask and pray for mutual forgiveness for any injuries inflicted in the past" and "strive for the healing and purification of memories among its members". In addition, the first statement also notes that the IFI as well, "strives to reach out for healing and reconciliation with other separated Churches founded in the Aglipayan tradition".[91][112][113]

Leaders of both the IFI and the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) during the signing of their mutual agreement and recognition amidst their diversity, as part of celebrating 500 years of Christianity in the Philippines in 2021, held at the IFI National Cathedral. Seen in the photo is then-Supreme Bishop Rhee Timbang presenting the IFI's liturgical book to CBCP representatives.

The second joint statement, on the other hand, is an expression of mutual recognition by both churches, emphasizing the "mutual recognition of baptisms" between the IFI and the Roman Catholic Church. The Trinitarian baptismal formula of the IFI has already been recognized by the Roman Catholic Church in its list of validly administered baptisms by other Christian churches.[92] For years, IFI officials had been seeking the recognition of their baptismal rites by the Roman Catholic Church, notably the blessing of Pope Francis during his state visit to the Philippines in 2015, in order to ease inter-denominational marriages, so that Aglipayans will not be obliged anymore to be baptized as Roman Catholics before they could marry Roman Catholics.[114][115][116]

Then-IFI Supreme Bishop Rhee Timbang gave a copy of the IFI's liturgical book and directory to CBCP Secretary-General Msgr. Bernardo Pantin during the liturgical launching of the two documents at the IFI National Cathedral.[112]

Further, the IFI accepts baptized individuals from the Roman Catholic Church who wanted to join their church without the requirement of performing another baptism from their end. They are being accepted through the IFI Rite of Reception officiated by the bishop or in his/her absence, by the priest or deacon, after a necessary catechism course to be taken.[91]

Other ecumenical relations


The IFI is a member of inter-church associations such as the National Council of Churches in the Philippines (NCCP), Christian Conference of Asia (CCA), Council of Churches of East Asia (CCEA), United Society Partners in the Gospel (USPG), and the World Council of Churches (WCC). The church maintains ecumenical ties with other denominations who are also conciliar members of the aforementioned organizations, such as the United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP) which is an IFI covenant church partner.

Notable members

Isabelo de los Reyes, Sr., the proclaimer of independence of the Philippine Independent Church
Pascual H. Poblete
Ladislao Diwa
Melchora Aquino
Felipe Buencamino
Vicente Sotto
Santiago Álvarez
Rafael Palma
Cesar Virata
Rhodora Cadiao
Alexander Gesmundo

Supreme bishops


Church officials

  • Don Isabelo de los Reyes, Sr. – also known as Don Belong; a prominent Filipino politician, writer, and labour activist in the 19th and 20th centuries. He proclaimed the establishment of the IFI. He is often called the "Father of Filipino Socialism" for his writings and activism with labour unions, most notably the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina. He was also the first to translate the Bible in Ilocano. He was a lay leader and the de facto principal theologian of the IFI during its early years. He became an Honorary Bishop in 1929, while his son, Isabelo Jr., would later become supreme bishop in 1946.
  • Gardeopatra Quijano – dentist, educator, and feminist writer. National President of the Women of the Philippine Independent Church (WOPIC) (1975–1977). Daughter of IFI Bishop Juan P. Quijano.



Literary artisans


Military and revolutionary figures

  • Edgar Aglipay – retired police officer with the rank of general; Chief of the Philippine National Police from 2004 to 2005 and Chief Deputy Director-General of the National Capital Region Police Office from 1998 to 2000 and 2001 to 2002; chairman emeritus of DIWA Partylist; descendant of Gregorio Aglipay.[121]
  • Baldomero Aguinaldo – a revolutionary general and prominent member of the Katipunan; leader of Katipunan's Magdalo faction; elected President of the Comite de Caballeros (Gentlemen's Committee) of the IFI in Kawit, Cavite; had initially organized a local lay organization within the IFI in Binakayan, Kawit in 1904 which later became the splinter group Iglesia de la Libertad in 1938; cousin of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and grandfather of Cesar Virata.[11][13]
  • Mariano Álvarez – a revolutionary general and prominent member of the Katipunan from Noveleta, Cavite; leader of Katipunan's Magdiwang faction.
  • Pascual Álvarez – a revolutionary general and inaugural Director of the Interior of the Tejeros Revolutionary Government; nephew of Mariano.
  • Santiago Álvarez – a revolutionary general and the chief commander of the historic revolutionary forces at Dalahican, Cavite; nicknamed Kidlat ng Apoy ("Lightning of Fire") and the "Hero of the Battle of Dalahican"; son of Mariano.
  • Melchora Aquino – a revolutionary who became known as Tandang Sora ("Old Sora") because of her age (84) when the 1896 Philippine Revolution broke out. She gained the titles "Grand Woman of the Revolution" and "Mother of Balintawak" for her contributions to the independence movement. She was among the Church's most prominent and devoted followers in Caloocan.[122]
  • Ladislao Diwa – one of the co-founders and high-ranking officials of the Katipunan from Cavite City; later became part of the revolutionary army when he joined the revolutionary troops in Cavite during the Philippine Revolution.[123]
  • Leandro Fullon – a revolutionary general who fought during both the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. Appointed as commanding general of all Filipino forces in the Visayas and became the liberator of Antique province. Later established and became the first Filipino governor of the Revolutionary Provincial Government of Antique.[124]
  • Mariano Noriel – a revolutionary general who fought during both the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. He led Filipino advance troops before the American army landed in Intramuros in 1898. He was the first president of the laymen organization of the IFI in Bacoor, Cavite.[125][126]
  • Paciano Rizal – a revolutionary general, appointed as brigadier general, during both the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War; led the Battle of Calamba in Laguna. He was one of the foremost advocates of the establishment of IFI in Biñan, Laguna sometime in 1903 to 1904 after his retirement; popularly known as the older brother of José Rizal.[127]


  • Dominador Gómez – nationalist and medical doctor, who later became a labor leader, writer, and a member of the Philippine Assembly. A prominent member of Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina and one of the first and pioneering members of the IFI during its inception.[118]



Former members

Emilio Aguinaldo
Bayani Fernando
Marian Rivera

Supreme bishops



  • Emilio Aguinaldo – first President of the Philippines. With his influence, together with other Caviteño revolutionary generals and officers, the IFI gained a stronghold in Cavite. His cousin, Baldomero, was the president of Comité de Caballeros (Gentlemen's Committee) of the IFI in Kawit; while his youngest sister Felicidad, his wife Hilaria del Rosario, and his mother Trinidad Famy were officers of the Comisión de Damas (Women's Commission) of the church. Subsequently reverted to Roman Catholicism in later life.[131][34]
  • Ferdinand Marcos – former president and dictator of the Philippines (1965–1986); son of Mariano. Baptized and raised Aglipayan, but subsequently converted to Roman Catholicism to marry Imelda Romualdez of Leyte.

Entertainment personalities

  • Marian Rivera – television and film actress, model. Baptized in a Catholic denomination in Spain, which is not validly recognized by the Roman Catholic Church, and became an adherent to the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and practitioner of the Aglipayan faith upon moving to the Philippines; re-baptized in the Roman Catholic Church to marry fellow actor Dingdong Dantes in 2014, seven years before the mutual recognition of baptisms between the IFI and the Roman Catholic Church.[132][133]


  • Ferdinand Topacio – renowned lawyer known for his controversial high-profile cases involving clients who are high-ranking government officials and celebrities. Born and raised Aglipayan, but subsequently converted to Iglesia ni Cristo in middle age.[134]

Other politicians


See also



  1. ^ From its original provenance in 1902 to 1907 and during its Unitarian phase from 1907 until 1947. Ceased to self-identify as Protestant from 1947 to present but maintains ecumenical ties with various Protestant churches.
  2. ^ GNB, MBB, RSV, NRSV, NIV, IFI Centennial Bible.[4]
  3. ^ 1902–1907; 1947–present.
  4. ^ Now formally known as the "International Conference of Philippine Independent Catholic Churches of Jesus Christ".
  5. ^ The Philippine Independent Church does not subject its episcopal authority to the Bishop of Rome, or to any other Popes prior to the First Vatican Council.
  6. ^ During its earlier years, the Philippine Independent Church leadership had planned to propose to the Philippine government to make the Church as the national church of the Philippines,[19] however, the proposal was discontinued when the Constitution of the Philippines in the post-colonial era had since ratified that "the constitution provides for the free exercise of religion and religious worship and prohibits the establishment of a state religion. Also, no religious test is required for the exercise of civil or political rights. Furthermore, the constitution provides for the separation of religion and state."[20]
  7. ^ "Aglipayanism", a colloquial term which sometimes refers to the movement or tradition to which the IFI/PIC belongs.
  8. ^ Auricular Confession is the confession of sin "into the ear" of the priest, which is part of penance.


  1. ^ a b "'Women are called': Photo of female church leaders breaks religious stereotypes". Yahoo! News Philippines. Coconuts Manila. December 20, 2022. Retrieved December 21, 2022.
  2. ^ a b Dagle, Robbin M. (February 24, 2023). "Historic, revolutionary: Iglesia Filipina Independiente ordains first trans woman clergy in PH". Rappler. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  3. ^ "Statement on Ministry". IFI official. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
  4. ^ Smit, Peter-Ben (2021). "The Bible in the Iglesia Filipina Independiente". Philippine Studies. 69 (3): 457–480. doi:10.1353/phs.2021.0017. hdl:1871.1/be601a0b-d1ce-46e2-ae55-a7a54b0ef9a8. S2CID 241953710. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  5. ^ Smit, Peter-Ben; Suter, Adrian (June 13, 2021). "Chalcedon on the Road to Justice and Peace (The Case of the Mar Thoma–Old Catholic Dialogue)". The Ecumenical Review. 73 (2): 261–280. doi:10.1111/erev.12599. hdl:2263/87881. S2CID 236735390. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  6. ^ a b "Philippine Independent Church". World Council of Churches. January 1958. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d "Iglesia Filipina Independiente (IFI)". United Society Partners in the Gospel. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Our History". IFI.org.ph. IFI official. Archived from the original on December 4, 2022. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  9. ^ "Council of Churches of East Asia – Anglican Communion News Service". December 3, 2022.
  10. ^ Alviar, Vaughn (August 1, 2015). "Iglesia Filipina Independiente unveils liturgical book in Filipino". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 27, 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d Gonzales, Enrique (1968). "The Baptismal Rites in Filipino Christian Churches". Philippine Studies. 16 (1): 160–168. JSTOR 42720578. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  12. ^ a b "VALID BAPTISMS RECOGNIZED BY THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN THE PHILIPPINES" (PDF). Archdiocese of Palo. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  13. ^ a b c De Achutegui, Pedro S.; Bernad, Miguel A. (1964). "The Aglipayan Churches and the Census of 1960". Philippine Studies. 12 (3): 446–459. JSTOR 42720547. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  14. ^ a b c d "IFI, ICFI bring war to court". The Philippine Star. December 1, 2000. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  15. ^ a b "Concordat of Understanding Between The Anglican Church in North America and The Philippine Independent Catholic Churches of Jesus Christ Also Known as Iglesia Catolica Filipina Indpendiente" (PDF). AnglicanChurch.net. The Anglican Church in North America. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  16. ^ a b c "History of the AGLIPAYAN CHRISTIAN CHURCH". Net Ministries Network. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  17. ^ MGA BATA NGA NAKASUTANA, TRENDING SA SOCIAL MEDIA (in Cebuano). 104.1 THE ROCK RADIO. January 14, 2021. Archived from the original on January 13, 2023. Retrieved January 15, 2021 – via YouTube.
  18. ^ a b Mapa, Dennis S. (February 22, 2023). "Religious Affiliation in the Philippines (2020 Census of Population and Housing)". Philippine Statistics Authority (Press release). Archived from the original on March 10, 2023. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  19. ^ a b "Religion: The Aglipayans". Time. June 12, 1950. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  20. ^ "2021 Report on International Religious Freedom: Philippines". U.S. Department of State. OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM. June 2, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  21. ^ a b c d Umali, Justin (March 9, 2020). "How the First Filipino Church Was Born: The Iglesia Filipina Independiente". Esquire Philippines. Retrieved November 5, 2022.
  22. ^ Umali, Justin (February 17, 2020). "How the Death of Gomburza Led to a Wholly Filipino Church". Esquire Philippines. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  23. ^ Remollino, Alexander Martin (October 21, 2006). "Iglesia Filipina Independiente: A Revolutionary Heritage". Bulatlat. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  24. ^ a b Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990). History of the Filipino people (8th ed.). Quezon City [Philippines]: Garotech Pub. ISBN 9718711066. OCLC 29915943.
  25. ^ a b c d Victoriano, Enrique L. (1960). "What Aglipayans Believe". Philippine Studies. 8 (2): 292–299. JSTOR 42720464. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Nallos, Bienvinido Jr. E. (2022). Know Your Faith: A Question-and-Answer approach of knowing the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (IFI). Bienvinido E. Nallos, Jr. and Graphic Etc. Printhaus. ISBN 9786210602876.
  27. ^ a b c d "The Concordat of Full Communion Between the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and The Episcopal Church". The Episcopal Church. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  28. ^ a b Robertson, James A. (1918). "The Aglipay Schism in the Philippine Islands". The Catholic Historical Review. 4 (3): 315–344. JSTOR 25011584. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
  29. ^ "Pope Orders Sharp Action; Archbishop of Manila Instructed to Excommunicate Philippine National Church Promoters", New York Times, New York, NY: December 29, 1902. p.7
  30. ^ a b Aguilar, Filomeno Jr. (February 18, 2015). "Church–State Relations in the 1899 Malolos Constitution: Filipinization and Visions of National Community". J-STAGE. Kyoto University. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  31. ^ a b c d e Roxas-Lim, Aurora. "Apolinario Mabini and the Establishment of the National Church" (PDF). Asian Studies Journal. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  32. ^ a b "Philippine Independent Church". Encyclopedia.com. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  33. ^ Aglipay y Labayán, Gregorio. "Novenary of the motherland : (the motherland is symbolized in the envisioned Mother of Balintawak)". The Western Michigan University Libraries United States Civil War Collection. The United States and its Territories, 1870 - 1925: The Age of Imperialism. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
  34. ^ a b c Dolan, Ronald E. "Indigenous Christian Churches: Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippines: A Country Study)". Country Studies. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991. Retrieved November 5, 2022.
  35. ^ Hermann, Adrian (2016). "Publicizing Independence: The Filipino Ilustrado Isabelo de Los Reyes and the 'Iglesia Filipina Independiente' in a Colonial Public Sphere". Journal of World Christianity. 6 (1): 99–122. doi:10.5325/jworlchri.6.1.0099. JSTOR 10.5325/jworlchri.6.1.0099. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  36. ^ a b "SEC Admin Case No. 10-10-123" (PDF). Securities and Exchange Commission. March 11, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  37. ^ Achutegui, Pedro S. de & Bernad, Miguel A. (1971) "The Religious Coup d'Etat 1898–1901: a documentary history", in Religious Revolution in the Philippines, Volume III. Manila: University Press (cited in Larkin, John A. "Review 74-- No Title", The Journal of Asian Studies, Nov 1972; 32,1.
  38. ^ "History". Google Sites. IFI. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023.
  39. ^ Demeterio, Feorillo III A. (2012). "Don Isabelo delos Reyes (1864-1938): Forerunner of Filipino Theology". Philippiniana Sacra. 47 (142): 883–916. doi:10.55997/ps3004xlvii142a3. S2CID 257167482. Retrieved February 26, 2023 – via Academia.edu.
  40. ^ a b c Revollido, Eleuterio J. (August 1, 2002). "The Nationalist and Ecumenical Expressions in the Ministry of the Nine Bishops (1902-2002)". Scribd. Part of the Dissertation of the Very Rev. Eleuterio J. Revollido, S.Th.D. (International Church Leaders Solidarity Summit). Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  41. ^ Religion & Religions, Dominican House of Studies, Quezon City, Philippines, 2nd edition, 1982
  42. ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo Lodge No. 31". Grand Lodge of the Philippines. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  43. ^ Achutegui, Pedro S.; Bernad, Miguel A. (1957). "The True Birth Date of Gregorio Aglipay". Philippine Studies. 5 (4). Ateneo de Manila University: 370–387. JSTOR 42719339. Retrieved March 6, 2023.
  44. ^ a b c P.A.W.C.I., Philippine-American War Centennial Initiative. "Aglipayanism and the Philippine Independence Church". Northern Illinois University Center for Southeast Asian Studies. The American University. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  45. ^ a b Schumacher, John N., Revolutionary Clergy: The Filipino Clergy and the Nationalist Movement, 1850-1903, p. 224, Ateneo de Manila U Press, ISBN 971-550-121-4, ISBN 978-971-550-121-7
  46. ^ Denslow, William R., 10,000 Famous Freemasons, Part One, p. 7 (Kessinger Publishing, 2004) ISBN 1-4179-7578-4, ISBN 978-1-4179-7578-5
  47. ^ a b Maximiano, Jose Mario Bautista (August 11, 2021). "The Aglipayan Church in our history". Inquirer. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  48. ^ a b "Philippine Independent Church". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  49. ^ "Aglipayan Church, The". Harvard Divinity School. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  50. ^ Catecismo de la Iglesia Filipina Independiente (in Spanish). Manila: Imprenta de Fajardo y Compañía. 1905. Retrieved February 11, 2020. Digitized by the Biblioteca Nacional de España.
  51. ^ Oficio divino de la Iglesia Filipina Independiente (in Spanish). Barcelona: Isabelo de los Reyes. 1906. Retrieved February 11, 2020. Digitized by the Biblioteca Nacional de España.
  52. ^ Gealogo, Francis A. (2010). "Time, Identity, and Nation in the "Aglipayan Novenario ng Balintawak" and "Calendariong Maanghang"". Philippine Studies. 58 (1/2): 147–168. JSTOR 42632051. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  53. ^ Aglipay y Labayán, Gregorio. "Novenary of the motherland : (the motherland is symbolized in the envisioned Mother of Balintawak)". The Western Michigan University Libraries United States Civil War Collection. The United States and its Territories, 1870 - 1925: The Age of Imperialism. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  54. ^ "Santiago S. Fonacier". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  55. ^ "OM's Message to the Church On the 43rd Death Anniversary of past Obispo Maximo, Bishop Santiago Fonacier". IFI DIOCESE OF GREATER MANILA AREA. Rhee Timbang. December 14, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  56. ^ "Philippine Independent Church". Encyclopedia.com. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  57. ^ "Filipinos in History" (PDF). National Historical Institute. 2. Department of Foreign Affairs. 1990. Retrieved December 27, 2023.
  58. ^ a b c d "Articles of Religion". Google Sites. IFI. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  59. ^ "DECLARATION OF FAITH AND ARTICLES OF RELIGION of the IGLESIA FILIPINA INDEPENDIENTE". DGMA.ph. IFI Diocese of Greater Manila Area. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  60. ^ Ablon, Antonio (April 7, 2020). "IFI's Gift of Apostolic Succession". The Theology of Struggle. Archived from the original on June 16, 2023. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  61. ^ a b "Anglican Communion: Churches in Communion". Anglican Communion Website.
  62. ^ Vallejo, Benjamin Jr. M. (September 2, 2021). "Ecumenical Unity in Philippines Achieves Historic Milestone". Anglicanorum Coetibus Society. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  63. ^ a b Smit, Peter-Ben (August 25, 2011). Old Catholic and Philippine Independent Ecclesiologies in History, The Catholic Church in Every Place. Brill's Series in Church History, Volume: 52. ISBN 9789004214989. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  64. ^ a b "Union of Utrecht and Philippine Independent Church celebrate 50 years of full communion". World Council of Churches. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  65. ^ Traer, Robert (March 10, 2005). "A Short History of the IARF" (PDF). International Association for Religious Freedom (IARF). Retrieved February 25, 2023.
  66. ^ "Aglipayanism and the Philippine Independent Church". Philippine-American War (1899-1902) Centennial Initiative. Foreign Area Studies, The American University, Washington, D.C., 1976 (Area Handbook for the Philippines, Chapter 8: Religions). Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  67. ^ De Achutegui, Pedro S. (December 31, 1971). "Bishop Isabelo De Los Reyes, Jr.: An Ecumenical Tribute (1971)". Philippine Studies. 19 (4). Ateneo de Manila University. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  68. ^ "ARCHBISHOPRIC OF METRO MANILA AND THE ENTIRE PHILIPPINES OF THE P.I.C.C." Companies House PH. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  69. ^ "ARCHBISHOPRIC OF METRO MANILA AND THE ENTIRE PHILIPPINES OF THE P.I.C.C." Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  70. ^ "Bilateral relations". Church of Sweden. November 24, 2022. Retrieved December 22, 2022.
  71. ^ "IFI and ECP Celebrate 15th Concordat Anniversary". IFI. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  72. ^ a b "Commentary on the ECP-IFI Concordat". February 25, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  73. ^ Nevius, Richard C. (April 6, 1997). "Unity Accord Celebrated Between Churches in the Philippines". The Archives of the Episcopal Church. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  74. ^ "Philippine Independent Church". Oikoumene.org. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  75. ^ "Table 1.10; Household Population by Religious Affiliation and by Sex; 2010" (PDF). 2015 Philippine Statistical Yearbook. East Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority: 1–30. October 2015. ISSN 0118-1564. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
  76. ^ Mapa, Dennis. "2021 Philippines in Figures" (PDF). PSA. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  77. ^ "Filipino bishop Alberto Ramento found stabbed to death". Anglican Communion News Service. October 4, 2006. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  78. ^ "Justice remains elusive eight years after bishop's murder". Union of Catholic Asian News. October 24, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  79. ^ Ellao, Janess Ann J. (April 2, 2015). "'To live simply', A tale of 3 Aglipayan priests". Bulatlat. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  80. ^ a b Valiente, Tito Genova (December 27, 2019). "Epiphany in Lagonoy: The Nationalist Church of Sts. Philip and James". Bicol Mail. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  81. ^ a b Vego, Herbert (December 10, 2021). "How a Catholic Church turned 'Aglipayan'". Daily Guardian. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  82. ^ "Statement on Church Mission". Google Sites. IFI. Retrieved January 17, 2023.
  83. ^ "Ten Year Strategic Plan 2014-2024". Google Sites. IFI. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  84. ^ Arnold, Matthew (December 22, 2021). "Exorcisms are on the rise. Here's what happens during one". Premier Christianity. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  85. ^ a b Smit, Peter-Ben (2018). "National, Catholic, and Ecumenical". PHILIPPINIANA SACRA (Internet Archive Scholar). 53 (159): 303–322. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved April 2, 2024.
  86. ^ a b "Constitution and Canons". Google Sites. IFI. Retrieved March 5, 2023.
  87. ^ Vergara, Winfred (April 29, 2019). "Philippine Independent Church prepares to consecrate first woman bishop". Episcopal News Service. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  88. ^ a b Vergara, Winfred (May 24, 2019). "First woman bishop makes history in Philippine Independent Church". Episcopal News Service. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  89. ^ Torrevillas, Domini M. (October 16, 2007). "Women priests". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  90. ^ "Breakaway Philippine church marks 20 years of female priests". UCANews.com. Union of Catholic Asian News. October 27, 2017. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  91. ^ a b c d Torres, Jose Jr. (August 5, 2021). "Philippine Catholic Church inks documents with nationalist Church for reconciliation, common baptism". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  92. ^ a b Aquino, Leslie Ann (August 3, 2021). "Catholic, Aglipayan churches issue statement on mutual recognition of baptism". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  93. ^ Palafox, Quennie Ann J. (September 19, 2012). "Jose Rizal: A Hero-Saint?". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  94. ^ Dennis Villegas (June 30, 2011). "'Saint' Jose Rizal". Philippine Online Chronicles. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  95. ^ a b "Statement in Support to the Reproductive Health Bill". Google Sites. IFI. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  96. ^ Ong, Ghio; Flores, Helen (December 6, 2010). "Council of Churches pushes passage of RH bill". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  97. ^ a b "Iglesia Filipina Independiente asks forgiveness from the LGBTQ community, extends hand with pro-equality statement". Outragemag.com. Outrage Magazine. August 31, 2017. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  98. ^ a b "Church must embrace people of all SOGIE, says IFI in historic LGBT statement". Outragemag.com. Outrage Magazine. March 28, 2017. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  99. ^ Aguila, Nick (February 23, 2023). "Iglesia Filipina Independiente Is Ordaining the Country's First Transwoman Clergy". Esquire Philippines. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
  100. ^ a b Managbanag, Nicole J. (September 3, 2010). "Religious group supports divorce". SunStar. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  101. ^ Timbang, Rhee (March 2, 2019). "Red-tagging of Iglesia Filipina Independiente and partners". PanayNews.net. Panay News. Retrieved December 6, 2022.
  102. ^ Genotiva, Mara S. (February 24, 2019). "Red-tagged IFI bishop: We fear for our lives and liberty". Davao Today. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  103. ^ a b "History". Iglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral. Archived from the original on April 8, 2015.
  104. ^ Lico, Gerard (2008). Arkitekturang Filipino. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 978-971-542-579-7.
  105. ^ Odulio, Menie (June 6, 2015). "Isabelo de los Reyes tomb". Facebook. ADVOCATES for HERITAGE PRESERVATION (AHP). Archived from the original on November 25, 2022. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
  106. ^ "FILIPINO CHURCH LEADER RECEIVES AWARD FROM THE NETHERLANDS' OLD CATHOLIC CHURCH". Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA). October 14, 2019. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  107. ^ "Episcopal Church, Philippine Independent Church to celebrate 60th anniversary of full communion". Episcopal News Service. Episcopal Church Office of Public Affairs. September 13, 2021. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  108. ^ "Anti-colonialism and religious independence in the Philippines around 1900: Preserving the archival records of the early history of the Iglesia Filipina Independente (EAP855)". British Library – Endangered Archives Programme. September 6, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  109. ^ "60th Anniversary of the Full Communion Concordat between The Episcopal Church and the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (IFI)". The Episcopal Diocese of Hawai'i. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  110. ^ "St. Andrew's Theological Seminary – Official website homepage". Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  111. ^ Cabillas, Dionito M. (July 3, 2002). "Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Church) (IFI). (Comments from Churches Involved in Union Negotiations)". Gale Academic OneFile. 54 (3). The Ecumenical Review, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 414+: 414–420. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  112. ^ a b "Celebrating the gift of faith, learning from the past, and journeying together". Latest Catholic News in Asia. LICAS News. August 4, 2021. Retrieved November 14, 2022.
  113. ^ Ledesma, Antonio J. (July 25, 2021). "From separation to reconciliation". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 14, 2022.
  114. ^ Flores, Nelson Forte (January 13, 2015). "Aglipayans seek pope's blessing". The Manila Standard. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  115. ^ "Unprecedented: NCCP and IFI Obispo Maximo lauds Pope". ManilaTimes.net. The Manila Times. January 20, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  116. ^ "NCCP: Pope's meeting with religious leaders a 'milestone'". ABS-CBN News. January 18, 2022. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  117. ^ Solidarity Message of Chief Justice Alexander Gesmundo. IFI Page Gallery. July 15, 2022. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Facebook.
  118. ^ a b Gutoman, Dominic (February 7, 2022). "Union Obrera Democratica at 120: The seeds of workers' struggle". Bulatlat. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
  119. ^ 3/6 - Iglesia Filipina Independiente History (in Filipino). ContagionX10. April 16, 2012. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 11, 2023 – via YouTube.
  120. ^ Almario, Virgilio. "Poblete, Pascual H. (2015)". CulturEd: Philippine Cultural Education Online. Sagisag Kultura (Vol 1). Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  121. ^ a b Macapagal-Arroyo, Gloria (August 3, 2002). PGMA's Speech During the Centennial Celebration of the Founding of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Aglipay Church (Speech). Centennial Celebration of the Founding of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Aglipay Church). officialgazette.gov.ph (in Filipino). Quirino Grandstand, Luneta, Manila. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  122. ^ Torrevillas, Domini M. (January 9, 2015). "On Tandang Sora's 203rd birth anniversary". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  123. ^ Gealogo, Francis A. (2015). "Ladislao Diwa, Historiography, and the Curious Letter "J"". Philippine Studies: Historical & Ethnographic Viewpoints. 63 (3): 422–425. doi:10.1353/phs.2015.0028. JSTOR 24672357. S2CID 170727067. Retrieved December 6, 2022.
  124. ^ "Philippine Ethnography – Antique" (PDF). National Library of the Philippines. NLP Digital Collection. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
  125. ^ Blunt, John Young Mason. "An army officer's Philippine studies (1849-1910., Volz, John R , ed.)". University of Michigan. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN LIBRARY DIGITAL COLLECTIONS. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  126. ^ TEXT: "During the Philippine Revolution, many of Bacoor's inhabitants became members of the Philippine Independent Church, also known as the Aglipayan Church, the religious arm of General General Mariano Noriel, who is also the first president of the laymen organization." / "Noriel". ICHACHA.NET. Native English Web Dictionary. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  127. ^ Chua, Xiao. "IT'S XIAOTIME! TAG: PACIANO". xiaochua.net. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
  128. ^ "Crispin Beltran: the politics of the possible—Fides Lim". ABS-CBN. ABS-CBN News. May 27, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  129. ^ "Friends, allies say goodbye to Beltran at IFI church". GMA News Online. GMA News. May 21, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
  130. ^ "MW Calixto O. Zaldivar". Grand Lodge of the Philippines. November 21, 2022.
  131. ^ "Filipinos mourning death of Aguinaldo". The New York Times. February 7, 1964. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  132. ^ Gabinete, Jojo (August 21, 2014). "Marian Rivera needs to get baptized again in Catholic church before her wedding". GMA News. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  133. ^ Shahani, Lila Ramos (January 19, 2015). "CONJUGATIONS – The Papal Visit: a Protestant Perspective". The Philippine Star. Pilipino Star Ngayon. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  134. ^ Francisco, Katerina (July 22, 2014). "Famous Iglesia ni Cristo personalities". Rappler. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  135. ^ "The sad, dramatic, if redeeming, life of Juan Ponce Enrile". VERA Files. October 5, 2012.
  136. ^ "Sen. Juan Ponce Enrile, captain of the Senate". Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 15, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.